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Encyclopedia > Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities)

The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla in Mexico) is a 45,535 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. The initial purchase treaty was signed in Mexico in 1853, but a very different treaty was finally ratified by the U.S. Senate and signed by President Franklin Pierce on June 24, 1854. The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande. Boundaries of the Gadsden Purchase (with modern-day state boundaries of Arizona and New Mexico and nearby modern-day cities), graphic assembled by me, adapted from public domain and GFDL sources. ... Boundaries of the Gadsden Purchase (with modern-day state boundaries of Arizona and New Mexico and nearby modern-day cities), graphic assembled by me, adapted from public domain and GFDL sources. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado, is shown highlighted on a map of the United States The Gila River (Oodham [Pima]: Hila Akimel) is a tributary of the Colorado River, 630 mile (1,014 km) long, in the southwestern United States. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ...

Contents

Overview

After the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, border disputes between the United States and Mexico remained unsettled. Land that now comprises lower Arizona and New Mexico was part of a proposed southern route for a transcontinental railroad. U.S. President Franklin Pierce was convinced by Jefferson Davis, then the country's Secretary of War, to send James Gadsden (who had personal interests in the rail route) to negotiate the Gadsden Purchase with Mexico. Under the resulting agreement, the U.S. paid Mexico $10 million (equivalent to about $230 million in 2004 dollars[1]) to secure the land. The matter about the money was to be very conflictual: even though the agreement specified $10 million, the US Congress only agreed on $7 million ($163 million in 2006 dollars). When the money finally arrived in Mexico City $1 million ($23 million in 2006 dollars) had gone missing, thus resulting in a total of only $6 million ($140 million in 2006 dollars). The treaty included a provision allowing the U.S. to build a transoceanic canal across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, though this option was never exercised. With a few exceptions, such as the resolution of the Chamizal dispute, acquisition of land in this purchase defined the present boundaries of the continental United States. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... A transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Lieutenant James Gadsden James Gadsden (May 15, 1788 - December 25, 1858). ... For the concept in cosmology, see cosmic inflation. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The Chamizal dispute was a conflict over the border between Mexico and the United States that is marked by the Rio Grande. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ...


Purpose

The Gadsden Purchase was intended to allow for the construction of a southern route for a transcontinental railroad. On December 30, 1853, U.S. Minister to Mexico James Gadsden and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna agreed on the price of $10 million for the Gadsden land, which valued the included territory at around $340 per square mile ($130/km²) or about 53 cents per acre. is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Lieutenant James Gadsden James Gadsden (May 15, 1788 - December 25, 1858). ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


As the railroad age blossomed, many southerners wanted to build, or at least provide a route for, a southern transcontinental railroad, linking the South with the Pacific coast and providing expanded trade opportunities (and possibly expansion of slave territory). However, the topography of the southern portion of the Mexican Cession was too mountainous to allow a direct route, and what possible routes existed tended to run to the north at their eastern ends, which would favor connections with northern railroads. Interested southerners tended to prefer New Orleans as the eastern terminus of the southern route, but to avoid the mountains, the proposed railroad would have to swing south into what was then Mexican territory. Gadsden, a South Carolinan, was an ardent supporter of a southern railroad, but he envisioned it being built to Charleston, South Carolina. Gadsden was interested on this purchase since he acquired shares of the railroad company that would unite Texas and California. A transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Controversy

As originally envisioned, the purchase would have encompassed a much larger region, extending far enough south to include most of the current Mexican states of Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas as well as all of the Baja California peninsula. These original boundaries were opposed not only by the Mexican people, but also by anti-slavery U.S. Senators who saw the purchase as tantamount to the acquisition of more slave territory. Even the small strip of land that was ultimately acquired was enough to anger the Mexican people, who saw Santa Anna's actions as yet another betrayal of their country and watched in dismay as he squandered the funds generated by the Purchase. The Gadsden Purchase helped to end Santa Anna's political career. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... This article is about the state in Mexico. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Other Mexican States Capital Monterrey Other major cities Area 64,924 km² Ranked 13th Population (2000 census) 3,826,240 Ranked 9th Governor (2003-09) José Natividad González Parás (PRI/PVEM) Federal Deputies (11) PRI/PVEM = 10 PAN = 1 Federal Senators PAN = 2 PRI = 1 ISO 3166-2... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... Baja California Peninsula (highlighted) The Baja California Peninsula or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


Outraged at the reduced size of the purchase, an American William Walker led an army from California into Sonora and declared independence for the Republic of Sonora consisting of the remaining non purchased state of Sonora and the whole of the Baja California peninsula. William Walker may refer to: William Walker (composer) (1809–1875), composer in the shape note tradition, author of Southern Harmony William Walker (diplomat), U.S. ambassador to El Salvador, 1988–1992; leader of the Kosovo Verification Mission William Walker (diver) (1869-1918), the diver who saved Winchester Cathedral from collapse... The Republic of Sonora was established by American William Walker in the area of North America subject to the jurisdiction of Mexico. ...


The purchased lands were initially appended to the existing New Mexico Territory. To help control the new land, the United States Army established Fort Buchanan on Sonoita Creek in present-day southern Arizona on November 17, 1856. The difficulty of governing the new areas from the territorial capital at Santa Fe led to efforts as early as 1856 to organize a new territory out of the southern portion of the New Mexico Territory. Many of the early settlers in the region were, however, pro-slavery and sympathetic to the South, resulting in an impasse in Congress as to how best to reorganize the territory. The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Fort Buchanan, Arizona was located 3 miles west of present day Sonoita, Arizona in what is now called Hog Canyon. The Fort was located on the East slope of the canyon and under constant attack by Indians. ... Sonoita Creek is a stream in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... In the history of the United States, an organized territory is a territory for which the United States Congress has enacted an Organic Act. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


The shifting of the Rio Grande would cause a later dispute over the boundary between Purchase lands and those of the state of Texas. (See Country Club Dispute.) “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... The Country Club Area is a suburb of El Paso, Texas. ...


U.S. statehood

The Gadsden Purchase historical mark near Interstate 10

In 1861, during the American Civil War, the Confederacy formed the Confederate Territory of Arizona, including in the new territory mainly areas acquired by the Gadsden Purchase. In 1863, using a north-to-south dividing line, the Union created its own Arizona Territory out of the western half of the New Mexico Territory. The new U.S. Arizona Territory also included most of the lands acquired in the Gadsden Purchase. This territory would be admitted into the Union as the State of Arizona on February 14, 1912, the last area in the lower 48 to receive statehood. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: The Gadsden Purchase historical mark. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: The Gadsden Purchase historical mark. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 10 Interstate 10 (abbreviated I-10) is the southernmost east-west, coast-to-coast interstate highway in the United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... These are historic regions of the United States, meaning regions that were legal entities in the past, or which the average modern American would no longer immediately recognize as a regional description. ... The Country Club Area is a suburb of El Paso, Texas. ...

External links

  • Yale Law School's Avalon Project Text of the Gadsden Purchase Treaty
  • US Geological Survey Large map
  • 1855 map with some proposed railroad routes
  • National Park Service Map including route of the Southern Pacific railroad finally built in the 1880s
  • ISBN 0595329136 Slavery, Scandal, and Steel Rails: The 1854 Gadsden Purchase and the Building of the Second Transcontinental Railroad Across Arizona and New Mexico Twenty-Five Years Later
  • Arizona Daily Star Land sale still thorn to Mexico

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gadsden Purchase - definition of Gadsden Purchase in Encyclopedia (475 words)
The Gadsden Purchase is a 30,000 mi²; (77,700 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853.
The purpose of the purchase was to allow for the construction of a southern route for a transcontinental railroad.
The original plans of the purchase called for a much larger portion of land to be acquired from Mexico extending far enough south to encompass most of the current Mexican states of Coahuila, Chihuahua, and Sonora as well as all of Baja California.
Gadsden Purchase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (649 words)
The Gadsden Purchase was intended to allow for the construction of a southern route for a transcontinental railroad, and was also designed to fully compensate Mexico for the lands taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War.
As originally envisioned, the purchase would have encompassed a much larger region, extending far enough south to include most of the current Mexican states of Coahuila, Chihuahua, and Sonora as well as all of the Baja California peninsula.
The purchased lands were initially appended to the existing New Mexico Territory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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