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Encyclopedia > Gabelle
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
French nobility
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system

The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. The term gabelle derives from the Latin term gabulum (a tax). Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the mid 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives, including exemption from paying the taille (except for non-noble lands they might possess in some regions of France), the right to hunt, the right to wear... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism describes the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... A tax (also known as a dutyor Zakat in islamic economics) is a charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


In France, Gabelle was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the tax on salt. In time it became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal taxes in the country, but, though condemned by all supporters of reform, it was not abolished until 1790. First imposed as a temporary expedient in 1286 in the reign of Philip IV, it was made a permanent tax by Charles V. Repressive as a state monopoly, it was made doubly so from the fact that the government obliged every individual above the age of eight years to purchase weekly a minimum amount of salt at a fixed price. When first instituted, it was levied uniformly on all the provinces in France, but for the greater part of its history the price varied in different provinces. There were five distinct groups of provinces, who were called pays (lit. "countries" ; to be understood in an obselete meaning of "region"), and classified as follows: The word commodity is a term with distinct meanings in business and in Marxian political economy. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 31, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France (1364 to 1380) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ...

  1. the Pays de grandes gabelles, in which the salt came from the Atlantic and the tax was heaviest : between about 54 and 61 livres for a minot, that is to say about 50 Kilograms of salt, in 1789;
  2. the Pays de petites gabelles, in which the salt came from the Mediterranean and the tax was about half the rate of the former : between 22 and 30 livres for a minot;
  3. the Pays de quart-bouillon, such as the coast of Normandy, Provence or Rousillon, in which salt came from boiling sea-salt impregnated sand, a fourth of which production went to the king, and prices ranged from 13 to 27 livres for a minot;
  4. the Pays de salines (Franche-Comté, Alsace and Lorraine), in which the tax was levied on the salt extracted from the salt marshes, and prices for a minot varying from 15 livres (Franche-Comté) to between 12 and 36 livres in the numerous fiscal divisions of the Alsace-Lorraine;
  5. the Pays redimés, which had purchased redemption in 1549 : the minot of salt could be found there for about between 8 and 11 livres;
  6. the Pays exempts, which had stipulated for exemption on entering into union with the kingdom of France ; there, minot of salt would cost only between 1 and 8 livres.

Greniers à sel (salt granaries dating from 1342) were established in each province, and to these all salt had to be taken by the producer on penalty of confiscation. The grenier fixed the price which it paid for the salt and then sold it to retail dealers at a higher rate. The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of the earths surface. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ... Provence is a former Roman province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Frances border with Italy. ... Mount Canigou (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (Catalan Rosselló; Spanish Rosellón) is one of the historical Catalan Countries corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees). ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... Capital Besançon Land area¹ 16,202 km² Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Capital Strasbourg Land area¹ 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Population  - Jan. ... Lorraine coat of arms Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... A minot is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ...


References

The prices are quoted from De la révolution de 1789 à la révolution de 1848 by Isaac, Alba, Michaud and Pouthas, Hachette, 1960.


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gabelle - definition of Gabelle in Encyclopedia (350 words)
Gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790.
In France, Gabelle was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the tax on salt.
In time it became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal taxes in the country, but, though condemned by all supporters of reform, it was not abolished until 1790.
Legabelle France - SALT MADE THE WORLD GO ROUND (1292 words)
In 1286 the gabelle was levied temporarily as a general commodity tax.
Such huge price differences, severe restrictions and the inescapable fact that some areas were free from the gabelle caused great discontent and misery to 'the poor peasants who are found to buy salt in such provinces where it is cheap, such as the country of Burgundy or the country of the Danube'...
The gabelle was one of the principal grievances of the French peasants, the small farmers and the poorer urban people.
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