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Encyclopedia > Ga language
Ga
Ga 
Pronunciation: IPA: /gã/
Spoken in: South-eastern Ghana, around Accra
Total speakers: 600,000 (SIL 2004)
Language family: Niger-Congo
 Atlantic-Congo
  Volta-Congo
   Kwa
    Nyo
     Ga-Dangme
      Ga 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Ga variant) 
Official status
Official language of: Ghana
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: gaa
ISO/DIS 639-3: gaa 

The Ga language is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana, in and around the capital Accra. It has a phonemic distinction between 3 vowel lengths. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The skyline Location of Accra Labadi Beach Downtown Accra Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In the classification of African languages, Volta-Congo is the major branch (in terms of number of languages) of the Niger-Congo phylum. ... The Kwa languages are spoken in the south-eastern part of Côte dIvoire, in Ghana, Togo and Benin, and the south-Western corner of Nigeria. ... Ga-Dangme, or as the tribesmen themselves call it Ga-Adangbe (which is two related languages - Ga and Adangbe- which has various dialects) is a west African language spoken primarily in southeastern Ghana. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Kwa languages are spoken in the south-eastern part of Côte dIvoire, in Ghana, Togo and Benin, and the south-Western corner of Nigeria. ... The skyline Location of Accra Labadi Beach Downtown Accra Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ...

Contents


Classification

Ga is a Kwa language, part of the Niger-Congo family. It is very closely related to Adangme, and together they form the Ga-Dangme branch within Kwa. The Kwa languages are spoken in the south-eastern part of Côte dIvoire, in Ghana, Togo and Benin, and the south-Western corner of Nigeria. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Adangme (also Dangme, native name ) is a language that is spoken in Ghana by 825,000 people. ... Ga-Dangme, or as the tribesmen themselves call it Ga-Adangbe (which is two related languages - Ga and Adangbe- which has various dialects) is a west African language spoken primarily in southeastern Ghana. ...


Geographic distribution

Ga is spoken in south-eastern Ghana, in and around the capital Accra. It has relatively little dialectal variation. Although English is the official language of Ghana, Ga is one of 16 languages which the Bureau of Ghana Languages publishes material in. The skyline Location of Accra Labadi Beach Downtown Accra Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ...


Phonology

Consonants

Ga has 31 consonant phonemes.

  • [ŋʷ] is an allophone of /w/ which occurs before nasals and is represented with its own digraph in writing.
  • /l/ may be realised as [r] when between a consonant and vowel
  • /j/ has an allophone [ɲ] before nasal vowels
Consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Post-
alveolar

(Palato-
alveolar)
Palatal Velar Glottal Labial-velar Labia-
lized
palatal
Labia-
lized
velar
Plosive p b     t d         k ɡ     kp ɡb     ɡʷ
Nasal   m       n       ɲ   ŋ       ŋm        
Fricative     f v s z ʃ           h       ʃʷ    
Affricate                             tʃʷ dʒʷ    
Approximant                   j                 w
Lateral approximant           l                            

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... Labialisation is secondary articulatory feature of sounds in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Labialisation is secondary articulatory feature of sounds in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Vowels

Ga has 7 oral vowels and 5 nasal vowels. All of the vowels have 3 different vowel lengths: short, long or extra long (used in the simple future and the simple past negative forms). In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...

Monophthongs Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e   o
Open-mid ɛ   ɔ
Open   a  
Monophthongs Front Central Back
Close ĩ   ũ
Close-mid      
Open-mid ɛ̃   ɔ̃
Open   ã  

A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...

Tones

Ga has 2 tones, high and low. Like many West African languages, it has tone terracing. Tone terracing is a type of phonetic downdrift, where certain tones shift downward in pitch after other tones. ...


Phonotactics

The possible syllable structures are V, CV, CCV where the second consonant is /l/, or a syllabic nasal.


Writing system

Ga was first written by Christian Jacobsen Protten, who was the son of a Danish soldier and an African woman, in about 1764. The orthography has been revised a number of times since 1968, with the most recent review in 1990.


The writing system is a Latin-based alphabet and has 26 letters. It has three additional letter symbols which correspond to the IPA symbols. There are also eleven digraphs and two trigraphs. Vowel length is represented by doubling or tripling the vowel symbol, eg 'a', 'aa' and 'aaa'. Tones are not represented. Nasalisation is represented after oral consonants where it distinguishes between minimal pairs. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... An oral consonant is a consonant sound in speech that is made by allowing air to escape from the mouth. ... In phonetics, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phoneme and have a distinct meaning. ...


The Ga alphabet is: Aa, Bb, Dd, Ee, Ɛɛ, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Ŋŋ, Oo, Ɔɔ, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Ww, Yy, Zz


The following letters represent sounds which do not correspond with the same letter as the IPA symbol (eg B represents /b/): IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...

  • J j - /dʒ/
  • Y y - /j/

Digraphs and trigraphs:

  • Gb gb - /gb/
  • Gw gw - /ɡʷ/
  • Hw hw - /hʷ/
  • Jw jw - /dʒʷ/
  • Kp kp - /kp/
  • Kw kw - /kʷ/
  • Ny ny - /ɲ/
  • Ŋm ŋm - /ŋm/
  • Ŋw ŋw - [ŋʷ]
  • Sh sh - /ʃ/
  • Ts ts - /tʃ/
  • Shw shw - /ʃʷ/
  • Tsw tsw - /tʃʷ/

See also

The Ga are an ethnic group indigenous to the West African nation of Ghana. ... Carl Christian Reindorf was a Ghanaian pastor and historian. ...

References

  • (1977) M. E. Kropp Dakubu West African Language Data Sheets Vol 1. West African Linguistic Society.
  • (1988) M. E. Kropp Dakubu The Languages of Ghana. London: Kegan Paul International for the International African Institute. ISBN 0-7103-0210-X.
  • Bureau of Ghana Languages (1995). Ga Wiemɔ Kɛ Ŋmaa. Accra:Bureau of Ghana Languages. ISBN 9964-2-0276-8.
  • A. A. Amartey (1989). Beginners' Ga. Ga Society.

External links

  • Ethnologue entry
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Ga language

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnologue 14 report for language code:GAC (64 words)
The following is the entry for this language as it appeared in the 14th edition (2000).
Ga is the major language of Accra, the capital.
Literacy rate in second language: 75% to 100%.
Ga language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (429 words)
The Ga language is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana, in and around the capital Accra.
Ga is a Kwa language, part of the Niger-Congo family.
Ga is spoken in south-eastern Ghana, in and around the capital Accra.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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