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Encyclopedia > GULAG
Nikolai Getman Moving out.[1]

The Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ, listen ) was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. It is the acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно-Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitel'no-Trudovykh Lagerey i koloniy, in English: "The Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies" of the NKVD. Over time the term acquired a more general meaning of the whole system of penal labor in the Soviet Union and in some other places (by metonymy). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ... Image File history File links Ru-Gulag. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ...


Gulag: A History, by Anne Applebaum, explains: Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ...

It was the branch of the State Security that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps and prisons. While these camps housed criminals of all types, the Gulag system has become primarily known as a place for political prisoners and as a mechanism for repressing political opposition to the Soviet state. Though it imprisoned millions, the name became familiar in the West only with the publication of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's 1973 The Gulag Archipelago, which likened the scattered camps to a chain of islands.

There were at least 476 separate camp complexes, each one comprising hundreds, even thousands of individual camps.[2] It is estimated that there may have been up to 5-7 million prisoners in these camps at any one time. It is possible that approximately 10% of prisoners died each year.[3][4] Probably the worst of the camp complexes were the three built north of the Arctic circle at Kolyma, Norilsk and Vorkuta.[5][6] The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... The Kolyma (pronounced kah-lee-MAH) region is located in the far northeastern area of the Russian Federation. ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... Vorkuta (Russian: ) is a coal mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic circle in the Pechora coal basin, at 67°30′N 64°00′E. It had its origin in one of the more notorious concentration camps of the Gulag which was established in...


In all, perhaps more than 18 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929-1953, with further millions being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[7][8][9] Not by Their Own Will. ...


The majority of Gulag inmates usually were non-political prisoners, however, the share of political prisoners was always significant.[10] People could be placed in a Gulag camp for such crimes as unexcused absences from work, petty theft or conveying an anti-government joke. [11] About half of the political prisoners were sent to Gulag prison camps without trial. According to official data, there were more than 2.6 million sentences to imprisonment related to cases investigated by the Soviet secret police in 1921-1953.[12] By administrative means (В административном порядке, V administrativnom poryadke) was an expression in use in the Soviet Union applied to the cases when some actions that normally required a collegial decision were left to the decision of certain officials, i. ...

Entering Gulag (a leaf from Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya's notebook)
Entering Gulag (a leaf from Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya's notebook)

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya (Евфросиния Керсновская) (1907— 1994) spent 12 years in Gulag camps and wrote her memoirs in 12 notebooks, 2,200,000 characters, accompanied with 680 pictures. ...

Modern usage and other terminology

Although Gulag was originally the name of the Soviet government agency responsible for managing the labor camps, the word acquired also the meaning of the system of Soviet prison-based unfree labor, including labor camps, punishment camps, criminal and political camps, women- and children-specific camps and transit camps. Eventually, "Gulag" has come to mean the Soviet repressive system, the set of procedures usually called "meat-grinder" by the prisoners and its consequences, such as the arrests, interrogations, transport (usually in unheated cattle cars), forced labor, separation of families, exile and early deaths[7]. Some authors refer to all prisons and camps throughout Soviet history (1917–91) as the Gulags. Also, the term's modern usage is often notably unrelated to the Soviet Union, such as in expressions as "North Korea's Gulag"[13]. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... A car, often a train car or semi trailer, used to transport cattle. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


The word was not often used in Russian — officially or colloquially — as the predominant term either for the system of labor camps or for the individual camps, which are usually referred to in Russian as simply "the camps" (лагеря, lagerya) or "the zone" (зона, zona, always singular). The official term, "corrective labor camp", was suggested for official use by the politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union session of July 27, 1929, as a replacement of the term concentration camp, commonly used until that time[citation needed]. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Early Soviet period

Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes the counter-revolutionary saboteur on the head
Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes the counter-revolutionary saboteur on the head

From 1918, camp-type detention facilities were set up, as a reformed analogy of the earlier system of penal labor (katorgas), operated in Siberia in Imperial Russia. The two main types were "Vechecka Special-purpose Camps" (особые лагеря ВЧК, osobiye lagerya VČK) and forced labor camps (лагеря принудительных работ, lagerya prinuditel'nikh rabot). They were installed for various categories of people deemed dangerous for the state: for common criminals, for prisoners of the Russian Civil War, for officials accused of corruption, sabotage and embezzlement, various political enemies and dissidents, as well as former aristocrats, businessmen and large land owners. However, these camps were not on the same scale as those in the Stalin era. In 1928, there were 30,000 prisoners in camps, and the authorities were opposed to compelling them to work. In 1927, the official in charge of prison administration wrote that: “The exploitation of prison labour, the system of squeezing ‘golden sweat’ from them, the organisation of production in places of confinement, which while profitable from a commercial point of view is fundamentally lacking in corrective significance – these are entirely inadmissible in Soviet places of confinement.”[14] GPU poster. ... GPU poster. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... -1... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Cheka (ЧК in Russian) was the first (of many) Soviet secret police organizations. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


Convict labour system expansion under Stalin

Prisoner labour at the construction of Belomorkanal, 1931–33
Prisoner labour at the construction of Belomorkanal, 1931–33

The legal base and the guidance for the creation of the system of "corrective labor camps" (Russian: исправительно-трудовые лагеря, Ispravitel'no-trudovye lagerya), the backbone of what is commonly referred to as the "Gulag", was a secret decree of Sovnarkom of July 11, 1929 about the utilization of penal labor (see its wikisource reference), that duplicated the corresponding appendix to the minutes of Politburo meeting of June 27, 1929. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Prisoner labor at construction of Belomorkanal File links The following pages link to this file: Gulag White Sea-Baltic Canal Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... Prisoner labor at construction of Belomorkanal File links The following pages link to this file: Gulag White Sea-Baltic Canal Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (Russian: Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal (BBK)), opened on August 2, 1933 is a ship canal that joins the White Sea and the Baltic Sea near St. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As an all-Union institution and a main administration with the OGPU (the Soviet secret police), the GULAG was officially established on April 25, 1930 as the "ULAG" by the OGPU order 130/63 in accordance with the Sovnarkom order 22 p. 248 dated April 7, 1930, and was renamed into GULAG in November. CCCP redirects here. ... Obedinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie (or OGPU) (Combined State Political Directorate, also translated as All Union State Political Board) was the name of the secret police in the Soviet Union in one of the stages of its development. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...


In the early 1930s, a drastic tightening of Soviet penal policy caused a significant growth of the prison camp population. During the period of the Great Purge (1937–38), mass arrests caused another upsurge in inmate numbers. During these years, hundreds of thousands of individuals were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms on the grounds of one of the multiple passages of the notorious Article 58 of the Criminal Codes of the Union republics, which defined punishment for various forms of "counterrevolutionary activities." The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25, 1927 to arrest those suspected guilty of counter-revolutionary activities. ...


Under NKVD Order № 00447 tens of thousands of GULAG inmates who were accused of "continuing anti-Soviet activity in imprisonment" were executed in 1937-38.


The hypothesis that economic considerations were responsible for mass arrests during the period of Stalinism has been refuted on the grounds of former Soviet archives that have become accessible since the 1990s, although some archival sources also tend to support an economic hypothesis.[15][16] Still, the development of the camp system followed economic lines. The growth of the camp system coincided with the peak of the Soviet industrialization campaign. Most of the camps established to accommodate the masses of incoming prisoners were assigned distinct economic tasks. These included the exploitation of natural resources and the colonization of remote areas as well as the realization of enormous infrastructural facilities and industrial construction projects. Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


In 1931–32, the Gulag had approximately 200,000 prisoners in the camps; in 1935 — approximately 800,000 in camps and 300,000 in colonies (annual averages), and in 1939 — about 1.3 millions in camps and 350,000 in colonies. [17] (all data about the numbers of prisoners here and below are taken from formerly secret documents produced by the NKVD). The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...


GULAG during World War II

After the Soviet invasion of Poland following the corresponding German invasion that marked the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviet Union annexed eastern parts (so-called "Kresy") of the Second Polish Republic. In 1940 the Soviet Union annexed Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia and Bukovina. Hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens[18][19] and inhabitants of the other annexed lands, regardless of their ethnic origin, were arrested and sent to the GULAG camps. However, according to the official data, the total number of sentences for political crimes in USSR in 1939-41 was only 211,106.[12][unreliable source?] For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...


During the Great Patriotic War, Gulag populations declined sharply, as a consequence of the mass releases of hundreds of thousands of prisoners who were conscripted and sent directly to the front lines and a steep rise in mortality in 1942–43. 516,841 prisoners died in prison camps in 1941-43.[20] The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


In 1943, the term "katorga works" (каторжные работы) was reintroduced. They were initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but then other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga works". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga works" were sent to Gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime and many of them perished.[20] During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the following non-tripartite countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Egypt and Italy. ... Not by Their Own Will. ...


GULAG after WWII

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn gives his re-enactment of a search to which the inmates were subjected - this picture was not taken in a prison camp.

After World War II the number of inmates in prison camps and colonies again rose sharply, reaching approximately 2.5 million people by the early 1950s (about 1.7 million of whom were in camps). Image File history File linksMetadata Aleksandr_solzhenitsyn_gulag_search. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Aleksandr_solzhenitsyn_gulag_search. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ...


When the war ended in May 1945, as many as two million former Russian citizens were forcefully repatriated (against their will) into the USSR.[21] On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the Soviet Union.[22] One interpretation of this agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Soviets. British and U.S. civilian authorities ordered their military forces in Europe to deport to the Soviet Union up to two million former residents of the Soviet Union, including persons who had left Russia and established different citizenship years before. The forced repatriation operations took place from 1945-1947.[23] Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


The Soviet POWs on their return to the Soviet Union were often treated as traitors (see Order No. 270).[24][25][26] According to some sources, over 1.5 million surviving Red Army soldiers imprisoned by the Germans have been sent to the Gulag.[27][28][29] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... Order No. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


For years after World War II, a significant minority of the inmates were Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians from lands newly incorporated into the Soviet Union, as well as Finns, Poles, Romanians and others. POWs, in contrast, were kept in a separate camp system (see POW labor in the Soviet Union), which was managed by GUPVI, a separate main administration with the NKVD/MVD. Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... Latvians or Letts (Latvian: latvieÅ¡i), the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia, occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which may have originated from the word Latve which is a name of the river that presumably flowed through what is now eastern Latvia. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Systematic POW labor in the Soviet Union is associated primarily with the outcomes of the World War II and covers the period of 1939-1956. ... Main Directorate for the Affairs of POWs and Internees (Главное управление по делам военнопленных и интернированных, ГУПВИ, transliterated as GUPVI) of the NKVD was established in 1939 (initially as the Directorate for POW Affairs, управление по делам военнопленных) according to the NKVD Order no. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. ...


Yet the major reason for the post-war increase in the number of prisoners was the tightening of legislation on property offences in summer 1947 (at this time there was a famine in some parts of the Soviet Union, claiming about 1 million lives), which resulted in hundreds of thousands of convictions to lengthy prison terms, sometimes on the basis of cases of petty theft or embezzlement. At the beginning of 1953 the total number of prisoners in prison camps was more than 2.4 million of which more than 465 thousand were political prisoners.[20][unreliable source?]


The state continued to maintain the extensive camp system for a while after Stalin's death in March 1953, although the period saw the grip of the camp authorities weaken and a number of conflicts and uprisings occur (see Bitch Wars; Kengir uprising). The Bitch Wars or Suka Wars occurred within the Soviet prison system between 1945 and around the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Red Army, MVD, Gulag authorities Kengir resistance Commanders Sergei Yegorov, Ivan Dolgikh Kapitan Kuznetsov Strength 1,700 8,000 Casualties 40 wounded1 500–700 killed/wounded,2 37 killed,1 106 wounded1 1 Official Soviet figure 2 Prisoner-provided figure Prisoner labor at construction of Belomorkanal at a different...


The amnesty in March 1953 was limited to non-political prioners and for political prisoners sentenced to not more than 5 years, therefore mostly those convicted for common crimes were then freed. The release of political prisoners started in 1954 and became widespread, and also coupled with mass rehabilitations, after Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalinism in his Secret Speech at the 20th Congress of the CPSU in February 1956. Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rehabilitation in the context of Soviet or Russian topics is often a false friend used to translate the Russian term reabilitatsiya as applied to convicted persons. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... The Secret Speech is the common name of a speech given on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denouncing the actions of Josef Stalin. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


By the end of the 1950s, virtually all "corrective labor camps" were dissolved. Colonies, however, continued to exist. Officially the GULAG was liquidated by the MVD order 20 of January 25, 1960. Modern emblem of Russian MVD The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Altogether, according to some recent estimates on the basis of archival documents, between 28 and 50 million people had been prisoners in camps and colonies throughout the period of Stalinism at one point or another.[citation needed]


Conditions

Living and working conditions in the camps varied significantly across time and place, depending, among other things, on the impact of broader events (World War II, countrywide famines and shortages, waves of terror, sudden influx or release of large numbers of prisoners). However, to one degree or another, the large majority of prisoners at most times faced meagre food rations, inadequate clothing, overcrowding, poorly insulated housing; poor hygiene, and insufficient or inadequate health care. The overwhelming majority of prisoners were compelled to perform harsh physical labour. In most periods and economic branches, the degree of mechanization of work processes was significantly lower than in the civilian industry: tools were often primitive and machinery, if existent, short in supply. Officially established work hours were in most periods longer and days off were fewer than for civilian workers. Often official work time regulations were extended by local camp administrators. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Remember about Those Who Starve! A Soviet poster from 1921. ...


In general, the central administrative bodies showed a discernible interest in maintaining the labor force of prisoners in a condition allowing the fulfillment of construction and production plans handed down from above. Besides a wide array of punishments for prisoners refusing to work (which, in practice, were sometimes applied to prisoners that were too enfeebled to meet production quota), they instituted a number of positive incentives intended to boost productivity. These included monetary bonuses (since the early 1930s) and wage payments (from 1950 onwards), cuts of sentences on an individual basis, general early release schemes for norm fulfillment and overfulfillment (until 1939, again in selected camps from 1946 onwards), preferential treatment and privileges for the most productive workers (shock workers or Stakhanovites in Soviet parlance). [30] Udarnik (Ударник in Russian) is a Russian term for a superproductive worker in the Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A distinctive incentive scheme that included both coercive and motivational elements and was applied universally in all camps consisted in standardized "nourishment scales": the size of the inmates’ ration depended on the percentage of the work quota delivered. Naftaly Frenkel is credited for the introduction of this policy. While it was effective in compelling many prisoners to make serious work efforts, for many a prisoner it had the adverse effect, accelerating the exhaustion and sometimes causing the death of persons unable to fulfill high production quota. Naftaly Aronovich Frenkel (Нафталий Френкель) (183-?), Soviet citizen and Chekist (member of the Soviet secret police). ...


Immediately after the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941 the conditions in camps worsened drastically: quotas were increased, rations cut, and medical supplies came close to none, all of which led to a sharp increase in mortality. The situation slowly improved in the final period and after the end of the war. Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov...


Considering the overall conditions and their influence on inmates, it is important to distinguish three major strata of Gulag inmates:

  • people used to physical labor: "kulaks", osadniks, "ukazniks" (people sentenced for violation of various ukases, such as Law of Spikelets, decree about work discipline, etc.), occasional violators of criminal law
  • dedicated criminals
  • people unused to physical labour sentenced for various political and religious reasons.

Mortality in GULAG camps in 1934-40 was 4-6 times higher than average in Russia. The estimated total number of those who died in imprisonment in 1930-1953 is 1.76 million.[31][32] Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, fist, literally meaning tight-fisted) was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Soviet Union. ... Osadniks (Polish: osadnik/osadnicy, settler/settlers) was the Polish loanword used in Soviet Union for veterans of Polish army that were given land in the Kresy (Western Belarus and Western Ukraine) territory ceded to Poland by Polish-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 (and regained by Soviet Union in 1939). ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Law of Spikelets (закон о колосках) was a common name of the law based on the decree of Central Executive Committee and Sovnarkom of the USSR About protection of the property of state enterprises, kolkhozes and cooperatives, and strengthening of the public (socialist) property (Об охране имущества государственных предприятий, колхозов... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


Geography

Part of 'Project 503' to build a railroad from Salekhard to Igarka near Turukhansk on the Yenisey
Part of 'Project 503' to build a railroad from Salekhard to Igarka near Turukhansk on the Yenisey

In the early days of Gulag, the locations for the camps were chosen primarily for the ease of isolation of prisoners. Remote monasteries in particular were frequently reused as sites for new camps. The site on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea is one of the earliest and also most noteworthy, taking root soon after the Revolution in 1918. The colloquial name for the islands, "Solovki", entered the vernacular as a synonym for the labour camp in general. It was being presented to the world as an example of the new Soviet way of "re-education of class enemies" and reintegrating them through labour into the Soviet society. Initially the inmates, the significant part being Russian intelligentsia, enjoyed relative freedom (within the natural confinement of the islands). Local newspapers and magazines were edited and even some scientific research was carried out (e.g., a local botanical garden was maintained, but unfortunately later lost completely). Eventually it turned into an ordinary Gulag camp; in fact some historians maintain that Solovki was a pilot camp of this type. See Solovki for more detail. Maxim Gorky visited the camp in 1929 and published an apology of it. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Ru200008020027. ... Image File history File links Ru200008020027. ... Salekhard Coat of Arms Salekhard (Russian: ) is a town in and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. ... Igarka (Russian: ) is an urban-type settlement in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located 163 km north of the Arctic Circle. ... Turukhansk is an urban-type settlement in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Yenisei (Енисе́й) is a river... The Solovetsky Islands (Russian: ), also known as Solovki, are a group of islands in the White Sea in the Onega Bay in the Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Solovki is located in the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Solovki is located in the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ...


With the new emphasis on Gulag as the means of concentrating cheap labour, new camps were then constructed throughout the Soviet sphere of influence, wherever the economic task at hand dictated their existence (or was designed specifically to avail itself of them, such as Belomorkanal or Baikal Amur Mainline), including facilities in big cities — parts of the famous Moscow Metro and the Moscow State University new campus were built by forced labour. Many more projects during the rapid industrialization of the 1930s, war-time and post-war periods were fulfilled on the backs of convicts, and the activity of Gulag camps spanned a wide cross-section of Soviet industry. A map of the White Sea–Baltic Sea Canal. ... Baikal-Amur Magistral in green; Trans-Siberian line in red The Baikal-Amur Mainline (Russian Байкало-Амурская Магистраль, Baikalo-Amurskaya Magistral’, BAM) is a railway line in Russia. ... Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The majority of Gulag camps were positioned in extremely remote areas of north-eastern Siberia (the best known clusters are Sevvostlag (The North-East Camps) along Kolyma river and Norillag near Norilsk) and in the south-eastern parts of the Soviet Union, mainly in the steppes of Kazakhstan (Luglag, Steplag, Peschanlag). These were vast and sparsely inhabited regions with no roads (in fact, the construction of the roads themselves was assigned to the inmates of specialized railroad camps) or sources of food, but rich in minerals and other natural resources (such as timber). However, camps were generally spread throughout the entire Soviet Union, including the European parts of Russia, Byelorussia, and Ukraine. There were also several camps located outside of the Soviet Union, in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Mongolia, which were under the direct control of the Gulag. Men constructing the Highway under some of the harshest conditions on Earth Sevvostlag was a complex of labour camps located in Kolyma. ... The Kolyma (pronounced kah-lee-MAH) region is located in the far northeastern area of the Russian Federation. ... Norillag, Norilsk Corrective Labor Camp (Russian: ) was a gulag labor camp set by Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia and headquartered there. ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation). ...


Not all camps were fortified; in fact some in Siberia were marked only by posts. Escape was deterred by the harsh elements, as well as tracking dogs that were assigned to each camp. While during the 1920s and 1930s native tribes often aided escapees, many of the tribes were also victimized by escaped thieves. Tantalized by large rewards as well, they began aiding authorities in the capture of Gulag inmates. Camp guards were also given stern incentive to keep their inmates in line at all costs; if a prisoner escaped under a guard's watch, the guard would often be stripped of his uniform and become a Gulag inmate himself. Further, if an escaping prisoner was shot, guards could be fined amounts that were often equivalent to one or two weeks wages.


In some cases, teams of inmates were dropped to a new territory with a limited supply of resources and left to set up a new camp or die. Sometimes it took several attempts before the next wave of colonists could survive the elements.


The area along the Indigirka river was known as the Gulag inside the Gulag. In 1926, the Oimiakon (Оймякон) village in this region registered the record low temperature of −71.2 °C (−96 °F). The Indigirka River (Индигирка in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia. ... Oymyakon (Оймякон in Cyrillic, alternative spellings: Oimekon, Oimyakon, Oymiakon, Oimiakon, Oimjakon, Ojmiakon, Ojmjakon, Ojmyakon, Oymjakon) is a village located along the Indigirka River in the north-east of the Sakha Republic in Eastern Siberia, Russia, at 63°15′N 143°9′E. It has about 800 inhabitants. ...


Under the supervision of Lavrenty Beria who headed both NKVD and the Soviet Atom bomb program until his demise in 1953, thousands of zeks were used to mine uranium ore and prepare test facilities on Novaya Zemlya, Vaygach Island, Semipalatinsk, among other sites. Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Vaygach Island (sometimes Vaigach) (Вайгач in Russian) is an island in the Arctic Sea on the border of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea. ... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ...


Special insititutions

  • Special camps or zones for children (Gulag jargon: "малолетки", maloletki, underaged), for disabled (in Spassk), and for mothers ("мамки", mamki) with babies.
  • Camps for "wives of traitors of Motherland" — there was a special category of repression: "Traitor of Motherland Family Member" (ЧСИР, член семьи изменника Родины: ČSIR, člyen sem'i izmennika Rodini).
  • Sharashka (шарашка, the goofing-off place) were in fact secret research laboratories, where the arrested and convicted scientists, some of them prominent, were anonymously developing new technologies, and also conducting basic research.

For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Spassk may refer to: Spassk, Penza Oblast, a town in Penza Oblast, Russia Spassk, Kemerovo Oblast, an urban-type settlement in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia The following places are often referred to as Spassk: Spassk-Dalny, a town in Primorsky Krai, Russia Spassk-Ryazansky, a town in Ryazan Oblast, Russia See... The NKVD Order no. ... Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, Russian: ) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system. ...

Influence

Culture

The Gulag spanned nearly four decades of Soviet and East European history and affected millions of individuals. Its cultural impact was enormous.


The Gulag has become a major influence on contemporary Russian thinking, and an important part of modern Russian folklore. Many songs by the authors-performers known as the bards, most notably Vladimir Vysotsky and Alexander Galich, neither of whom ever served time in the camps, describe life inside the Gulag and glorified the life of "Zeks". Words and phrases which originated in the labor camps became part of the Russian/Soviet vernacular in the 1960s and 1970s. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bulat Okudzhava, a pioneer of the Bard genre For other meanings of the word, see Bard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vysotsky. ... Alexander Galich Aleksandr Galich (Russian: , October 19, 1918 – December 15, 1977), was a Russian poet, screenwriter, playwright and singer-songwriter. ...


The memoirs of Alexander Dolgun, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Varlam Shalamov and Yevgenia Ginzburg, among others, became a symbol of defiance in Soviet society. These writings, particularly those of Solzhenitsyn, harshly chastised the Soviet people for their tolerance and apathy regarding the Gulag, but at the same time provided a testament to the courage and resolve of those who were imprisoned. // Pre-Gulag Years Alexander Dolgun was born on September 29th, 1926 in the Bronx, New York City, the son of Michael Dolgun, an immigrant from Poland, and his wife, Annie Dolgun. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Varlam Shalamov Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (Варлам Тихонович Шаламов, July 1, 1907–January 17, 1982) was a Russian writer, journalist, poet, political prisoner and Gulag survivor. ... Yevgenia Ginzburg Yevgenia Ginzburg (November 20, 1904 - May 25, 1977) (Russian language: Евгения Семёновна Гинзбург) was a Russian historian and writer. ...


Another cultural phenomenon in the Soviet Union linked with the Gulag was the forced migration of many artists and other people of culture to Siberia. This resulted in a Renaissance of sorts in places like Magadan, where, for example, the quality of theatre production was comparable to Moscow's. Magadan (Russian: ), a port city on the Sea of Okhotsk and gateway to the Kolyma region, is the administrative center of Magadan Oblast (since 1953), in the Russian Far East. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Literature

Many eyewitness accounts of Gulag prisoners were published before World War II.

  • Julius Margolin's book A Travel to the Land Ze-Ka was finished in 1947, but it was impossible to publish such a book about the Soviet Union at the time, immediately after World War II.
  • Gustaw Herling-Grudziński wrote A World Apart, which was translated into English by Andrzej Ciolkosz and published with an introduction by Bertrand Russell in 1951. By describing life in the gulag in a harrowing personal account, it provides an in-depth, original analysis of the nature of the Soviet communist system.
  • Alexander Solzhenitsyn's book The Gulag Archipelago was not the first literary work about labour camps. His previous book on the subject, "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich", about a typical day of the GULAG inmate, was originally published in the most prestigious Soviet monthly, Novy Mir, (New World), in November 1962, but was soon banned and withdrawn from all libraries. It was the first work to demonstrate the Gulag as an instrument of governmental repression against its own citizens on a massive scale. The First Circle, an account of three days in the lives of prisoners in the Marfino sharashka or special prison was submitted for publication to the Soviet authorities shortly after One Day in the Life but was rejected and later published abroad in 1968.
  • János Rózsás, Hungarian writer, often called as the Hungarian Solzhenitsyn, wrote a lot of books and articles on the issue of GULAG.
  • Zoltan Szalkai, Hungarian documentary filmmaker made several films of gulag camps.
  • Karlo Štajner, an Austrian communist active in the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia and manager of Comintern Publishing House in Moscow from 1932–39, was arrested one night and taken from his Moscow home under accusation of anti-revolutionary activities. He spent the following 20 years in camps from Solovki to Norilsk. After USSR–Yugoslavian political normalization he was re-tried and quickly found innocent. He left the Soviet Union with his wife, who had been waiting for him for 20 years, in 1956 and spent the rest of his life in Zagreb, Croatia. He wrote an impressive book entitled 7000 days in Siberia.
  • Dancing Under the Red Star by Karl Tobien (ISBN 1-4000-7078-3) tells the story of Margaret Werner, a young athletic girl who moves to Russia right before the start of Stalin's terror. She faces many hardships, as her father is taken away from her and imprisoned. Werner is the only American woman who survived the Gulag to tell about it.
  • "Alexander Dolgun's Story: An American in the Gulag." (ISBN 0-394-49497-0), of a member of the US Embassy, and "I Was a Slave in Russia" (ISBN 0-815-95800-5), an American factory owner's son, were two more American citizens interned who wrote of their ordeal. Both were interned due to their American citizenship for about 8 years circa 1946–55.
  • "The Long Walk: The True Story of a Trek to Freedom" In the camps of the Siberian gulag, friends said it was hopeless. Nevertheless, in the spring of 1942 Sławomir Rawicz and four companions walked into British India, having journeyed four thousand miles by foot over tundra, Gobi, frozen rivers, and Himalayan peaks. Along the way, they encountered what appeared to be a Yeti family. ( ISBN-13: 978-1592289448 )

Julius Margolin (Russian: , October 14, 1900 — January 21, 1971) was a Jewish writer and political activist, an author of the book A Travel to the Land Ze-Ka. ... Julius Margolin (Russian: , October 14, 1900 — January 21, 1971) was a Jewish writer and political activist, an author of the book A Travel to the Land Ze-Ka. ... Gustaw Herling GrudziÅ„ski (b. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Russian: ) is a story by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, originally published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir. ... Novy Mir (rus. ... The First Circle (Ð’ круге первом, V kruge pervom) is a novel by Alexander Solzhenitsyn released in 1968, the title of which is based on a quotation from Dante. ... Winter view of Marfino Palace Lobnya (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located some 27 km north of Moscow. ... Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, Russian: ) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system. ... János Rózsás János Rózsás(Budapest, 6th of August 1926)writer, the Hungarian Solzhenitsyn. He was born on the 6th of August 1926 in Budapest. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... SÅ‚awomir Rawicz (1915 – 2004) was a Polish soldier who was arrested by Soviet occupation troops after the German-Soviet invasion of Poland. ...

Colonization

Soviet state documents show that among the goals of the GULAG was colonization of sparsely populated remote areas. To this end, the notion of "free settlement" was introduced. Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ...


When well-behaved persons had served the majority of their terms, they could be released for "free settlement" (вольное поселение, "volnoye poseleniye") outside the confinement of the camp. They were known as "free settlers" (вольнопоселенцы, "volnoposelentsy", not to be confused with the term ссыльнопоселенцы, "ssyl'noposelentsy", "exile settlers"). In addition, for persons who served full term, but who were denied the free choice of place of residence, it was recommended to assign them for "free settlement" and give them land in the general vicinity of the place of confinement. Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ...


This implement was also inherited from the katorga system.-1...


Life after term served

Persons who served a term in a camp or in a prison were restricted from taking a wide range of jobs. Concealment of a previous imprisonment was a triable offence. Persons who served terms as "politicals" were nuisances for "First Departments" (Первый Отдел, Pervyj Otdel, outlets of the secret police at all enterprises and institutions), because former "politicals" had to be monitored. The First Department (Первый отдел, Pervyj Otdel) was in charge of secrecy and political security of the workplace of every enterprise or institution of the Soviet Union that dealt with any kind of technical or scientific information (plants, R&D institutions, etc. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ...


Many people released from camps were restricted from settling in larger cities. (Redirected from 101 km) Upon the release from the Gulag, the former inmates rights would typically still be restricted for a long period of time. ...


Lack of prosecution

It has often been asked why there has been nothing along the lines of the Nuremberg Trials for those guilty of atrocities at the Gulag camps. Two recent books, reviewed by Peter Rollberg in the Moscow Times[33], cast some light on this. Tomasz Kizny's Gulag: Life and Death Inside the Soviet Concentration Camps 1917-1990 details the history of the labour camps over the years while Oleg Khlevniuk's The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror presents records of confidential memos, official resolutions, individual testimonies and tabulated statistics. Rollberg explains how both books contribute to our understanding of why there were no post-Communism trials. "The gulag had already killed tens of thousands of its own most ardent killers. Again and again, yesterday's judges were declared today's criminals, so that Soviet society never had to own up to its millions of state-backed murders." For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


Gulag memorials

Gulag Memorial
Gulag Memorial

This pictured Memorial in St Petersburg is made of a boulder from the Solovki camp — the first prison camp in the Gulag system. People gather here every year on the Day of Victims of the Repression (October 30). Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...

Literature

  • Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History, Broadway Books, 2003, hardcover, 720 pp., ISBN 0-7679-0056-1.
  • Walter Ciszek, With God in Russia, Ignatius Press, 1997, 433 pp., ISBN 0-8987-0574-6.
  • Nicolas Werth, "A State Against Its People: Violence, Repression, and Terror in the Soviet Union, in Stephane Courtois et al., eds., The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, pp. 33-260.
  • Alexander Dolgun, Patrick Watson, "Alexander Dolgun's story: An American in the Gulag", NY, Knopf, 1975, 370 pp., ISBN 978-0394494975.
  • Simon Ertz, Zwangsarbeit im stalinistischen Lagersystem: Eine Untersuchung der Methoden, Strategien und Ziele ihrer Ausnutzung am Beispiel Norilsk, 1935-1953, Duncker & Humblot, 2006, 273 pp., ISBN 9783428118632.
  • J. Arch Getty, Oleg V. Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932-1939, Yale University Press, 1999, 635 pp., ISBN 0-300-07772-6.
  • Eugenia Ginzburg, Journey into the whirlwind, Harvest/HBJ Book, 2002, 432 pp., ISBN 0156027518.
  • Eugenia Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, Harvest/HBJ Book, 1982, 448 pp., ISBN 0156976498.
  • Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski, A World Apart: Imprisonment in a Soviet Labor Camp During World War II, Penguin, 1996, 284 pp., ISBN 0-14-025184-7.
  • Paul Gregory, Valery Lazarev, eds, The Economics of Forced Labour: The Soviet Gulag, Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8179-3942-3, full text available online at "Hoover Books Online"
  • Oleg V. Khlevniuk, The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror, Yale University Press, 2004, hardcover, 464 pp., ISBN 0-300-09284-9.
  • Tomasz Kizny, Gulag: Life and Death Inside the Soviet Concentration Camps 1917-1990, Firefly Books Ltd., 2004, 496 pp., ISBN 1-55297-964-4.
  • John H. Noble, I Was a Slave in Russia, Broadview, Illinois: Cicero Bible Press, 1961).
  • Jacques Rossi, The Gulag Handbook: An Encyclopedia Dictionary of Soviet Penitentiary Institutions and Terms Related to the Forced Labour Camps, 1989, ISBN 1-55778-024-2.
  • Varlam Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, Penguin Books, 1995, 528 pp., ISBN 0-14-018695-6.
  • Danylo Shumuk,
    • Life sentence: Memoirs of a Ukrainian political prisoner, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Study, 1984, 401 pp., ISBN 978-0920862179.
    • Za Chidnim Obriyam -(Beyond The Eastern Horizon),Paris, Baltimore: Smoloskyp, 1974, 447 pp.
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
    • One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Signet Classic, 158 pp., ISBN 0-451-52310-5.
    • The Gulag Archipelago, Harper & Row, 660 pp., ISBN 0-06-080332-0.
    • The Gulag Archipelago: Two, Harper & Row, 712 pp., ISBN 0-06-080345-2.
    • The First Circle, Northwestern University Press, 580 pp., ISBN 978-0810115903.
  • Solzhenitsyn's, Shalamov's, Ginzburg's works at Lib.ru (in original Russian)
  • Istorija stalinskogo Gulaga: konec 1920-kh - pervaia polovina 1950-kh godov; sobranie dokumentov v 7 tomach, ed. by V. P. Kozlov et al., Moskva: ROSSPEN 2004-5, 7 vols. ISBN 5-8243-0604-4
  • Chabua Amirejibi, გორა მბორგალი (Gora Mborgali). Tbilisi, Georgia: Chabua, 2001, 650 pp., ISBN 99940-734-1-9.

Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Rev. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... // Pre-Gulag Years Alexander Dolgun was born on September 29th, 1926 in the Bronx, New York City, the son of Michael Dolgun, an immigrant from Poland, and his wife, Annie Dolgun. ... J. Arch Getty is a historian at the UCLA, formerly at UC Riverside. ... Yevgenia Ginzburg Yevgenia Ginzburg (November 20, 1904 - May 25, 1977) (Russian language: Евгения Семёновна Гинзбург) was a Russian historian and writer. ... Yevgenia Ginzburg Yevgenia Ginzburg (November 20, 1904 - May 25, 1977) (Russian language: Евгения Семёновна Гинзбург) was a Russian historian and writer. ... Gustaw Herling GrudziÅ„ski (b. ... Paul Gregory is an American lighting designer (see architectural lighting design). ... John H. Noble was a survivor of the Soviet Gulag who wrote about his experiences in two books after being allowed to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States. ... Varlam Shalamov Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (Варлам Тихонович Шаламов, July 1, 1907–January 17, 1982) was a Russian writer, journalist, poet, political prisoner and Gulag survivor. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ...

See also

This enormous, but far from complete list enumerates sites of Soviet forced labor camps (corrective labor camps). Most of them served mining, construction, and timber works. ... The Kolyma (pronounced kah-lee-MAH) region is located in the far northeastern area of the Russian Federation. ... In the Soviet Union, the rights of an inmate released from the Gulag would typically still be restricted for a long period of time. ... Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25, 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Memorial (Russian: Мемориал) is an international historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-USSR states with the following missions stated in its charter: To promote mature civil society and democracy based on the rule of law and thus to prevent a return to totalitarianism; To assist... Combatants Red Army, MVD, Gulag authorities Kengir resistance Commanders Sergei Yegorov, Ivan Dolgikh Kapitan Kuznetsov Strength 1,700 8,000 Casualties 40 wounded1 500–700 killed/wounded,2 37 killed,1 106 wounded1 1 Official Soviet figure 2 Prisoner-provided figure Prisoner labor at construction of Belomorkanal at a different... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... The Vietnamese Gulag is a book comparing post-war Vietnam to an archipelago of prison camps, along the lines of the description of the Soviet Union in The Gulag Archipelago. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Danube-Black Sea Canal is a canal in Romania which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube to Agigea (southern arm) and Năvodari (northern arm) on the Black Sea. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... -1... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Map of laogai in China Laogai (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), the abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao(勞動改造), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Wikisource

  • Decree about labor camps of 1919 (Russian)
  • A decree about penal labor, 1929 (Russian)

References

  1. ^ The Gulag Collection: Paintings of Nikolai Getman.
  2. ^ Anne Applebaum — Inside the Gulag
  3. ^ Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened
  4. ^ The National Archives Learning Curve
  5. ^ Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps, by Anne Applebaum
  6. ^ Gulag from InfoPlease.com
  7. ^ a b Anne Applebaum. GULAG: a history (HTML) (English). Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  8. ^ The Other Killing Machine, The New York Times.
  9. ^ Stalin's forgotten victims stuck in the gulag, Telegraph.
  10. ^ http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_gulag2.html
  11. ^ Often one may find statements that Soviet POW landed in gulag after the release, which is a confusion with two other types of camps. During and after the World War II freed prisoners of war were placed special "filtration" camps. Of these, by 1944 over 90% were cleared and about 8% were arrested or sent to penal battalions. In 1944 they were sent directly to reserve military formations to be cleared by NKVD there. Further, in 1945 about 100 filtration camps were set for repatriated Ostarbeiter, POW, and other displaced persons. which processed over 4,000,000 people. By 1946, 80% civilians and 20% of POW were freed, 5% of civilians and 43% of POW (re)drafted, 10% civilians and 22% of POW sent to labor battalions, and 2% of civilians and 15% of POW transferred to NKVD, i.e., to Gulag. — (“Военно-исторический журнал” (“Military-Historical Magazine”), 1997, №5. page 32)
  12. ^ a b http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_organy1.html
  13. ^ Antony Barnett (2004-2-1). Revealed: the gas chamber horror of North Korea's gulag (English). Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  14. ^ D.J. Dallin and B.I. Nicolayesky, Forced Labour in Soviet Russia, London 1948, p. 153.
  15. ^ See, e.g., Jakobson, Michael. Origins of the GULag: The Soviet Prison Camp System 1917–34. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1993), p. 88.
  16. ^ See, e.g., Ivanova, Galina M. Labor Camp Socialism: The Gulag in the Totalitarian System. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000), p. 70 (and, in fact, almost all of Chapter 2).
  17. ^ Cf, e.g., Istorija stalinskogo Gulaga: konec 1920-kh - pervaia polovina 1950-kh godov; sobranie dokumentov v 7 tomakh, ed. by V. P. Kozlov et al., Moskva: ROSSPEN 2004, vol. 4: Naselenie GULAGa
  18. ^ Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 P.146
  19. ^ Project In Posterum [1]
  20. ^ a b c http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_gulag1.html
  21. ^ Mark Elliott. "The United States and Forced Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 1944-47," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 2 (June, 1973), pp. 253-275.
  22. ^ Repatriation -- The Dark Side of World War II
  23. ^ Forced Repatriation to the Soviet Union: The Secret Betrayal
  24. ^ The warlords: Joseph Stalin
  25. ^ Remembrance (Zeithain Memorial Grove)
  26. ^ Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
  27. ^ Sorting Pieces of the Russian Past
  28. ^ Patriots ignore greatest brutality
  29. ^ Joseph Stalin killer file
  30. ^ Leonid Borodkin and Simon Ertz 'Forced Labour and the Need for Motivation: Wages and Bonuses in the Stalinist Camp System', Comparative Economic Studies, June 2005, Vol.47, Iss. 2, pp. 418–436.
  31. ^ "Demographic Losses Due to Repressions", by Anatoly Vishnevsky, Director of the Center for Human Demography and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, (Russian)
  32. ^ "The History of the GULAG", by Oleg V.Khlevniuk
  33. ^ Prosecuting the Gulag, Moscow Times, January 21, 2005, retrieved 18 January 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Penal battalion, penal company, etc. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ... Labour battalions were a form of alternative service or unfree labor in various countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
ГУЛАГ
  • Exhibit
  • GULAG: Many Days, Many Lives, Online Exhibit, Center for History and New Media, George Mason University
  • Gulag: Forced Labor Camps, Online Exhibition, Open Society Archives
  • Map of Gulag
  • Map of labour camps all over the USSR
  • Virtual Gulag Museum
  • Camps of Terror, Often Overlooked, Michael Mcfaul, New York Times, June 11, 2003
  • The Economics of Forced Labour: The Soviet Gulag (ed. by Paul Gregory, Valery Lazarev), Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2003
  • Gulag Photo album
  • The Gulag Collection: Paintings by Former Prisoner Nikolai Getman
  • Gulag prisoners at work, 1936-1937 Photoalbum at NYPL Digital Gallery
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: "Saving the Nation Is the Utmost Priority for the State" Moscow News, May 5, 2006
  • GULAG 113, Canadian film about Estonians in the GULAG
  • Gulag Collection of publications and photo about Gulag by IPV News (Russian). However, correctness of the site's contents is disputed [2] (Russian). See discussion.
  • Solovetsky camp
  • The GULAG, Revelations from the Russian Archives at Library of Congress
  • The introduction to the Book Gulag by Anne Baum
  • Долгий руский плен (Russian)
  • Zoltan Szalkai, Hungarian filmmaker's homepage

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia’s most successful independent English-language publication newspaper. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
gulag.hu (422 words)
Istvan Toth /1926-1982/ was convicted by the 40th Red Army Court in his own country on the basis of Soviet civil law.
My father's sentence was 25 years at corrective hard labor in the Soviet Gulag-in a gold mine of the infamous Kolyma region which became a synonym of brutality, violence and trampled destinies.
Some prison gangs were given tacit approval by the guards to terrorize, rape, beat and dehumanize other prisoners.
Anne Applebaum -- Gulag: A History Intro (9506 words)
Even more broadly, ";Gulag" has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the "meat-grinder": the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths.
The Gulag had antecedents in Czarist Russia, in the forced-labor brigades that operated in Siberia from the seventeenth century to the beginning of the twentieth.
Properly speaking, the Gulag belongs to the history of the Soviet Union; to the international as well as the Russian history of prisons and exile; and to the particular intellectual climate of continental Europe in the mid-twentieth century, which also produced the Nazi concentration camps in Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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