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Encyclopedia > GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development
GUAM redirects here. See Guam for the Pacific island territory.
     GUAM members      Former GUAM members      The rest of the CIS

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Azerbaijani: GUAM; Ukrainian: ГУАМ; Georgian: სუამი) is a regional organization of four CIS states: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. The group is sometimes seen as a way of countering the influence of Russia in the area and a strategy backed by the United States.[1] However, the GUAM leaders repetitiously and officially dismiss such claims and declare their strong willingness to develop close friendly relations with Russia. Moreover, Azerbaijan, the group's main energy power, managed to avoid any controversies with Russia in recent years. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1356x928, 61 KB) Updated to reflect Uzbekistans departure. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1356x928, 61 KB) Updated to reflect Uzbekistans departure. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Though at one point the GUAM was generally considered to have stagnated, recent developments have caused speculation on the possible revival of the organization.


In 1999, the organisation was renamed GUUAM due to the membership of Uzbekistan, which however withdrew from the organisation in May 5, 2005, causing the restoration of the original name. Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 22 to May 23, 2006, Ukraine and Azerbaijan announced plans to further increase the GUAM member relations by renaming the organization GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development and establishing its headquarters in the Ukrainian capital.[2] Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev will be elected as the first secretary general of the organization. The other members said this was a remarkable step and development. The summit participants are also expected to adopt GUAM by-laws, a declaration and a communiqué. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Ä°lham HeydÉ™r oÄŸlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ...


On May 30, 2006 the Ukrainian Defense Ministry announced plans to establish GUAM peacekeeping forces.[3] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Ukrainian postage stamp commemorating the GUAM Summit held in Kiev, May 22 to May 23, 2006.

Cooperation between Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova started with the GUAM consultative forum, established on October 10, 1997, in Strasbourg and named after the initial letters of each of those countries. In April 1999, Uzbekistan also joined, changing the name of the grouping to GUUAM. Image File history File links GUAM_Summit_2006. ... Image File history File links GUAM_Summit_2006. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


A summit in Yalta on June 6 to June 7, 2001, was accompanied by the signing of GUUAM's charter, which formalized the organization. Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 2002, Uzbekistan however announced that it planned to withdraw from the organization, and following this announcement started to ignore GUUAM summits and meetings. Also see: 2002 (number). ...


In the following years the grouping was generally considered to have stagnated: Among other things, the 2004 meeting in Yalta was only attended by two of the five leaders while the GUUAM official website still showed the old Georgian flag and listed Uzbekistan as a member. Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The official flag of Georgia is the five-cross flag, restored to official use on January 14, 2004 after a break of some 500 years. ...


However the recent series of "color revolutions" in Georgia and Ukraine, as well as a perceived pro-Western and anti-Russian shift in the political agenda of the Moldovan Communist governing party, followed by increased cooperation and coordination between these three countries, has led many to speculate on the possible revival of GUUAM.[4] Color revolutions or Flower revolutions are the names given collectively to a series of related movements that developed in post-communist societies in Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, and are possibly spreading elsewhere including some places in the Middle East. ...


The most recent summit of GUUAM took place in Chişinău, Moldova, on April 22, 2005. The president of Uzbekistan, Islom Karimov failed to attend, as did the president of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who had been invited as an observer. The president of Romania, Traian Băsescu, and of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus, both participated as observers, as did the US Department of State special representative for Eurasian conflicts, Steven Mann, and the OSCE Secretary General Ján Kubiš. The Russian ambassador in Chişinău criticized the fact that Russia was not invited to attend.[5] Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan, said after the summit: "Our organization is emerging as a powerful force, participating in resolving problems in the Caspian-Black Sea region" while the president of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko, said that a new page had been written in the history of the organization.[6] Status Municipality Founded 1436 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] - density 1,114 inh/km² - rank 1st Localities (total): 35 - cities 7 - communes 12 - unincorporated 16 Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Council 51 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 16 - Liberal Party (Moldova... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Presidents of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov (1991 - present) Last election See also Politics of Uzbekistan Categories: | | ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1991. ... Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski ( ; born November 15, 1954) is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... President Valdas Adamkus Valdas Adamkus (born Valdemaras Adamkevičius on November 3, 1926) is the current President of the Republic of Lithuania. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Eurasia Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² (or about 10. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Ján KubiÅ¡ (12 November 1952, Bratislava) is a Minister of Foreign Affairs of Slovakia. ... Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Ä°lham HeydÉ™r oÄŸlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the current President of Azerbaijan. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ...


On May 24, 2005, shortly after the Andijan massacre, Uzbekistan finally gave an official notice of withdrawal from the organization to the Moldovan presidency, thus changing the group's name back to GUAM. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan reached a head when Uzbek troops fired into a crowd of protesters in the eastern city of Andijan, killing an estimated 400 to 1000 people on 13 May, in what has been termed the Andijan massacre. ...


On April 21, the GUAM countries formed a common front on several issues in the CIS Foreign Ministers Council that was held at that time in Moscow. Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova lodged complaints against restriction imposed by Russia against some of their national products. At the same time, the four GUAM countries made a proposal to discuss the "frozen conflicts" of Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia (which remain under de facto Russian military control) and Nagorno-Karabakh. Lastly the other three GUAM nations supported Ukraine's proposal to condemn the Holodomor, the 1930s famine in Ukraine, as a genocide.[7] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933) or Holodomor was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or...


Members

     GUAM member state      EU member state      EEA member or EU candidate state      EurAsEC member state

Image File history File links EUandGUAMandEurasec. ... Image File history File links EUandGUAMandEurasec. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ...

Organizational structure

GUAM is organized as follows:

Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Tourists on Oahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Issues

One of the issues associated with GUAM is competition between two proposed transportation corridors to better link Europe with Asia. Russia, Azerbaijan, and Iran have already been through rounds of negotiation on their plan, the North-South Transportation Corridor (INSTC); neighbouring countries (formerly, but no longer with the understandable exception of Armenia) have expressed enthusiasm as well. This corridor would travel along the border between Russia and the Baltic states of the European Union, then continue south through Ukraine, The USA would prefer the critical transportation corridor bypass both Russia and Iran. The plan proposed to GUAM by the United States crosses both the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18...


Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko said at the summit that the new charter set objectives for cooperation, such as promoting democratic values, ensuring stable development, enhancing international and regional security and stepping up European integration.[8] Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ...


Critics point out that only Georgia and Ukraine have shown a deep commitment to democratic values. Moldova's 2000 elections were won by Communist Party of Moldova who have, according to same critics, realigned their foreign policy towards Europe shortly before the parliamentary election held in March of 2005. Parliament building The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is a unicameral assembly with 101 seats. ... The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Comparison

Most active regional blocs
as of 2004
Regional bloc1 Area (km²) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
states1
in millions per capita
Agadir 1,703,910 126,066,286 513,674 4,075 4
AU 29,797,500 897,548,804 1,515,000 1,896 53
ASEAN 4,400,000 553,900,000 2,172,000 4,044 10
CACM 422,614 37,816,598 159,536 4,219 5
CARICOM 462,344 14,565,083 64,219 4,409 (14+1)3
CCASG / GCC 2,285,844 35,869,438 536,223 14,949 6
CEFTA 298,148 28,929,682 222,041 7,675 (7+1)3
EU 4,325,675 496,198,605 12,025,415 24,235 27
EurAsEC 20,789,100 208,067,618 1,689,137 8,118 6
EFTA 529,600 12,233,467 471,547 38,546 4
GUAM 810,506 63,764,600 456,173 7,154 4
NAFTA 21,588,638 430,495,039 15,279,000 35,491 3
PARTA 528,151 7,810,905 23,074 2,954 (14+2)3
SAARC 5,136,740 1,467,255,669 4,074,031 2,777 8
Unasur / Unasul 17,339,153 370,158,470 2,868,430 7,749 12
UN and countries
for reference2
Area (km²) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Units4
in millions per capita
UN 133,178,011 6,411,682,270 55,167,630 8,604 192
Brazil 8,514,877 188,078,261 1,594,482 9,108 27
Canada 9,984,670 32,507,874 1,165,000 35,200 13
India 3,287,590 1,102,600,000 4,042,000 3,700 35
Japan 377,873 128,085,000 4,220,000 33,100 47
PR China5 9,596,960 1,306,847,624 10,000,000 7,600 33
Russia 17,075,200 143,782,338 1,723,000 12,100 89
USA 9,631,418 300,000,000 12,980,000 43,500 50
Source: CIA World Factbook 2005, IMF WEO Database.
Legend
     smallest value among the blocs compared     largest value among the blocs compared

Footnotes
1 Including data only for full and most active members.
2 Including the largest five countries by area, population and GDP (PPP), but not #4 in population or #5 in GDP (PPP).
3 Including non-sovereign autonomous areas of other states.
4 Members or administrative divisions.
5 Data for the People's Republic of China does not include Hong Kong, Macau, or regions administered
   by
the Republic of China (Taiwan).
A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Map of the Agadir Agreement Members It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Barcelona Conference. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Spanish(Eq. ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,465,5001 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... The Central American Common Market (abbreviated CACM - in Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano, abbreviated MCCA) is an economic trade organization between five nations of Central America. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... It has been suggested that GCC - Gulf Cooperation Council be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Europe indicating current CEFTA members Type Trade agreement Member states 7 Balkan states, Kosovo Establishment  -  Signed 21 December 1992  Area  -  Total 298. ... Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... Secretariats Mexico City, Ottawa and Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French and Spanish Membership Canada, Mexico and the United States Establishment  -  Formation 1 January 1994  Website http://www. ... The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental consultative organ which aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean and represent their interests. ...  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912...

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See also

This article deals with the politics of the European continent. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Community of Democratic Choice The Community of Democratic Choice is an international organization established on December 2, 2005 by nine states of Eastern Europe in Kiev. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... The Community for Democracy and Human Rights is a quasi-organization formed on June 14, 2006 in Sokhumi by the leaders of the unrecognized governments of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria - Sergey Bagapsh, Eduard Kokoity and Igor Smirnov. ... Black Sea Forum member states  members  observers The inaugural session of the Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue (BSF) was held on June 4-6, 2006 in Bucharest. ... The Azerbaijan Armed Forces consists of four military branches: the army, air force, navy, air defense force and four sub-branches the national guard, interior guard, border guard and the coast guard. ... // The Georgian armed forces comprise of 28,000 troops, about half are conscripts. ... Organization Ukraines military consists of Armed Forces of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Збройні сили України, ЗСУ, Zbroyni Syly Ukrainy) and few other independent militarized insititutions. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later context. ... TRACECA - an international organisation of economic cooperation. ...

References

  1. ^ Ziyadov, Taleh (July 12, 2006). The Battle of Forums: Transformation of Regional Organizations in Eurasia. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  2. ^ Foreign Ministers of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova Discussed the Upcoming Guam Summit. InfoMarket. Moldova Azi (May 19, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  3. ^ Ukraine suggests setting up GUAM peacekeeping unit. Today.az (May 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  4. ^ Axis of Evil Shaping Against Moscow. Kommersant (March 3, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  5. ^ Itar-Tass article. Itar-Tass. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  6. ^ GUAM Leaders Hail Chisinau Summit. Civil Georgia (April 22, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  7. ^ CIS Split at Ministerial Conference. Eurasia Daily Monitor (April 25, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  8. ^ Russian Deputy FM: "GUAM not anti-Russian group". Today.az (May 23, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.

is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерса́нтъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ITAR-TASS (ИТАР-ТАСС), Information Telegraph Agency of Russia, is the major news agency of the Russian Federation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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