FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > GNU Lesser General Public License

GNU Lesser General Public License


The GNU logo
Author: Free Software Foundation
Version: 3
Copyright on the license: Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Publication date: 2007-06-29
Debian approved: Yes
Free Software: Yes
OSI approved: Yes
GPL compatible: Yes
Copyleft: Yes
Linking from code with a different license allowed: Yes

The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. It was designed as a compromise between the strong-copyleft GNU General Public License and permissive licenses such as the BSD licenses and the MIT License. The GNU Lesser General Public License was written in 1991 (and updated in 1999) by Richard Stallman, with legal advice from Eben Moglen. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... The Free Software Definition is a definition published by Free Software Foundation (FSF) for what constitutes free software. ... An open-source license is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and redistribution without having to pay the original author. ... Licences of software packages can contain contradictory requirements, rendering it impossible to combine source code from such packages in order to create new software packages. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Eben Moglen is a professor of law and legal history at Columbia University, and is the founder, Director-Counsel and Chairman of Software Freedom Law Center, whose client list includes numerous pro bono clients, such as the Free Software Foundation. ...


The LGPL places copyleft restrictions on the program itself but does not apply these restrictions to other software that merely links with the program. There are, however, certain other restrictions on this software. The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ...


The LGPL is primarily intended for software libraries[citation needed], although it is also used by some stand-alone applications, most notably Mozilla and OpenOffice.org. Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... OpenOffice. ...

Contents

Differences from the GPL

The main difference between the GPL and the LGPL is that the latter can be linked to (in the case of a library, 'used by') a non-(L)GPLed program, which may be free software or proprietary software [1]. This non-(L)GPLed program can then be distributed under any chosen terms if it is not a derivative work. If it is a derivative work, then the terms must allow "modification for the customer's own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications." Whether a work that uses an LGPL program is a derivative work or not is a legal issue. A standalone executable that dynamically links to a library is generally accepted as not being a derivative work. It would be considered a "work that uses the library" and paragraph 5 of the LGPL applies. This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ...

A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a "work that uses the Library". Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License.

Essentially, it must be possible for the software to be linked with a newer version of the LGPL-covered program. The most commonly used method for doing so is to use "a suitable shared library mechanism for linking". Alternatively, a statically linked library is allowed if either source code or linkable object files are provided. In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ...


One feature of the LGPL is that one can convert any LGPLed piece of software into a GPLed piece of software (section 3 of the license). This feature is useful for direct reuse of LGPLed code in GPLed libraries and applications, or if one wants to create a version of the code that software companies cannot use in proprietary software products.


Choosing to license a library under the GPL or the LGPL

The former name of "GNU Library General Public License" gave some people the impression that the FSF wanted all libraries to use the LGPL and all programs to use the GPL. In February 1999 Richard Stallman wrote the essay Why you shouldn't use the Library GPL for your next library explaining why this was not the case, and that one should not necessarily use the LGPL for libraries.

Which license is best for a given library is a matter of strategy, and it depends on the details of the situation. At present, most GNU libraries are covered by the Library GPL, and that means we are using only one of these two strategies [allowing/disallowing proprietary programs to use a library] , neglecting the other. So we are now seeking more libraries to release under the ordinary GPL.

Contrary to popular impression, however, this does not mean that the FSF deprecates the LGPL, but merely says that it should not be used for all libraries — the same essay goes on to say: In computer software standards and documentation, deprecation is the gradual phasing-out of a software or programming language feature. ...

Using the ordinary GPL is not advantageous for every library. There are reasons that can make it better to use the Lesser GPL in certain cases.

Indeed, Stallman and the FSF sometimes advocate licenses even less restrictive than the LGPL as a matter of strategy (to maximize the freedom of users). A prominent example was Stallman's endorsement of the use of a BSD-style license by the Vorbis project for its libraries [2]. The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ...


Programming languages specificity

The license uses terminology which is mainly intended for applications written in the C programming language or its family. Franz Inc. published its own preamble to the license to clarify terminology in the Lisp programming language context. LGPL with this preamble is sometimes referred as LLGPL[3]. C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Franz Inc. ... “LISP” redirects here. ...


In addition, Ada has a special feature, generics, that may use the MGPL license. Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... The GNU logo The GNAT Modified General Public License (short: Modified GPL, MGPL) is a version of the GNU General Public License specificly modified for the generic feature found in the Ada programming language. ...


LGPL regarding inheritance

Some concern has arisen about the suitability of object-oriented classes in LGPL'd software being inherited by non-(L)GPL code. Apparently these concerns are unfounded. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


To clarify these, the FSF FAQ[4] states:

The LGPL contains no special provisions for inheritance, because none are needed. Inheritance creates derivative works in the same way as traditional linking, and the LGPL permits this type of derivative work in the same way as it permits ordinary function calls.

See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... A free software licence is a software licence which grants recipients rights to modify and redistribute the software which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law. ... “GFDL” redirects here. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... The GNU logo The GNAT Modified General Public License (short: Modified GPL, MGPL) is a version of the GNU General Public License specificly modified for the generic feature found in the Ada programming language. ... Some free software projects, notably GNU Guile,[1] the run-time libraries of GNAT,[1] and GNU Classpath,[2] distribute code under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) but with an additional section known as the GPL linking exception. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Licenses - GNU GPL, GNU LGPL, GNU FDL, General Public License, Lesser General Public License, Free Documentation ... (1434 words)
The GNU Free Documentation License is a form of copyleft intended for use on a manual, textbook or other document to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifications, either commercially or noncommercially.
The GNU Free Documentation License text in these formats: HTML, plain text, Docbook, Texinfo, and LaTeX These documents are not formatted for standalone publishing, and are intended to be included in another document.
In the GNU Project, the specific distribution terms that we use are contained in the GNU General Public License, the GNU Lesser General Public License and the GNU Free Documentation License.
GNU Lesser General Public License - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (647 words)
It was designed as a compromise between the strong-copyleft GNU General Public License and simple permissive licenses such as the BSD licenses and the MIT License.
GNU itself is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix".
The GNU Lesser General Public License was written in 1991 (and updated in 1999) by Richard Stallman, with legal advice from Eben Moglen.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m