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GNU

Screenshot from a GNU-based OS
Website: http://www.gnu.org/
Company/
developer:
GNU Project
OS family: Unix-like
Source model: Free software
Kernel type: Microkernel
License: GNU General Public License and other free software licenses
Working state: current

GNU (pronounced /gnu/ ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. Its name is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix, which was chosen because its design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being free software and by not containing any Unix code.[1] GNU was founded by Richard Stallman and was the original focus of the Free Software Foundation (FSF). Image File history File links Heckert_GNU_white. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 192 KB) Summary This is a screenshot I took of my desktop. ... A Web site (or colloquially, Website) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on a Web server, usually accessible via the Internet or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP... It has been suggested that software publisher be merged into this article or section. ... A software developer is a person who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming or a specialty of project managing. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links En-gnu. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (often abbreviated as RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is a software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


The project to develop GNU is known as the GNU Project, and programs released under the auspices of the GNU Project are called GNU packages or GNU programs. The system's basic components include the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), the GNU Binary Utilities (binutils), the bash shell, the GNU C library (glibc), and GNU Core Utilities (coreutils). The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The GNU Binutils is a collection of programming tools for the manipulation of object code in various object file formats. ... This article is about the Unix shell. ... Glibc is the GNU projects C standard library. ... The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing many of the basic tools such as cat, ls, and rm needed for Unix-like operating systems. ...


As of 2007, GNU is being actively developed, though its official kernel, GNU Hurd, is incomplete and not all GNU components work with it. For this reason, most GNU users use the third-party Linux kernel. While Linux has not been officially adopted as the kernel of GNU, GNU does officially include other third party software such as the X.Org release of the X Window System and the TeX typesetting system. Many GNU programs have also been ported to numerous other operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, BSD variants, Solaris and Mac OS. A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... The GNU Hurd (usually referred to as the Hurd) is a computer operating system kernel. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ... KDE 3. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The GNU General Public License (GPL), the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) were written for GNU, but are also used by many unrelated projects. The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... Bold text // “GFDL” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The plan for the GNU operating system was publicly announced on September 27, 1983, on the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups by Richard Stallman.[2] Software development began on January 5, 1984, when Stallman quit his job at Massachusetts Institute of Technology so that they could not claim ownership or interfere with distributing GNU as free software. According to Stallman, the name was inspired by various plays on words, including the song The Gnu.[3] September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (often abbreviated as RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is a software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Gnu (sometimes called Im a Gnu or The Gnu Song) is a humorous song, by Flanders and Swann. ...


The goal was to bring a wholly free software operating system into existence. Stallman wanted computer users to be free, as most were in the 1960s and 1970s: free to study the source code of the software they use, free to share the software with other people, free to modify the behaviour of the software, and free to publish their modified versions of the software. This philosophy was published in March 1985 as the GNU Manifesto. The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman at the beginning of the GNU Project, to ask for participation and support. ...


Much of the needed software had to be written from scratch, but existing compatible free software components were used. Two examples were the TeX typesetting system, and the X Window System. Most of GNU has been written by volunteers; some in their spare time, some paid by companies, educational institutions, and other non-profit organizations. In October 1985, Stallman set up the Free Software Foundation (FSF). In the late 1980s and 1990s, the FSF hired software developers to write the software needed for GNU. TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... KDE 3. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


Richard Stallman's experience with the Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS), an early operating system written in assembly language that became obsolete due to discontinuation of PDP-10, the computer architecture that ITS was written for, led to a decision that a portable system was necessary.[4] It was thus decided that GNU would be mostly compatible with Unix. At the time, Unix was (and is) a popular proprietary operating system. The design of Unix had proven to be solid, and it was modular, so it could be reimplemented piece by piece. ITS, the Incompatible Timesharing System, was an early, revolutionary, and influential MIT time-sharing operating system; it was developed principally by the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT, with some help from Project MAC. ITS development was initiated in the late 1960s by those (the majority of the MIT AI Lab... An assembly language is a low-level language used in the writing of computer programs. ... The PDP-10 was a computer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for Programmed Data Processor model 10. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many... Portable communications devices refer to hand-held or wearable devices. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


As GNU gained prominence, interested businesses began contributing to development or selling GNU software and technical support. The most prominent and successful of these was Cygnus Solutions, now part of Red Hat. Cygnus Solutions, originally Cygnus Support, was founded in 1989 by John Gilmore, Michael Tiemann and David Henkel-Wallace to provide commercial support for free software. ... Red Hat, Inc. ...


Design and implementation

The initial plan for GNU was to be mostly Unix-compatible, while adding enhancements where they were useful. By 1990, the GNU system had an extensible text editor (Emacs), a very successful optimizing compiler (GCC), and most of the core libraries and utilities of a standard Unix distribution. As the goal was to make a whole free operating system exist - rather than necessarily to write a whole free operating system - Stallman tried to use existing free software when possible. In the 1980s there was not much free software, but there was the X Window System for graphical display, the TeX typesetting system, and the Mach micro kernel. These components were integrated into GNU. Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... Emacs is a class of text editors, possessing an extensive set of features, that are popular with computer programmers and other technically proficient computer users. ... This article is about the computing term. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... KDE 3. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Mach may refer to: Ernst Mach Mach number, as a measure of speed inertial mass GNU Mach The microkernel on which GNU Hurd is based Mach kernel, an operating systems kernel technology used in Mac OS X Mach band, an optical illusion Mach Five, the name of the car in...


The main component still missing was the kernel. In the GNU Manifesto, Stallman had mentioned that "an initial kernel exists but many more features are needed to emulate Unix." He was referring to TRIX, a remote procedure call kernel developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose authors had decided to distribute it as free software, and was compatible with Version 7 Unix. In December 1986, work had started on modifying this kernel. However, the developers eventually decided it was unusable as a starting point, primarily because it only ran on "an obscure, expensive 68000 box" and would therefore have to be ported to other architectures before it could be used. Seventh Edition Unix, also called Version 7 Unix, Version 7 or just V7, was an important early release of the Unix operating system. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ...


The GNU Project's early plan was to adapt the BSD 4.4-Lite kernel for GNU. Thomas Bushnell, the initial Hurd architect said in hindsight that "It is now perfectly obvious to me that this would have succeeded splendidly and the world would be a very different place today".[5] However, due to a lack of cooperation from the Berkeley programmers, Richard Stallman by 1988, the Mach message-passing kernel being developed at Carnegie Mellon University was being considered instead, although its release as free software was delayed until 1990 while its developers worked to remove code copyrighted to AT&T. Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (often abbreviated as RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is a software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. ... Mach is an operating system kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computation. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... AT&T Inc. ...


The design of the kernel was to be GNU's largest departure from "traditional" Unix. GNU's kernel was to be a multi-server microkernel, and was to consist of a set of programs called servers that offers the same functionality as the traditional Unix kernel. Since the Mach microkernel, by design, provided just the low-level kernel functionality, the GNU Project had to develop the higher-level parts of the kernel, as a collection of user programs. Initially, this collection was to be called Alix, but developer Thomas Bushnell later preferred the name Hurd, so the Alix name was moved to a subsystem and eventually dropped completely.[6] Eventually, development progress of the Hurd became very slow due to ongoing technical issues.[7] Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... Thomas Bushnell is a Gregorian friar, formerly living in Massachusetts and now in southern California. ...


Despite an optimistic announcement by Stallman in 2002[8] predicting a release of GNU/Hurd, further development and design are still required. The latest release of the Hurd is version 0.2. It is fairly stable, suitable for use in non-critical applications. As of 2005, Hurd is in slow development, and is now the official kernel of the GNU system. There is also a project working on porting the GNU system to the kernels of FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenSolaris. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around the Solaris Operating System technology. ...


With the release of the Linux kernel, the primary consumer of GNU's userland components became the Linux operating system, prompting the coining of the term GNU/Linux. The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that Criticism of Linux be merged into this article or section. ...

See also: GNU/Linux naming controversy

Quite possibly the gayest image ever made by anyone, ever. ...

Copyright, licenses, and stewardship

The GNU Project requires that contributors assign the copyright for GNU packages to the Free Software Foundation,[9] although exceptions have been made in the case of MULE,[10] and large parts of GNOME. Most GNU packages are licensed under the GPL, while a few use the LGPL, and an even smaller amount use other free software licenses. A barren of mules. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ...


Owning the copyright for the software allows FSF to enforce the licenses and to make changes in the licenses.[11]


Ordinarily, copyright law prohibits people from copying and distributing a work, but FSF wrote a license for the GNU software which grant recipients permission to copy and redistribute the software. For most of the 80s, each GNU package had its own license - the Emacs General Public License, the GCC General Public License, etc. In 1989, FSF published a single license they could use for all their software, and which could be used by non-GNU projects: the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ...


This license is now used by most GNU programs, as well as a large number of free software programs that are not part of the GNU project; it is the most commonly used free software license. It gives all recipients of a program the right to run, copy, modify and distribute it, while forbidding them from imposing further restrictions on any copies they distribute. This idea is often referred to as copyleft. Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ...


In 1991, the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) was written for certain libraries. 1991 also saw the release of version 2 of the GNU GPL. The GNU Free Documentation License (FDL), for documentation, followed in 2000. GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... Bold text // “GFDL” redirects here. ...


Most GNU software is distributed under the GPL. A minority is distributed under the LGPL, and a handful of packages are distributed under permissive free software licences.[12] Permissive free software licences are software licences for a copyrighted work that offer many of the same freedoms as releasing a work to the public domain. ...


GNU software

Main article: List of GNU packages

Prominent components of the GNU system include the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), the GNU C Library (glibc), the GNU Emacs text editor, and the GNOME desktop environment. This is an incomplete list of the software packages developed for or maintained by the Free Software Foundation for GNU, a free UNIX-compatible operating system whose development started in 1984. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... Glibc is the GNU projects C standard library. ... GNU Emacs is one of the two most popular versions of Emacs (see also XEmacs). ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Desktop metaphor,Paper paradigm be merged into this article or section. ...


Many GNU programs have been ported to a multitude of other operating systems, including various proprietary platforms such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. They are often installed on proprietary UNIX systems as a replacement for proprietary utilities, however, this is often a hot topic among enthusiasts, as the motive for developing these programs was to replace those systems with free software, not to enhance them. These GNU programs have in contested cases been tested to show as being more reliable than their proprietary Unix counterparts.[13] Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


A list of packages that are well known in the free software community includes: // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ...

As of 2007-02-17, there are a total of 319 GNU packages hosted on the official GNU development site.[14] System software is a generic term referring to any computer software that is an essential part of the computer system. ... GNU bison is a free parser generator computer program written for the GNU project, and available for virtually all common operating systems. ... A compiler-compiler or parser generator is a utility for generating the source code of a parser, interpreter or compiler from an annotated language description in the form of a grammar (usually in BNF) plus code that is associated with each of the rules of the grammar that should be... yacc is a computer program that serves as the standard parser generator on Unix systems. ... This article is about the Unix shell. ... Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... The Binary File Descriptor library, most commonly seen as just BFD, is the GNU projects main mechanism for the portable manipulation of object files in a variety of formats. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... GNU Classpath is a project aiming to create a free implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language. ... Java is an object-oriented applications programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. ... Coreutils is a package of GNU software containing many of the basic tools such as cat, ls, and rm needed for Unix-like operating systems to function. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... LS may refer to: .ls, the Internet top-level domain for Lesotho Jet2. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Emacs is a class of text editors, possessing an extensive set of features, that are popular with computer programmers and other technically proficient computer users. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... Glibc is the GNU projects C standard library. ... The C standard library is a now-standardised collection of header files and library routines used to implement common operations, such as input/output and string handling, in the C programming language. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... The correct title of this article is . ... In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. ... The GNU toolchain is a blanket term given to the programming tools produced by the GNU project. ... The GNU Binutils is a collection of programming tools for the manipulation of object code in various object file formats. ... An assembly language is a low-level language used in the writing of computer programs. ... Figure of the linking process, where object files and static libraries are assembled into a new library or executable. ... The GNU build system is a suite of tools produced by the GNU project that assist in making packages portable to many UNIX-like systems. ... Flow diagram of autoconf and automake Autoconf is a tool for producing shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of UNIX-like systems. ... Automake is a programming tool that produces portable makefiles for use by the make program, used in compiling software. ... GNU Libtool is a GNU programming tool from the GNU build system used for creating portable software libraries. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... This article is about the computing term. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language with low-level facilities. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... Java is an object-oriented applications programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. ... The GNU Debugger, usually called just GDB, is the standard debugger for the GNU software system. ... A debugger is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs. ... GNU Screen is a free terminal multiplexer developed by the GNU Project. ... GNU Texinfo is a free computer program for generating documentation in multiple formats from a single source file. ... GNU Wget is a free software program that implements simple and powerful content retrieval from web servers and is part of the GNU project. ... GNUnet is a framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking. ... The GNU Hurd (usually referred to as the Hurd) is a computer operating system kernel. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The GNU Image Manipulation Program, or GIMP, is a raster graphics editor application with some support for vector graphics. ... Gnash is a project which aims to create a player and browser plugin for the Adobe Flash file format which is free software, replacing the proprietary software niche currently occupied by Adobe Flash Player. ... Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... The GNU Multiple-Precision Library, also known as GMP, is a free library for arbitrary precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers. ... Arbitrary precision mathematical libraries allow computer programs to perform calculations and then specify how many digits will be used for the result. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... GNU LilyPond is a free software program for engraving sheet music for all common operating systems; it is written in C++ and assembled by a Scheme library (GNU Guile) which also allows user customization and extension[1]. It uses a simple text notation for music, which is then compiled into... For other uses of the word octave see Octave (disambiguation) Octave is a free computer program for performing numerical computations, which is mostly compatible with MATLAB. It is part of the GNU project. ... MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and programming language. ... The GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for the PGP suite of cryptographic software, released under the GNU General Public License. ... PGP Encryption (Pretty Good Privacy) is a computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication. ... GNU Robots is a computer game for programmers. ... Code using the library and the computed results In computing, GNU Scientific Library (or GSL) is a software library written in the C programming language for numerical calculations in applied mathematics and science. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... GNUstep is a free software implementation of NeXTs OpenStep Objective-C libraries (called frameworks), widget toolkit, and application development tools not only for Unix-like operating systems, but also for Microsoft Windows. ... The OPENSTEP desktop. ... The GNU Guile logo GNU Guile (first released in 1993[1]) is an interpreter/virtual machine for the Scheme programming language and modularized extensions thereof (such as POSIX system call extensions or APL array functionality, packaged as a object[2] library (libguile) so that it can be embedded in other... The Scheme programming language is a functional programming language and a dialect of Lisp. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Distributions of GNU

GNU (using Hurd) can be tried using a live CD. Gnoppix 0. ...

Bee GNU/Hurd is a GNU distribution based on the GNU Hurd kernel. ... Debian GNU/Hurd is the Debian Projects distribution of the GNU operating system (with GNU Hurd as its kernel). ... Gnoppix 0. ...

GNU variants not using the Hurd

Main article: GNU variants

GNU variants are operating systems based on GNU but not using the Hurd. ... It has been suggested that Criticism of Linux be merged into this article or section. ... GNU variants are operating systems based on GNU but not using the Hurd. ... GNU variants are operating systems based on GNU but not using the Hurd. ... Nexenta OS is a port of Debian to the OpenSolaris kernel. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around the Solaris Operating System technology. ...

References

  1. ^ The GNU Operating system. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  2. ^ (27 September 1983). "new UNIX implementation". net.usoft. (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2006-10-29.
  3. ^ Stallman explaining why the name "GNU" was chosen. FSFE. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  4. ^ Stallman describing why a Unix-like design was chosen. FSFE. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  5. ^ Peter H. Salus. The Hurd and BSDI. The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin. Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  6. ^ http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html
  7. ^ Stallman describing Hurd progress. “it took many many many years to get this kernel to run at all, and it still doesn't run well, and it looks like there may be fundamental problems with this design, which nobody knew about back in 1990.”
  8. ^ John Ribeiro (2002-03-11). Free Software Sees Gnu Loose of Linux. PC World. Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ http://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-assign.html
  12. ^ http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=225606&cid=18272276
  13. ^ http://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/pub/paradyn/technical_papers/fuzz-revisited.ps
  14. ^ http://savannah.gnu.org/stats/

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... PC World is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG. It offers advice on various aspects of PCs and related items, the Internet, and other personal-technology products and services. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Open source history is tied to three operating systems: Unix, GNU, and Linux. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... Bold text // “GFDL” redirects here. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... This is an incomplete list of the software packages developed for or maintained by the Free Software Foundation for GNU, a free UNIX-compatible operating system whose development started in 1984. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds ( ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ...

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GNU - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1888 words)
The GNU project was announced publicly on September 27, 1983, on the net.unix-wizards [1] and net.usoft newsgroups.
GNU Hurd is the set of programs or services running on top of a microkernel (GNU currently uses the GNU Mach microkernel, but efforts to port Hurd to the L4 microkernel are currently ongoing).
The "GNU" in GNU Hurd indicates that it is a part of the GNU project, while "GNU/Hurd" distinguishes it as one of the two currently available GNU systems--that is, Linux-based GNU systems (or "GNU/Linux") as opposed to Hurd-based GNU systems (or "GNU/Hurd").
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/GNU (1364 words)
The GNU system is often combined with the kernel Linux, which is not part of the GNU project, to form a completely functional operating system.
The GNU project was announced publicly on September 27, 1983, on the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups.
This license is now used by most GNU programs, as well as a large number of free software programs that are not part of the GNU project; it is one of the most commonly-used free software licenses in the world.
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