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Encyclopedia > GB 18030
Unicode
Encodings
  • UTF-7
  • UTF-8
  • CESU-8
  • UTF-16/UCS-2
  • UTF-32/UCS-4
  • UTF-EBCDIC
  • SCSU
  • Punycode
  • GB 18030
UCS
Mapping
Bi-directional text
BOM
Han unification
Unicode and HTML
Unicode and e-mail
Unicode typefaces

GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. This character set is formally called "Chinese National Standard GB 18030-2000: Information Technology -- Chinese ideograms coded character set for information interchange -- Extension for the basic set". GB abbreviates Guójiā Biāozhǔn (国家标准), which means national standard in Chinese. The standard was published by the China Standard Press, Beijing, March 17, 2000 and updated November 20, 2000. As of August 1, 2006, support for this character set is officially mandatory for all software products sold in the PRC. Due to its Unicode equivalence, GB18030 supports both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This page compares Unicode encodings. ... UTF-7 (7-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode-encoded text using a stream of ASCII characters, for example for use in Internet e-mail messages. ... UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode created by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. ... CESU-8 is a variant of UTF-8 that is described in Unicode Technical Report 26. ... In computing, UTF-16 is a variable-length (16 or 32 bits) character encoding. ... UTF-32 and UCS-4 are alternate names for a method of encoding Unicode characters, using the fixed amount of exactly 32 bits for each Unicode code point. ... UTF-EBCDIC is an encoding of Unicode that is meant to be EBCDIC friendly so that some older EBCDIC applications can handle some Unicode data. ... The Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode (SCSU) is a Unicode Technical Standard to reduce the number of bytes needed to represent text, especially if that text uses mostly characters from a small number of Unicode blocks. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ... Some writing systems of the world, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. ... A Byte Order Mark (BOM) is the character at code point U+FEFF (zero-width no-break space), when that character is used to denote the endianness of a string of UCS/Unicode characters encoded in UTF-16 or UTF-32 and/or as a marker to indicate that text... Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ... The relationship between Unicode and HTML tends to be a difficult topic for many computer professionals, document authors, and web users alike. ... Many e-mail clients are now able to use Unicode. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages, scripts from all... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ... GB2312 is the registered internet name for a key official character set of the Peoples Republic of China, used for simplified Chinese characters. ... Guóbiāo (国标) (GB) in the Peoples Republic of China is the abbreviation of Guójiā Biāozhǔn (国家标准), meaning the National Standards, or Guójiā Biāozhǔn Mǎ (国家标准&#30721... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ...


GB18030 can be considered a Unicode Transformation Format (i.e. an encoding of all Unicode code points) that maintains compatibility with a legacy character set. In other words, it is a Chinese equivalent of UTF-8 (which maintains compatibility with ASCII). Like UTF-8, GB18030 is a superset of ASCII and can represent the whole range of Unicode code points; in addition, it is also a superset of GB2312. GB18030 also maintains compatibility with GBK, Microsoft's extended version of GB2312, with the exception of the euro sign which is given a single byte code of 0x80 in Microsoft's later versions of GBK and a two byte code of A2 E3 in GB18030. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode created by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... GBK is an extension of the GB2312 character set for simplified Chinese characters, used in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ...


Part of the mapping data is from a lookup table (similarly to GBK). The rest is calculated algorithmically. Unfortunately it also inherits the bad aspects of the legacy standards it's based on (most notably needing special code to safely find ASCII characters in a GB18030 sequence).


Most major computer companies had already standardised on some version of Unicode as the primary format for use in their binary formats and OS calls. However, they mostly had only supported code points in the BMP originally defined in Unicode 1.0, which supported only 65,536 codepoints and was often encoded in 16 bits as UCS-2. The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... Unicode reserves 1,114,112 (= 220 + 216) code points, and currently assigns characters to more than 96,000 of those code points. ... In computing, UCS-2 and UTF-16 are alternative names for a 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a character encoding form that provides a way to represent a series of abstract characters from Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 as a series of 16-bit words suitable for storage or transmission...


In a move of historic significance for software supporting Unicode, the PRC decided to mandate support of certain code points outside the BMP. This means that software can no longer get away with treating characters as 16 bit fixed width entities (UCS-2). Therefore they must either process the data in a variable width format (such as UTF-8 or UTF-16), which are the most common choices, or move to a larger fixed width format (such as UCS-4 or UTF-32). Microsoft made the change from UCS-2 to UTF-16 with Windows 2000.-1... In computing, UCS-2 and UTF-16 are alternative names for a 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a character encoding form that provides a way to represent a series of abstract characters from Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 as a series of 16-bit words suitable for storage or transmission... UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode created by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. ... In computing, UTF-16 is a 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a character encoding form that provides a way to represent a series of abstract characters from Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 as a series of 16-bit words suitable for storage or transmission via data networks. ... UTF-32 and UCS-4 are alternate names for a method of encoding Unicode characters, using the fixed amount of exactly 32 bits for each Unicode code point. ... UTF-32 is a method of encoding Unicode characters, using a fixed amount of 32 bits for each character. ...

Contents

GB18030 Support

Encoding

Windows 2000 can support the GB18030 encoding if GB18030 Support Package [1] is installed. Windows XP can support it natively.


More specifically, supporting the GB18030 encoding on Windows means that Code Page 54936 is supported by MultiByteToWideChar and WideCharToMultiByte. Due to the backward compatibility of the mapping, many files in GB18030 can be actually opened successfully as the legacy Code Page 936, that is GBK, even if the Code Page 54936 is not supported. However, that is only true when the file in question does not contain any character that does not exist in the Code Page 936, including most characters belonging to non-Chinese scripts (see below for examples).


Glyphs

GB18030 Support Package contains SimSun18030.ttc, a TrueType font collection file which combines two Chinese fonts, SimSun-18030 and NSimSun-18030.


The SimSun 18030 font includes all the characters in Unicode 2.1 plus new characters found in the Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A section, but despite its name, it does not contain glyphs for all GB 18030 characters. Note that all (about a million) Unicode code points up to U+10FFFF can be encoded as GB 18030, hence “a font that fully supports GB 18030” would mean a font that contains glyphs for all Unicode characters, not only for CJK ones. HAN NOM A and HAN NOM B [2] are free fonts, which include all the characters in the Extension A and the Extension B, more exhaustive than SimSun-18030, or even than Simsun (Founder Extended), but they don't support all code points defined in Unicode 5.0.0 either.


Technical details

The four byte scheme can be thought of as consisting of two units, each of two bytes. Each unit has a similar format to a GBK two byte character but with a range of values for the second byte of 0x30-0x39 (the ASCII codes for decimal digits). The first byte has the range 0x81 to 0xFE, as before. This means that a string search routine that is safe for GBK should also be reasonably safe for GB18030 (in much the same way that a basic byte-oriented search routine is reasonably safe for EUC). Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A communication is byte oriented or character oriented when the transmitted information is grouped into bytes. ... Extended Unix Coding Equipment under Control IEC 61508 ...


This gives a total of 1,587,600 (126*10*126*10) possible 4 byte sequences, which is easily sufficient to cover Unicode's 1,112,046 (17 × 65536 - 2048 surrogates - 18 noncharacters) code points. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...


Unfortunately, to further complicate matters there are no simple rules to translate between a 4 byte sequence and its corresponding code point. Instead, codes are allocated sequentially (with the first byte containing the most significant part and the last the least significant part) only to Unicode code points that are not mapped in any other manner. For example: The Universal Character Set (UCS) is a character encoding that is defined by the international standard ISO/IEC 10646. ...

 U+00DE (Þ) → 81 30 89 37 U+00DF (ß) → 81 30 89 38 U+00E0 (à) → A8 A4 U+00E1 (á) → A8 A2 U+00E2 (â) → 81 30 89 39 U+00E3 (ã) → 81 30 8A 30 

See also

GBK is an extension of the GB2312 character set for simplified Chinese characters, used in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guobiao code is a collective term of the national standard encoding of the Peoples Republic of China. ... CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ... In computing, Chinese character encodings can be used to represent text written in the CJK languages — Chinese, Japanese, Korean — and (rarely) Vietnamese, all of which use Chinese characters. ... This page compares Unicode encodings. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
GB 18030: A mega-codepage (2283 words)
The mapping table between GB 18030 and Unicode is backwards compatible with the one between GB 2312-1980 and Unicode, and with some exceptions (with the one between GBK and Unicode), most of the changes compared to the GBK mapping table are due to updates for Unicode 3.0.
GB 18030 is defined as much with charts of assigned characters as with a mapping table to and from Unicode.
An implementation of GB 18030 needs to be able to determine the length of a byte sequence by examining not only the lead byte, but at least the second byte of a multi-byte sequence as well.
(URW)++ Chinesische Fonts (466 words)
The GB 2312-80 and GB/T 12345-90 encodings may be regarded as a pair of styles.
With the release of Unicode 2.1 in 1993 a standard named GB 13000.1 was published which contained all the glyphs of Unicode 2.1.
GB 18030-2000 was created as an update of GBK for Unicode 3.0 which defines 6,582 new characters in plane 0 (the Basic Multilingual Plane = BMP).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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