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Encyclopedia > GALILEO positioning system

The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). The €3.4 billion project is an alternative and complementary to the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS. On November 30th, 2007 the 27 EU transportation ministers involved reached an agreement, that it should be operational by 2013.[1] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links Galileo_logo. ... For the global navigation satellite system operated by Russia, see GLONASS. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. ... ESA redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... GPS redirects here. ... GLONASS GLONASS (Russian ГЛОНАСС; ГЛОбальная НАвигационная Спутниковая Система; Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema. ...


When in operation, it will have two ground stations, one in Munich,and another in Rome.[2] Since 18 May 2007, at the recommendation of Transport Commissioner Jacques Barrot, the EU took direct control of the Galileo project from the private sector group of eight companies called European Satellite Navigation Industries, which had abandoned this Galileo project in early 2007. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jacques Barrot Jacques Barrot (born 3 February 1937 in Yssingeaux, Haute-Loire) is a French politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Transport. ... European Satellite Navigation Industries, formerly called Galileo Industries until legal action prompted a name change, is a joint venture of the companies Alcatel Alenia Space and Thales (France), Finmeccanica (Italy), EADS Astrium (UK and Germany) and Galileo Sistemas y Servicios (a consortium of seven Spanish companies). ...


Galileo is intended to provide: more precise measurements to all users than available through GPS or GLONASS, better positioning services at high latitudes, and an independent positioning system upon which European nations can rely even in times of war or political disagreement. Named for the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, the positioning system is referred to as "Galileo" instead of as the abbreviation "GPS" to distinguish it from the U.S. system. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Galileo redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The first stage of the Galileo programme was agreed upon officially on May 26, 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency. In 1999, the different concepts (from Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom) for Galileo were compared and reduced to one by a joint team of engineers from all four countries. The system is intended primarily for civilian use, unlike the United States system, which the U.S. military runs and uses on a primary basis. The U.S. reserves the right to limit the signal strength or accuracy of the GPS systems, or to shut down public GPS access completely (although it has never done the latter), so that only the U.S. military and its allies would be able to use it in time of conflict. Until 2000, the precision of the signal available to non-U.S.-military users was limited (a timing pulse distortion process known as selective availability). The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances (though it may still be jammed by anyone with the right equipment), will be better than the GPS signal, and will be available at its full precision to all users, both civil and military. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... GPS redirects here. ... Radio jamming is the (usually deliberate) transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal to noise ratio. ... why can u change this im serious. ...

The European Commission had some difficulty getting money for the project's next stage, as economic difficulty was threatening national budgets across Europe. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the United States Government wrote to the European Union opposing the project, arguing that it would end the ability of the United States to shut down GPS in times of military operations. On January 17, 2002 a spokesman for the project somberly stated that, as a result of U.S. pressure and economic difficulties, "Galileo is almost dead." [3] A few months later, however, the situation changed dramatically. Partially in reaction to the pressure exerted by the U.S. Government, European Union member states decided it was important to have their own independent satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure. ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... ...


The European Union and the European Space Agency then agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a review in 2003 (which was finalised on May 26, 2003). The starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at 1.1 billion. The required satellites—the planned number is 30 — will be launched throughout the period 2006–2010 and the system will be up and running and under civilian control from 2010. The final cost is estimated at €3 billion, including the infrastructure on Earth, which is to be constructed in the years 2006 and 2007. Private companies and investors will invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation; the EU and ESA will divide the remaining cost. An encrypted higher-bandwidth Commercial Service with improved accuracy will be available at an extra cost, while the base Open Service will be freely available to anyone with a Galileo-compatible receiver. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ...


In June 2004, in a signed agreement with the United States, the European Union has agreed to switch to a range of frequencies known as "Binary Offset Carrier 1.1," which will allow both EU and US forces to block each other's signals in the battlefield without disabling the entire system. The European Union also agreed to address the "mutual concerns related to the protection of allied and U.S. national security capabilities."[4] For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ...


Early 2007, the EU had yet to decide how to pay for the system and the project was said to be "in deep crisis" due to lack of more public funds "[5] German Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee, was particularly doubtfull about the consortium ability to end the infighting at a time when only one of the 30 planned satellites had been successfully launched.


Although a decision was yet to be reached, EU countries on Friday the 13th of July 2007 [6] discussed cutting €548m ($755m, £370m) from the union's competitiveness budget for next year and shift some of that cash to other parts of the financing pot, a move that could meet part of the cost of the union's Galileo satellite navigation system. European Union research and development projects could be scrapped to overcome a funding shortfall for Europe's rival to the US GPS.


In November 2007, it was agreed to use unused funds from the agriculture budget[7] and to soften the tendering process in order to invite more EU companies[8]


International involvement

In September 2003, China joined the Galileo project. China will invest €230 million (USD 302 million, GBP 155 million, CNY 2.34 billion) in the project over the next few years.[9] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... USD redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...


In July 2004, Israel signed an agreement with the EU to become a partner in the Galileo project.[10]


On 3 June 2005 the EU and Ukraine signed an agreement for Ukraine to join the project, as noted in a press release.[11] is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 7, 2005, India signed an agreement to take part in the project and to establish a regional augmentation system based on the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS). is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a satellite navigation system under development by the European Space Agency, the European Commission and EUROCONTROL. It is intended to supplement the GPS and GLONASS systems by reporting on the reliability and accuracy of the signals. ...


As of November 2005, Morocco and Saudi Arabia have also joined the programme.


On January 12, 2006 South Korea joined the programme. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 30, 2007, the 27 member states of the European Union unanimously agreed to move forward with the project, with plans for bases in Germany and Italy. Spain did not approve during the initial vote, but approved it on Friday, November 30. This greatly improves the viability of the Galileo project: "The EU's executive had previously said that if agreement was not reached by January 2008, the long-troubled project would essentially be dead."[12] is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Political implications of Galileo project

Letter from Paul Wolfowitz to EU ministers, calling for abandonment of the Galileo
Letter from Paul Wolfowitz to EU ministers, calling for abandonment of the Galileo

A reason given for an independent system is that, though GPS is now widely used worldwide for civilian applications, it is a military system which as recently as 2000 had selective availability (SA) that could be enabled in particular areas of coverage during times of war, and therefore Galileo's proponents argue that civil infrastructure, including aeroplane navigation and landing, should not rely solely upon GPS. However, on May 1, 2000, the President of the United States signed an order disabling (SA), and in late 2001, the entity managing GPS confirmed that the intent is to never re-enable selective availability.[13]. This point is still contentious, however, as the US Department of Defense still maintains a Selective Deniability (SD) ability within the network which may still be used to effectively jam civilian GPS units in a war zone or global alert while still allowing full functionality for military units. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (450 × 689 pixels, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (450 × 689 pixels, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... GPS redirects here. ...


System description

Galileo was initiated by the EU and ESA
Galileo was initiated by the EU and ESA

Image File history File linksMetadata GalileoPS.jpg‎ This image is from www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GalileoPS.jpg‎ This image is from www. ... ESA redirects here. ...

Galileo satellites

  • 100 spacecraft
  • orbital altitude: 77 777 km (MEO)
  • 7 orbital planes, 70° inclination (9 operational satellites and one active spare per orbital plane)
  • satellite lifetime: >12 years
  • satellite mass: 675 kg
  • satellite body dimensions: 2.7 m x 1.2 m x 1.1 m
  • span of solar arrays: 18.7 m
  • power of solar arrays: 1500 W (end of life)

Intermediate circular orbit (ICO), also called medium earth orbit (MEO), is used by satellites between the altitudes of low earth orbit (up to 1400 km) and geostationary orbit (ca. ...

Services

There will be four different navigation services available:

  • The Open Service (OS) will be free for anyone to access. The OS signals will be broadcast in two bands, at 1164–1214 MHz and at 1563–1591 MHz. Receivers will achieve an accuracy of <4 m horizontally and <8 m vertically if they use both OS bands. Receivers that use only a single band will still achieve <15 m horizontally and <35 m vertically, comparable to what the civilian GPS C/A service provides today. It is expected that most future mass market receivers, such as automotive navigation systems, will process both the GPS C/A and the Galileo OS signals, for maximum coverage.
  • The encrypted Commercial Service (CS) will be available for a fee and will offer an accuracy of better than 1 m. The CS can also be complemented by ground stations to bring the accuracy down to less than 10 cm. This signal will be broadcast in three frequency bands, the two used for the OS signals, as well as at 1260–1300 MHz.
  • The encrypted Public Regulated Service (PRS) and Safety of Life Service (SoL) will both provide an accuracy comparable to the Open Service. Their main aim is robustness against jamming and the reliable detection of problems within 10 seconds. They will be targeted at security authorities (police, military, etc.) and safety-critical transport applications (air-traffic control, automated aircraft landing, etc.), respectively.

In addition, the Galileo satellites will be able to detect and report signals from Cospas-Sarsat search-and-rescue beacons in the 406.0–406.1 MHz band, which makes them a part of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System. A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A taxi in Kyoto, equipped with GPS navigation system An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. ... Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based search and rescue system, established by Canada, France, the United States, and the former Soviet Union in 1979. ... Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs), Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) are tracking transmitters that operate as part of the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system. ... The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally agreed-upon set of safety procedures, types of equipment, and communication protocols used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ...

GIOVE-A launch
GIOVE-A launch

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (449x659, 198 KB)this image is frome space. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (449x659, 198 KB)this image is frome space. ...

Galileo satellite test beds

In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronisation (OD&TS). This project, led by ESA and European Satellite Navigation Industries, has provided industry with fundamental knowledge to develop the mission segment of the Galileo positioning system.[14] European Satellite Navigation Industries, formerly called Galileo Industries until legal action prompted a name change, is a joint venture of the companies Alcatel Alenia Space and Thales (France), Finmeccanica (Italy), EADS Astrium (UK and Germany) and Galileo Sistemas y Servicios (a consortium of seven Spanish companies). ...


The European Space Agency and the Galileo Joint Undertaking successfully launched the first Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element test satellite, GIOVE-A, on 28 December 2005. GIOVE-A was built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). Operation of GIOVE-A ensured that Galileo meets the frequency-filing allocation and reservation requirements for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a process that was required to be complete by June of 2006. GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, or SSTL, is a spin-off company of the University of Surrey that builds and operates small satellites. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


GIOVE-B, built by European Satellite Navigation Industries, has a more advanced payload than GIOVE-A. After technical problems were encountered, GIOVE-B is now targeted for launch at end of 2007.[15] GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... European Satellite Navigation Industries, formerly called Galileo Industries until legal action prompted a name change, is a joint venture of the companies Alcatel Alenia Space and Thales (France), Finmeccanica (Italy), EADS Astrium (UK and Germany) and Galileo Sistemas y Servicios (a consortium of seven Spanish companies). ...


The GIOVE-A2 satellite, to be built by SSTL, will be ready for launch in the second half of 2008, to ensure continuous reservation of Galileo frequency use with the ITU.[16] GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ...


These testbed satellites will be followed by four In-Orbit Validation (IOV) Galileo satellites that will be much closer to the final Galileo positioning satellite design.


From mid-2006, the GIOVE Mission[17][18] (GIOVE-M) segment is exploiting the GIOVE-A satellite to provide experimental results based on real data to be used for risk mitigation for the IOV satellites that will follow on from the testbeds. The GIOVE Mission will also provide experimentation results based on GIOVE-B and GIOVE-A2 satellites. The GIOVE Mission segment is operated by European Satellite Navigation Industries for the European Space Agency (ESA). The GIOVE Mission segment, or GIOVE-M, is the name of a project dedicated to the exploitation and experimentation of the GIOVE satellites[1] [2] The GIOVE Mission is intended to ensure risk mitigation of the In Orbit Validation (IOV) phase of the Galileo positioning system. ... GIOVE is the name for each satellite in a set of four being built to validate the Galileo positioning system in orbit. ... European Satellite Navigation Industries, formerly called Galileo Industries until legal action prompted a name change, is a joint venture of the companies Alcatel Alenia Space and Thales (France), Finmeccanica (Italy), EADS Astrium (UK and Germany) and Galileo Sistemas y Servicios (a consortium of seven Spanish companies). ...


The next scheduled launch time for one of the test satellites is from 29th December 2007 to end of March 2008.


Science projects using Galileo

In July 2006, an international consortium of universities and research institutions embarked on a study of potential scientific applications of the Galileo constellation. This project, dubbed GEO6, is a 360-degree study oriented to the scientific community in its broader sense, aiming to define and implement new applications of Galileo.


Among the various GNSS users identified by the Galileo Joint Undertaking, the GEO6 project addresses the Scientific User Community (UC).


The GEO6 project aims at fostering possible novel applications within the scientific UC of GNSS signals, and particularly of Galileo. GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System In 1994 in a meeting of the ECAC, a satellite strategy was approved, with as targets: - firstly developing items for an European supplement on the current satellite systems, now called GNSS-1 - secondly designing and defining future satellite systems for civil use (called GNSS-2...


On the basis of the potential number of users, potential revenues for Galileo Operating Company or Concessionaire (GOC), international relevance, and level of innovation, a set of Priority Applications (PA) will be selected by the consortium and they will be developed within the time frame of the same Project.


These applications will help to increase and optimise the use of the EGNOS services as well as the opportunities offered by the Galileo Signal Test-Bed (GSTB-V2) and the Galileo (IOV) phase. The European geostationary navigation overlay system (EGNOS) is a satellite navigation system under development by the European Space Agency, the European Commission and EUROCONTROL. It is intended to supplement the GPS and GLONASS systems by reporting on the reliability and accuracy of the signals, allowing position to be determined to...


See also

European Union Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a satellite navigation system under development by the European Space Agency, the European Commission and EUROCONTROL. It is intended to supplement the GPS and GLONASS systems by reporting on the reliability and accuracy of the signals. ... Commercialization of space is the use of outer space for the purpose of generating a profit, either by a corporation or state. ... Multilateration, also known as hyperbolic positioning, is the process of locating an object by accurately computing the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of a signal emitted from the object to three or more receivers. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7120041.stm
  2. ^ http://www.physorg.com/news115630526.html
  3. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk
  4. ^ US-EU Agreement on Galileo
  5. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/05/08/galileo.troubles.ap/index.html EU: Galileo project in deep 'crisis'
  6. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19750947/
  7. ^ http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1195858921.15
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7109971.stm
  9. ^ China joins EU's satellite network - BBC News, 19 September 2003
  10. ^ Press release
  11. ^ Press release
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7120041.stm
  13. ^ Selective Availability. Retrieved Aug 31, 2007.
  14. ^ Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 experimentation is now complete, ESA News release, 7 January 2005
  15. ^ GIOVE-A2 to secure the Galileo programme, ESA News release, 5 March 2007
  16. ^ GIOVE-A2 to secure the Galileo programme, ESA News release, 5 March 2007
  17. ^ GIOVE mission core infrastructure, ESA press release, 26 February 2007.
  18. ^ One year of Galileo signals; new website opens, ESA press release, 12 January 2007.
  • The Galileo Project – GALILEO Design consolidation, European Commission, 2003
  • Guenter W. Hein, Jeremie Godet, et al: Status of Galileo Frequency and Signal Design, Proc. ION GPS 2002.
  • Jean-Luc Issler, Gunter W. Hein, et al.: Galileo Frequency and Signal Design. GPS World, vol. 14, no. 6, June, 2003, pp. 30–37.
  • Dee Ann Divis: Military role for Galileo emerges. GPS World, May 2002, Vol. 13, No. 5, p. 10.
  • Dr Richard North: Galileo - The Military and Political Dimensions. 2004.

is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Psiaki, M. L., “Block Acquisition of weak GPS signals in a software receiver”, Proceedings of ION GPS 2001, the 14th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 11-14, 2001, pp. 2838-2850.
  • Bandemer, B., Denks, H., Hornbostel, A., Konovaltsev, A., “Performance of acquisition methods for Galileo SW receivers”, European Journal of Navigation, Vol.4, No. 3, pp 17-9, July 2006

External links

Press coverage


  Results from FactBites:
 
Space Today Online - Satellites - Europe's Galileo global positioning system GPS satellites (1293 words)
Galileo is the largest European space project to date with the eventual constellation of 30 satellites forming a global network providing precise timing and location information to users on the ground and in the air.
Galileo is intended to guarantee the countries of the European Union – the EU, also known as Europa – access to their own GPS service.
Galileo also will transmit a signal back to the lost user on the ground, acknowledging his situation has been detected and that help is on the way.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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