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Group of Eight
Groupe des Huit
Wirtschaftgipfel
Gruppo degli Otto
主要国首脳会議
Большая восьмёрка

 Canada
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
 France
President Nicolas Sarkozy
 Germany
Chancellor Angela Merkel
 Italy
Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi
 Japan
Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda
President of the G8 for 2008
 Russia
President Dmitry Medvedev
 United Kingdom
Prime Minister Gordon Brown
 United States
President George W. Bush

Also represented The Group of Eight (Go8) is a lobby group for eight Australian tertiary institutions which are the leading universities in Australia. ... G8 can mean: G8, The Group of Eight, the seven top industrialized nations of the world, United States of America, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, plus Russia. ... G7 or G-7 or Group of Seven may be: Group of Seven, seven industrialized nations of the world (United States of America, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom); later became the G8 (Russia) Group of Seven (artists), Canadian landscape painters of the 1920s, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: ; born 14 September 1965) is the current President of Russia, inaugurated on May 7, 2008. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

 European Union[1]
President José Manuel Barroso
President Nicolas Sarkozy

The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The G8 can refer to the member states or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. G8 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G8 foreign ministers or G8 environment ministers. The European Union is also represented at the meetings by the president of the European Commission and the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ...


Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 rotates through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year and determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Lately, both France and the United Kingdom have expressed a desire to expand the group and include five developing countries, referred to as the Outreach Five (O5) or the Plus Five: Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. These countries have participated as guests in previous meetings, which are sometimes called G8+5. The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ...

Contents

History

The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized democracies emerged following the 1973 oil crisis and subsequent global recession. In 1974 the United States created the Library Group, an informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan and France. In 1975, French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet. The six leaders agreed to an annual meeting organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). The following year, Canada joined the group at the behest of U.S. President Gerald Ford,[citation needed] and the group became known as the Group of Seven (G7). The European Union is represented by the President of the European Commission and the leader of the country that holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The European Union has attended all meetings since it was first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977.[2] The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... In macroeconomics, a recession is generally associated with a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Rambouillet is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


The Cold War ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, and Russia became the successor state. Beginning with the 1994 Naples summit, Russian officials held a separate meeting with leaders of the G7 after the main summit. This group became known as the Political 8 (P8), or colloquially as the "G7 plus 1". At the initiative of United States President Bill Clinton,[citation needed] Russia formally joined the group in 1997, resulting in the Group of Eight (G8). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The 20th G7 Summit was held at the in Naples, Italy between July 8 to 10, 1994. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Structure and activities

The G8 is intended to be an informal forum, and it therefore lacks an administrative structure like those for international organizations, such as the United Nations or the World Bank. The group does not have a permanent secretariat, or offices for its members. In 2008, the G8 summit might have been called the G9 because the President of the European Union Commission participated as an equal in all summit events. UN redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for world leaders -- Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dimitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany), Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George Bush (US), Stephen Harper (Canada), Nicolas Sarkozy (France), Jose Barosso (EU) -- July 7, 2008.

The presidency of the group rotates annually among the member countries, with each new term beginning on January 1 of the year. The country holding the presidency is responsible for planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit attended by the heads of government. Japan held the G8 presidency in 2008, and Italy would be president in 2009. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The ministerial meetings bring together ministers responsible for various portfolios to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. The range of topics include health, law enforcement, labour, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism and trade. There are also a separate set of meetings known as the "G8+5", created during the 2005 Gleneagles, Scotland summit, that is attended by finance and energy ministers from all eight member countries in addition to the five "Outreach Countries": Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glen Eagles is a glen or valley in the Ochil Hills. ... This article is about the country. ...


In June 2005, justice ministers and interior ministers from the G8 countries agreed to launch an international database on pedophiles.[3] The G8 officials also agreed to pool data on terrorism, subject to restrictions by privacy and security laws in individual countries.[4] Pedophilia, paedophilia, or pædophilia (see spelling differences), is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to pre-pubescent children. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Global warming and energy

Main articles: International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation and Climate Investment Funds
Leaders of the G8 on June 7, 2007, in Heiligendamm, Germany

At the Heiligendamm Summit in June 2007, the G-8 acknowledged an EU proposal for an international initiative on energy efficiency tabled in March 2007, and agreed to explore, together with the International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 countries, China, India, South Korea and the European Community decided to establish the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan in the frame of the 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori. [5] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Burg Hohenzollern, Heiligendamm Haus Mecklenburg, Heiligendamm Kurhaus, Heiligendamm Heiligendamm is part of Bad Doberan, situated on the Baltic Sea coast in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Germany. ... Image File history File links Copyright-problem_paste. ... This article is about computer text editing. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... IEA Logo The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ...


G8 Finance Ministers, meeting in preparation for the Summit of the G8 Heads of State and Government in Hokkaido-Toyako, met from 13-14 June 2008, in Osaka, Japan, and agreed to the “G8 Action Plan for Climate Change to Enhance the Engagement of Private and Public Financial Institutions.” In their final statement, Ministers supported the launch of new Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) by the World Bank, which will complement existing bilateral and multilateral efforts, until a post-2012 framework under the UNFCCC is implemented. [6]


Annual summit

The annual G8 leaders summit is attended by eight of the world's most powerful heads of government. But more than one analyst suggests that a G-8 summit is not the place to flesh out the details of any difficult or controversial policy issue in the context of a three-day event. Rather, the meeting offers an opportunity to bring a range of complex and sometimes inter-related issues. The G8 summit brings leaders together not so they can dream up quick fixes, but to talk and think about them together.[7]


The G8 summit is an international event which is observed and reported by news media, but the G8's relevance is unclear.[8] The member country holding the G8 presidency is responsible for organising and hosting the year's summit, held for three days in mid-year; and for this reason, Tony Blair and the United Kingdom accumulated the lion's share of the credit for what went right (and wrong) at Gleneagles in 2005. Similarly, Yasuo Fukuda and Japan hope to garner the greater part of the credit for what went well (and what did not) at the Hokkaido Summit in 2008.


Each of the 34 G8 summit meetings could have been called a success if only the events has been re-framed as venues to generate additional momentum for solving problems at the other multilateral conferences that meet throughout the year. The G8 summit sets the stage for what needs to be done and establishes an idea of how to do it, even if that idea is, at best, rough and patchy.[7]

Date Host country Host leader Location held Website Notes
1st November 15–17, 1975  France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Rambouillet G-6 Summit
2nd June 27–28, 1976  United States Gerald R. Ford San Juan, Puerto Rico Canada joins the group, forming the G-7
3rd May 7–8, 1977  United Kingdom James Callaghan London President of the European Commission gains permission to join G-7 Summit annually
4th July 16–17, 1978  West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
5th June 28–29, 1979  Japan Masayoshi Ohira Tokyo
6th June 22–3, 1980  Italy Francesco Cossiga Venice
7th July 20–21, 1981  Canada Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Quebec
8th June 4–6, 1982  France François Mitterrand Versailles
9th May 28–30, 1983  United States Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia
10th June 7–9, 1984  United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher London
11th May 2–4, 1985  West Germany Helmut Kohl Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
12th May 4–6, 1986  Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo
13th June 8–10, 1987  Italy Amintore Fanfani Venice
14th June 19–21, 1988  Canada Brian Mulroney Toronto, Ontario
15th July 14–16, 1989  France François Mitterrand Grande Arche, Paris
16th July 9–11, 1990  United States George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas
17th July 15–17, 1991  United Kingdom John Major London
18th July 6–8, 1992  Germany Helmut Kohl Munich, Bavaria
19th July 7–9, 1993  Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo
20th July 8–10, 1994  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Naples
21st June 15–17, 1995  Canada Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia
- April 19–20, 1996  Russia Boris Yeltsin Moscow Special summit on nuclear security
22nd June 27–29, 1996  France Jacques Chirac Lyon
23rd June 20–22, 1997  United States Bill Clinton Denver, Colorado [1] Russia joins the group, forming G-8
24th May 15–17, 1998  United Kingdom Tony Blair Birmingham, England [2]
25th June 18–20, 1999  Germany Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia First Summit of the G20 industrial nations at Berlin
26th July 21–23, 2000  Japan Yoshiro Mori Nago, Okinawa [3]
27th July 20–22, 2001  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Genoa [4]
28th June 26–27, 2002  Canada Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta [5]
29th June 2–3, 2003  France Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains [6]
30th June 8–10, 2004  United States George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia [7]
31st July 6–8, 2005  United Kingdom Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland [8]
32nd July 15–17, 2006  Russia Vladimir Putin Strelna, St. Petersburg [9] First Russian G8 Summit Hosting
33rd June 6–8, 2007  Germany Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [10]
34th July 7–9, 2008  Japan Yasuo Fukuda Toyako (Lake Toya), Hokkaido [11]
35th 2009  Italy La Maddalena [12]
36th 2010  Canada Huntsville, Ontario [13]
37th 2011  France
38th 2012  United States
39th 2013  United Kingdom
40th 2014  Russia
41st 2015  Germany
42nd 2016  Japan
43rd 2017  Italy
44th 2018  Canada

The 1st G6 summit took place on November 15–November 17, 1975 in Rambouillet, France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Rambouillet is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... The 2nd G7 Summit was held at San Juan, Puerto Rico between June 27th and 28th, 1976. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... The 3rd G7 Summit was held at London, England between May 7th and 8th, 1977. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The 4th G7 Summit was held at Bonn, Germany between July 16th and 17th, 1978. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... The 5th G7 Summit was held at Tokyo, Japan between June 28th and 29th, 1979. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Masayoshi Ōhira (大平 正芳 Ōhira Masayoshi March 12, 1910–June 12, 1980) was a Japanese politician and the 68th and 69th Prime Minister of Japan from December 7, 1978 to June 12, 1980. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The 6th G7 Summit was held at Venice, Italy between June 22nd and 23rd, 1980. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Francesco Cossiga (born July 26, 1928) is an Italian politician and former President of the Italian Republic. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The 7th G7 Summit was held at Ottawa, Canada in Montebello between July 20th and 21st, 1981. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28, 2000 Spouse... Montebello is a village located in the La Petite Nation area of the Ottawa River region of Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The 8th G7 Summit was held at the in Versailles, France between July 4 to 6, 1982. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... The 9th G7 Summit was held at Williamsburg, Virginia during the 28th to 30th of May 1983. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The 10th G7 Summit was held at the in London, England between July 7 to 9, 1984. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The 11th G7 Summit was held in Bonn, West Germany between July 16 and 17, 1985. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... The 12th G7 Summit was held in Tokyo, Japan between June 28 and 29, 1986. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Yasuhiro Nakasone (中曽根 康弘 Nakasone Yasuhiro, b. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The 13th G7 Summit was held in Venice, Italy between June 8 and 10, 1987. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Amintore Fanfani (6 February 1908 – 20 November 1999) was an Italian politician and Prime Minister. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The 14th G7 Summit was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between June 19 and 21, 1988 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The 15th G7 Summit was held at the Grande Arche in Paris, France between July 14 to 16, 1989. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The Grande Arche, La Défense district The Grande Arche de la Fraternité is a monument in the business district of La Défense to the west of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The 16th G7 Summit was held at Houston, Texas between July 9th and 11th, 1990. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The 17th G7 Summit was held at the in London, England between July 15 to 17, 1991. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The 18th G7 Summit was held at the in Munich, Germany between July 6 to 8, 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The 19th G7 Summit was held at the in Tokyo, Japan between July 7 to 9, 1993. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kiichi Miyazawa , October 8, 1919–June 28, 2007) was a Japanese politician and the 78th Prime Minister from November 5, 1991 to August 9, 1993. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The 20th G7 Summit was held at the in Naples, Italy between July 8 to 10, 1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... G7 leaders of the time on the downtown Halifax waterfront. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Motto: E Mari Merces(Latin) From the Sea, Wealth Coordinates: , Country Province Established April 1, 1996 Government  - Type Regional Municipality  - Mayor Peter Kelly  - Governing body Halifax Regional Council  - MPs List of MPs Alexa McDonough Geoff Regan Michael Savage Peter Stoffer (Bill Casey) (Gerald Keddy) (Peter MacKay)  - MLAs List of MLAs... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The 22nd G7 Summit was held at the in Lyon, France between June 27 to 29, 1996. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... This article is about the French city. ... The 23rd G8 summit was held from June 20 to June 22, 1997 in Denver, Colorado. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The 24th G8 Summit was held at Birmingham, England between May 15th to 17th, 1998. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The 25th G8 Summit was held at Cologne, Germany between June 18th and 20th, 1999. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... This article is about the G-20 of industrial nations. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The 26th G8 Summit was a political summit that took place in Okinawa, Japan, onJuly 21- July 23, 2000. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Yoshiro Mori Yoshiro Mori (森 喜朗 Mori Yoshirō, born July 14, 1937) is a Japanese politician who served as the 85th and 86th Prime Minister of Japan from April 5, 2000 to April 26, 2001. ... Nago (名護市; -shi) is a city located in Okinawa, Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Official group portrait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The 28th G8 Summit took place in 2002 and was called the Kananaskis Summit. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit) situated to the west of Calgary, Alberta, Canada in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The 29th G8 summit took place in Évian-les-Bains, France, in June 2003. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... A street in Évian. ... The 30th G8 Summit took place in 2002 and was called the Kananaskis Summit. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Sea Island is an isolated resort island located in Glynn County just off the Atlantic coast of southern Georgia in the United States. ... Official G8 2005 Portrait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Gleneagles (Scottish Gaelic: Gleann na h-Eaglais/Gleann Eagas) is a glen in the Ochil Hills of Perthshire in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... 32nd G8 summit The 32nd summit of the G8 group of industrialised nations took place from July 15 to July 17, 2006 outside Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... The Constantine Palace in 1921 Strelna (Russian: Стрельна) is a historic village situated about halfway between Saint Petersburg and Peterhof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Burg Hohenzollern, Heiligendamm Haus Mecklenburg, Heiligendamm Kurhaus, Heiligendamm Heiligendamm is part of Bad Doberan, situated on the Baltic Sea coast in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Germany. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... The 34th G8 summit is to take place in Japan in 2008. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ... Tōyako (洞爺湖町 -chō) is a town in Abuta District, Iburi Subprefecture, Hokkaidō. Town of Toyako Category: ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Country Italy Region Sardinia Province Olbia-Tempio Population 11,369 Density 230. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Huntsville (2006 population 18,280) is a town in the Muskoka Region of Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Cumulative influence of member nations

Together, the G8 countries represent about 65% of the Gross World Product[9], the majority of global military power (seven are in the top 8 nations for military expenditure[10]), and almost all of the world's active nuclear weapons.[11] Gross world product is the total Gross National Product of all the countries in the world. ... Armed forces are the military forces of a state. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


The eight countries making up the G8 represent about 14% of the world population, but they account for 65% of the world's economic output measured by gross domestic product, all 8 within the top 10 countries according to the CIA World Factbook. (see the CIA World Factbook column in List of countries by GDP (nominal)) Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... GDP redirects here. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ...


In 2007, the combined G8 military spending was US$850 billion. This was 72% of the world's total military expenditures. (see List of countries and federations by military expenditures) Four of the G8 members United Kingdom, United States of America, France and Russia together account for 96-99% of the world's nuclear weapons. (see List of states with nuclear weapons) Military spending in 2005 Military spending This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... -1...


Criticism and demonstrations

Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit

As the annual summits are extremely high profile, they are subject to extensive lobbying by advocacy groups and street demonstrations by activists. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 294 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): G8 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 294 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): G8 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Official group portrait. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ...


The most well-known criticisms center on the assertion that members of G8 are responsible for global issues such as poverty in Africa and developing countries due to debt and trading policy, global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the AIDS problem due to strict medicine patent policy and other issues related to globalization. During the 31st G8 summit in Scotland, 250,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8. [12] A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Official G8 2005 Portrait. ... // The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY) was a British and Irish coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilized around the UKs prominence in world politics in 2005 to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute...


Of the anti-globalization movement protests, one of the largest and most violent[citation needed] occurred for the 27th G8 summit. Since that G8 Summit and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States occurred months apart in the same year, the G8 have gathered at remote locations every year since then. The 7 July 2005 London bombings were timed to coincide with the 31st G8 summit in Scotland. Anti-WEF grafiti in Lausanne. ... Official group portrait. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Official G8 2005 Portrait. ... This article is about the country. ...


See also

The 34th G8 summit is to take place in Japan in 2008. ... G7 or G-7 or Group of Seven may be: Group of Seven (G7), a group of seven industrialized nations of the world, formed in 1976 when Canada joined the Group of Six (United States of America, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom); now known as G8 (with Russia) Group... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The Gleneagles Dialogue is a summit (meeting) of the environment and energy ministers from the G8 countries Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and United States of America, as well as from Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, South Africa, South Korea and Spain - plus the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The G8 Research Groups stated mission is to serve as the world’s leading independent source of information, analysis, and research on the institutions, issues and members of the Group of Eight or G8 Summit. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The official D-8 logo. ... The Forum for the Future in Bahrain on 11-12 November 2005 brought together the leaders of states of the Middle East, industrialised countries of the Group of Eight (G8) and other partners to promote political, economic and social reform in the region. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Group of Eleven (G11) is a forum, consistuted by developing countries aimed at easing their debt burden (See also: government debt), narrowing the income gap with rich countries and lifting millions of people out of poverty. ... This article is about the G-20 of industrial nations. ... G20 countries. ... The G33 was the name of a group of finance ministers and central bank governors of industrialized and newly industrialized countries, see below. ... The J8 (junior 8) Global Citizenship programme provides young people from around the world with opportunities to learn more about topical global issues, to debate and discuss these issues, and to take their solutions to world leaders at the G8 summit. ... Military spending in 2005 Military spending This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... The senior G8 leader is the person who has been the leader of a G8 country the longest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... N-11 nations in red The Next Eleven (or N-11) is a list of eleven countries named by Goldman Sachs investment bank on December 12, 2005 as having a high potential of becoming the worlds largest economies along with the BRICs, with promising outlooks for investment and future... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China. ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ...

References

  1. ^ The EU has the privileges and obligations of membership but does not host/chair summits. It is represented by the Commission and Council Presidents. 967. "EU and the G8". European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  2. ^ "EU and the G8". European Union. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  3. ^ G8 to launch international pedophile database David Batty June 18, 2005 The Guardian
  4. ^ G8 to pool data on terrorism Martin Wainwright June 18, 2005 The Guardian
  5. ^ The International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). JUne 8, 2008.
  6. ^ http://www.climate-l.org/2008/06/g8-finance-mini.html
  7. ^ a b Feldman, Adam. "What's Wrong With The G-8," Forbes (New York). July 7, 2008.
  8. ^ Lee, Don. "On eve of summit, G-8's relevance is unclear," Los Angeles Times. July 6, 2008.
  9. ^ United Nations Development Programme
  10. ^ "World Wide Military Expenditures". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  11. ^ "The G8 and the Nuclear Industry". The Campaign for Nuclear Phaseout (June 2002). Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  12. ^ David Miller 'Spinning the G8, Zednet May 13th 2005 http://www.zmag.org/znet/viewArticle/6279

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

For the official summit websites, see the applicable article, e.g. 34th G8 summit.
Wikinews has related news:
G8
Official G8 sites of member states (not summit specific)
  • Canada
  • United Kingdom
    • History of the G8 —UK government site
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Politik redirects here. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large and mild influence and recognized internationally. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Superpowers redirects here. ... The present day governments to be called, or to remain, a potential superpower for the 21st century. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the telecommunications and multimedia company, see Pacific Century Cyberworks. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China. ... N-11 nations in red The Next Eleven (or N-11) is a list of eleven countries named by Goldman Sachs investment bank on December 12, 2005 as having a high potential of becoming the worlds largest economies along with the BRICs, with promising outlooks for investment and future...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in...

  Results from FactBites:
 
G8 - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1564 words)
For 2006 it is held by Russia, and a 2006 summit of all G8 leaders is being held in Saint Petersburg from July 15 to July 17 at the Palace of Congresses.
The annual summits are often the focus of anti-globalization movement protests, notably at the 27th G8 summit in Genoa in 2001.
Critics assert that members of G8 are responsible for global issues such as global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, poverty in Africa and developing countries due to debt crisis and unfair trading policy, the AIDS problem due to strict medicine patent policy and other problems that are related to globalization.
The EU's relations with G7-G8 - EU participation in G8 summits (621 words)
G8 Foreign Ministers usually meet twice a year, normally in May/June in the capital of the country holding the G8 Presidency and in September in the margins of the UN General Assembly, in New York.
The European Union now participates at the G8 Summit and is represented by the President of the European Commission and the leader of the country that holds the Presidency of the European Union.
G8 Heads are represented at the cycle of preparatory meetings by ‘Sherpas, - personal representatives of the leaders who pave the way to the Summit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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