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Encyclopedia > G. I. Gurdjieff
20th-century Mystic
Esotericism
G.I. Gurdjieff
Name
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff
Birth January 13, 1866? Alexandropol, Armenia
Death October 29, 1949 American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
School/tradition Fourth Way or the "Gurdjieff Work"
Main interests Psychology, Philosophy, Science, Ancient knowledge
Notable ideas Fourth Way, Enneagram, Centers, Ray of Creation
Influenced by Officially unknown; but according to his book: His childhood and adult teachers, his father, Mullah Nassr Eddin.
Influenced Jeanne de Salzmann, Lord Pentland, P. D. Ouspensky, Olga de Hartmann, Thomas de Hartmann, Jane Heap, John G. Bennett, Alfred Richard Orage, Maurice Nicoll, Colin Wilson, Frank Lloyd Wright,Osho

George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (Armenian: Գեորգի Գյուրջիև; Russian: Георгий Иванович Гюрджиев; Georgiy Ivanovich Gyurdzhiev (or Gurdjiev); January 13, 1866? – October 29, 1949), was an Armenian-Greek mystic, a teacher of sacred dances, and a spiritual teacher. He is most notable for introducing what some refer to as "The Work," connoting work on oneself according to Gurdjieff's principles and instructions, or as he first referred to it, the Fourth Way.[1] Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ... In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the... Enneagram Figure The Enneagram is a nine-pointed geometric figure. ... In Gurdjieffs Fourth Way tradition, the Centers refer to separate apparatuses within a being that dictate specific functions within that being. ... The Ray of Creation is a metaphysical cosmology which was taught by G.I. Gurdjieff. ... Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ... Jeanne de Salzmann was a close pupil of G. I. Gurdjieff who was his recognized deputy by many of Gurdjieffs other pupils. ... Henry John Sinclair (6th June 1907 – 1984) was the second and last Lord Pentland. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Jane Heap (1883 - 1964) was an American publisher and a significant figure in the development and promotion of literary modernism. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... Alfred Richard Orage (1873 – 1934) was a British intellectual, now best known for editing the magazine The New Age. ... Maurice Nicoll (July 19, 1884 - August 30, 1953). ... For other uses, see Colin Wilson (disambiguation). ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... This article is about the spiritual teacher formerly known as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armenians are a nation or ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the...


At different times in his life he formed and liquidated various schools around the world to utilize his teachings. He claimed that the teachings he brought to the West from his own experiences and early travels expressed the truth found in other ancient religions and wisdom teachings relating to self-awareness in one's daily life and humanity's place in the universe.[2] For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ...


His teachings might be summed up by the title of his third series of writings: Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am', while his complete series of books is entitled "All and Everything." Life is Real Only Then, When I Am is the incomplete text of the Third Series of All and Everything by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... All and Everything Ten Books in Three Series by G. I. Gurdjieff including Beelzebubs Tales to his Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When I Am. In his prospectus for All and Everything, printed at the beginning of each part of the trilogy, Gurdjieff...

Contents

Biography

The only account of Gurdjieff's early biography before he appeared in Moscow in 1912 can be found in his text Meetings with Remarkable Men. This text, however, cannot be read as straightforward autobiography.[3]. It was in the pre-1912 period that Gurdjieff went on his apocryphal voyage outlined in Meetings with Remarkable Men where he comes upon a map of "pre-sand Egypt" which allegedly leads him to study with the esoteric group the Sarmoung Brotherhood. Coincidentally, Gurdjieff is one of the only sources lending credibility for the existance of this group. Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... The Sarmoung Brotherhood is the Armenian word for Sarman, which means who preserved the doctrine of Zoroaster or means Bee in Persian. ...


Gurdjieff was born in Alexandropol (now Gyumri), Armenia. The exact date is unknown (anything ranging from 1866 to 1877 has been offered). Some authors argue persuasively for 1866 even though his passport states that he was born on November 28, 1877. Gurdjieff grew up in Kars and traveled to many parts of the world (such as Central Asia, Egypt, Rome) before returning to Russia in 1912. Location of Gyumri in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Marz Established 401 BC Government  - Mayor Vartan Ghukasyan Area  - City 36 km²  (13. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ...


From 1913 to 1949 the chronology appears to stand on the much firmer ground afforded by primary documents, independent witness, cross-reference, and reasonable inference.[4] On New Year's Day of 1912, Gurdjieff arrived in Moscow and attracted his first associates. In the same year he married Julia Ostrowska in St Petersburg. In 1914 Gurdjieff first advertised his ballet, "The Struggle of the Magicians," as well as supervised his pupils' writing of the sketch "Glimpses of Truth". In 1915 Gurdjieff accepted P. D. Ouspensky as a pupil, while in 1916 he accepted the composer Thomas de Hartmann and his wife Olga as students. At this time he had around thirty pupils. P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


Many authors have speculated that Gurdjieff was a spy, most likely of the Tsar, during the wars. This claim has been neither proven nor widely dismissed, since Gurdjieff had access to most places in Asia. Gurdjieff personally commented indirectly on this claim in his book Beelzebub's Tales when he said that "during a war every person that is somewhat awake is considered a spy because of his seriousness and alertness." Beelzebubs Tales to His Grandson or An Objectively Impartial Criticism of the Life of Man is the first volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


In the midst of revolutionary upheaval in Russia he left Petrograd in 1917 to return to his family home in Alexandropol. During the Bolshevik Revolution Gurdjieff set up temporary study communities in Essentuki in the Caucasus, then Tuapse, Maikop, Sochi and Poti, all on the Black Sea coast of Southern Russia, where he worked intensively with many of his Russian pupils. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Essentuki or Yessentuki (Russian: Ессентуки) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Tuapse (Russian: , Adyghe: ТIуапсэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shores of the Black Sea. ... Maykop (Майко́п), capital of the Republic of Adygea, Russia. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


In March 1918, Ouspensky separated from Gurdjieff, and four months later Gurdjieff's eldest sister and her family reached him in Essentuki as refugees, bringing news that Turks had shot his father in Alexandropol on 15 May. As Essentuki became increasingly threatened by civil war, Gurdjieff planted a fabricated newspaper story of his forthcoming "scientific expedition" to Mount Induc. Posing as a scientist, Gurdjieff left Essentuki with a following of fourteen (which does not include Gurdjieff's family or Ouspensky). They went by train to Maikop where hostilities detained them for three weeks. In spring of 1919 Gurdjieff met and accepted as pupils the artist Alexandre Salzmann and his wife Jeanne. In collaboration with Jeanne Salzmann, Gurdjieff gave the first public demonstration of his Sacred Dances (Movements in Tbilisi Opera House, 22 June). is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In autumn 1919 he and his closest pupils moved to Tbilisi. In late May 1920, when political conditions in Georgia changed and the old order was crumbling, they walked by foot to Batumi on the Black Sea coast, and then Istanbul. There Gurdjieff rented an apartment on Koumbaradji Street in Péra and later at 13 Abdullatif Yemeneci Sokak near the Galata Tower.[5] The apartment is near the tekke (monastery) of the Mevlevi Order of Sufis (founded by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi), where Gurdjieff, Ouspensky, and Thomas de Hartmann experienced the sema ceremony of The Whirling Dervishes. In Istanbul Gurdjieff also met John G. Bennett[6]. Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... One example of a medieval khanqah, this one in Isfahan. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-DÄ«n Muhammad RÅ«mÄ«[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad BalkhÄ« (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) of the automobile aftermarket was formed in 1963 by Roy Richter, Ed Iskenderian, Willie Garner, Bob Hedman, John Bartlett, Phil Weiand, Jr. ... The Mevlevi Order or the Mevleviye are a Sufi order founded by the followers of the Persian Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi in 1273 in Konya present day Turkey; also known as The Whirling Dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling as a form of dhikr (remeberence of Allah... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ...


In August 1921 and 1922, Gurdjieff traveled around western Europe, lecturing and giving demonstrations of his work in various cities such as Berlin and London, capturing the allegiance of Ouspensky's many prominent pupils, notably the editor A. R. Orage. After he lost a civil action to acquire Hellerau possession in Britain, Gurdjieff established the Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man south of Paris at the Prieuré des Basses Loges in Fontainebleau-Avon near the famous Château de Fontainebleau. Gurdjieff acquired notoriety after Katherine Mansfield died on 9 January 1923. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alfred Richard Orage was a socialist known for editing the magazine New Age. ... Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man was an esoteric spiritual school founded by G. I. Gurdjieff in 1922 also known as Le Prieuré for the name of the property that he purchased in Fontainebleau-Avon south of Paris in France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... The central range of Fontainebleau The Royal Chateau of Fontainebleau (in the Seine-et-Marne d partement), the largest of the French royal chateaux, introduced to France the Italian Mannerist style in interior decoration and in gardens, and transformed them in the translation. ... Katherine Mansfield (14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist writer of short fiction. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1924, while driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau, Gurdjieff had a near fatal car accident. Nursed by his wife and mother, he made a slow and painful recovery—against medical expectation. Still convalescent, he formally "disbanded" his Institute on 26 August (but in fact he dispersed only his less dedicated pupils), and began writing All and Everything. In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... All and Everything Ten Books in Three Series by G. I. Gurdjieff including Beelzebubs Tales to his Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When I Am. In his prospectus for All and Everything, printed at the beginning of each part of the trilogy, Gurdjieff...


In 1925 Gurdjieff's wife contracted cancer, and she died in 1926 despite radiotherapy and Gurdjieff's unorthodox treatment. Ouspensky attended her funeral.


Starting in 1929, Gurdjieff made visits to North America where he took over as the teacher of pupils who were at that time being taught by A.R. Orage.


In 1935 Gurdjieff stopped writing All and Everything, having completed the first two parts of the trilogy and only having started on the Third Series (published under the title Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am'). Life is Real Only Then, When I Am is the incomplete text of the Third Series of All and Everything by G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


In Paris, Gurdjieff lived at 6 Rue des Colonels-Rénard, where he continued to teach throughout World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Gurdjieff died on October 29, 1949 at the American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. His funeral was held at the St. Alexandre Nevsky Russian Orthodox Cathedral at 12 Rue Daru, Paris. He is buried in the cemetery at Fontainebleau-Avon.[7] is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ...


Ideas

Gurdjieff claimed that people do not perceive reality, as they are not conscious of themselves, but live in a state of hypnotic "waking sleep."


"Man lives his life in sleep, and in sleep he dies."[8] Gurdjieff taught that each person perceived things from a completely subjective perspective. Gurdjieff stated that maleficent events such as wars and so on could not possibly take place if people were more awake. He asserted that people in their typical state were unconscious automatons, but that it was possible for a man to wake up and experience life more fully.[9] The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ...


Self-development teachings

Main article Fourth Way

In his early lectures G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as the Fourth Way.[10] In contrast to the three eastern teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieff's exercises worked on all three at the same time to promote comprehensive and balanced inner development. Today, Gurdjieff's teachings are also sometimes referred to as "The Work," "The Gurdjieff Work," "Work on oneself" or simply the "Work."[11] Though Gurdjieff never put major significance on the term "Fourth Way" and never used the term in his writings, his pupil P.D. Ouspensky made the term and its use central to his own teaching of the Gurdjieff Ideas. After Ouspensky's death, his students published a book with that name, based on his lectures. In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the... Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (January 13, 1872 - October 29, 1949), the Greek-Armenian mystic and teacher of dancing born in Alexandropol, Armenia (then of the Russian Empire, now Gyumri, Armenia), traveled to many parts of the world (i. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 5, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher with an analytic and mystical bent who combined geometry and psychology in his discussion of higher dimensions of existence. ...


Gurdjieff's teaching mainly addressed the question of people's place in the universe and their possibilities for inner development. He taught that higher levels of consciousness, higher bodies,[12] and inner growth and development is possible.[13]


In his teaching Gurdjieff gave a distinct meaning to various ancient texts such as the Bible and many religious prayers. He claimed that those texts possess a very different meaning than what is commonly attributed to them. "Sleep not;" "Awake, for you know not the hour;" "The Kingdom of Heaven is Within"...are examples of biblical statements that point to a psychological teaching whose essence has been forgotten. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


Gurdjieff taught people how to increase and focus their attention and energy in various ways, and to minimize daydreaming and absentmindedness. According to his teaching, this inner development in oneself is the beginning of a possible further process of change, whose aim is to transform a man into what Gurdjieff believed he ought to be.[14]


Distrusting "morality," which he describes as varying from culture to culture, often contradictory and superficial, he greatly stressed the importance of conscience. This he regarded as the same in all people, buried in people's subconsciousness, thus both sheltered from damage by how people live and inaccessible without "work on oneself."


To provide conditions in which inner attention could be exercised more intensively, Gurdjieff also taught his pupils "sacred dances" or "movements" which they performed together as a group, and he left a body of music inspired by what he heard in visits to remote monasteries and other places, which was written for piano in collaboration with one of his pupils, Thomas de Hartmann. Gurdjieff also used various exercises, such as the "Stop" exercise, to prompt self-observation in his students. Other shocks to help awaken his pupils from constant day-dreaming were always possible at any moment. Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


Methods

Gurdjieff transmitted his ideas through a number of different methods and materials, including meetings, music, movements (sacred dance), writings, lectures, and innovative forms of group work. He was not consistent in his use of these materials through his lifetime; for example, six years in Paris were devoted primarily to writing, while composition of music and movement centered around a few distinct periods. In Russia he was described as keeping his teaching confined to a small circle,[15], while in Paris and North America he gave numerous public demonstrations.[16]


Gurdjieff felt that the traditional methods of self-knowledge -- those of the fakir, monk, and yogi (acquired, respectively, through pain, devotion, and study) -- were inadequate. A fakir or faqir (Arabic: فقیر poor) is a Sufi, especially one who performs feats of endurance or apparent magic. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi A yogi (Sanskrit feminine: yogini) is a term for a male who practices various forms of the path of Yoga, maintaining a steadfast mind, the process of transcending the lower self. ...

"Gurdjieff's system, which involved music, movement, dance, and self-criticism, enabled the unrealized individual to transcend the mechanical, acted-upon self and ascend from mere personality to self-actualizing essence."[17]

In this way, Gurdjieff's methodology has been compared to fellow Eastern European mystics Peter Deunov and Ottoman Hanish, whose Paneurhythmy and Persian/Caucasoid Yoga work, respectively, also centered on physical movement, music, and dance: "these men come from an ancient tradition scattered around the Black Sea," and stemming from ancient Gnostic Bogomilism, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement.[18] Unlike his contemporaries, however, Gurdjieff quickly became well known in the West, establishing centres from France to New York to Scottsdale, Arizona. Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ... Peter Constantinov Deunov Master Beinsa Douno Master of Esoteric Christianity Peter Konstantinov Deunov (Bulgarian Петър Константинов Дънов, pronounced ) was a spiritual master and founder of a School of Esoteric Christianity. ... Paneurhythmy is a method/dance offered by Peter Deunov (the Master Beinsa Douno) who established a Christian Esoteric School of the Universal White Brotherhood in Bulgaria. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... For the Slavic name Bogomil - see here Bogomilism (Bulgarian: ) is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement, which emerged in Bulgaria between 927 and 970 and spread into Byzantine Empire, Serbia, Bosnia, Italy and France. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Scottsdale . ...


Music

The Gurdjieff music divides into three distinct periods. The first period is the early music, including music from the ballet Struggle of the Magicians and music for early Movements, dating to the years around 1918.


The second period music, for which he is best known, written in collaboration with Russian composer Thomas de Hartmann, is described as the Gurdjieff-de Hartmann music. Dating to the mid 1920s, it offers a rich repertory with roots in Caucasian and Central Asian folk and religious music, Russian Orthodox liturgical music, and other sources. This music was often first heard, and even composed, in the salon at the Prieure. Since the publication of four volumes of this piano repertory by Schott, recently completed, there has been a wealth of new recordings, including orchestral versions of music prepared by Gurdjieff and de Hartmann for the Movements demonstrations of 1923-24.


The last musical period is the improvised harmonium music which often followed the dinners Gurdjieff held in his Paris apartment during the Occupation and immediate post-war years, to his death in 1949. A virtually encyclopedic recording of surviving tapes of Gurdjieff improvising on the harmonium was recently published.


In all, Gurdjieff in collaboration with de Hartmann composed some 200 pieces.[2]


Movements

Movements, or sacred dances, constitute an integral part of the Gurdjieff Work. Gurdjieff sometimes referred to himself as a "teacher of dancing," and gained initial public notice for his attempts to put on a ballet in Moscow called "Struggle of the Magicians."


Films of Movements demonstrations are occasionally shown for private viewing by the Gurdjieff Foundations, and one is shown in a scene in the Peter Brook movie Meetings with Remarkable Men. Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ...


Group Work

Gurdjieff taught that group efforts greatly surpass individual efforts towards self-development, and therefore he created innovative ways for individuals to come together to pursue his work. Students regularly met with group leaders in group meeting, and groups of students came together in "work periods" where intensive labor was performed and elaborate meals were prepared.


Gurdjieff student William Segal recounts periods of hard labor "around the clock" in his autobiography[19] A Voice at the Borders of Silence [3]. Gurdjieff's student John Pentland connects the Gurdjieff group work with the later rise of encounter groups. Groups also often met to prepare for demonstrations or performances to which the public was invited. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Writings

Gurdjieff wrote and approved for publication three volumes of his written work under the title All and Everything. The first volume, Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson, is a lengthy allegorical work that recounts the explanations of Beelzebub to his grandson concerning the beings of the planet Earth. Intended to be a teaching tool for his teachings, Gurdjieff had gone to great lengths in order to increase the effort needed to read and understand the book. The second volume, Meetings with Remarkable Men, was written in a very easily understood manner, and purports to be an autobiography of his early years, but which also contains many allegorical statements. His final unfinished volume, Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am', contains a fragment of an autobiographical description of later years, as well as transcripts of some lectures. All and Everything Ten Books in Three Series by G. I. Gurdjieff including Beelzebubs Tales to his Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When I Am. In his prospectus for All and Everything, printed at the beginning of each part of the trilogy, Gurdjieff... This is the first of a three volume set written by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... Life is Real Only Then, When I Am is the incomplete text of the Third Series of All and Everything by G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


As Gurdjieff explained to Ouspensky ... "for exact understanding exact language is necessary."[20]. In his first series of writings, Gurdjieff explains how difficult it is to choose an ordinary language to convey his thoughts exactly. He continues..."the Russian language is like the English...both these languages are like the dish which is called in Moscow 'Solianka', and into which everything goes except you and me..."[21]. In spite of the difficulties, he goes on to develop a special vocabulary of a new language all of it his own. He uses these new words particularly in the first series of his writings. However, in The Herald of Coming Good, he uses one particular word for the first time which does not appear in any of his other writings: ..." Tzvarnoharno...leads to the destruction of both him that tries to achieve something for general human welfare and of all that he has already accomplished to this end."[22]. According to Gurdjieff, King Solomon himself coined this particular word; as such, it seems to be a key to understanding the legend of Hiram Abiff. Hiram Abiff is an allegorical figure mentioned in Masonic ritual, who is figuratively the master of the construction of King Solomons Temple. ...


Reception and Influence

Opinions on Gurdjieff's writings and activities are divided. Sympathizers regard him as a charismatic master who brought new knowledge into Western culture, a psychology and cosmology that enable insights beyond those provided by established science.[23] Critics assert he was simply a charlatan with a large ego and a constant need for self-glorification.[24] Look up Charlatan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gurdjieff had a strong influence on many modern mystics, artists, writers, and thinkers, including Frank Lloyd Wright[25], Keith Jarrett, Alan Watts, Timothy Leary, Robert Anton Wilson, Robert Fripp, Jacob Needleman, John Shirley, Dennis Lewis, Peter Brook, Kate Bush, P. L. Travers, Robert S de Ropp, Walter Inglis Anderson, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Louis Pauwels and James Moore. Gurdjieff's notable personal students include Jeanne de Salzmann, Willem Nyland, Lord Pentland (Henry John Sinclair), P. D. Ouspensky, Olga de Hartmann, Thomas de Hartmann, Jane Heap, John G. Bennett, Alfred Richard Orage, Maurice Nicoll, George and Helen Adie and Katherine Mansfield. Aleister Crowley visited his Institute at least once. Gurdjieff called Crowley 'dirty,' and wanted him to leave the institute. Privately Crowley praised Gurdjieff's work, though with some reservations. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... For other persons named Keith Jarrett, see Keith Jarrett (disambiguation). ... From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... For the American baseball player, see Tim Leary (baseball player). ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... Robert Fripp (born 16 May 1946 in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England) is a guitarist, record producer and a composer, perhaps best known for being the guitarist for, and only constant member of, the progressive rock band King Crimson. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Patrick Shirley (born February 10, 1953) is an American science fiction and horror writer of novels, short stories, and television & film scripts. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. ... Pamela Lyndon Travers (9 August 1899 - 23 April 1996) was born Helen Lyndon Goff in Maryborough, Queensland, Australia, was the author of Mary Poppins and a student of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Robert S. de Ropp (1913-1987) was a prominent author in the general fields of the realization of human potentials, the search for spiritual enlightenment, etc. ... Walter Inglis Anderson (September 29, 1903-November 30, 1965) was an American painter. ... Alejandro Jodorowsky (IPA: ) (born February 17, 1929, in Tocopilla, Chile) is an amateur scholar in comparative religion, playwright, director, producer, composer, actor, mime, comic book writer, tarot card reader and historian, and psychotherapist. ... Louis Pauwels (born in Belgium, August 2, 1920 - January 28, 1997) was a French journalist and writer. ... James Moore (born December 16, 1929) in Cornwall, England. ... Jeanne de Salzmann was a close pupil of G. I. Gurdjieff who was his recognized deputy by many of Gurdjieffs other pupils. ... Henry John Sinclair (6th June 1907 – 1984) was the second and last Lord Pentland. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Jane Heap (1883 - 1964) was an American publisher and a significant figure in the development and promotion of literary modernism. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... Alfred Richard Orage (1873 – 1934) was a British intellectual, now best known for editing the magazine The New Age. ... Maurice Nicoll (July 19, 1884 - August 30, 1953). ... George Adie (1901-1989) and Helen Adie (1909-1996) were born in England, married about 1930, and became pupils of P.D. Ouspensky, then after his death in 1947, of G.I. Gurdjieff (d. ... Katherine Mansfield (14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist writer of short fiction. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ...


However one regards Gurdjieff's teaching, or Gurdjieff personally, he appears to have given new life and practical form to ancient teachings of both East and West. For example, the Socratic/Platonic emphasis on "the examined life" recurs in Gurdjieff's teaching as the practice of self-observation. His teachings about self-discipline and restraint reflect Stoic teachings. The Hindu/Buddhist notion of attachment recurs in Gurdjieff's teaching as the concept of identification. Similarly, his cosmology can be "read" against ancient and esoteric sources, respectively Neoplatonic and such a source as Robert Fludd's treatment of macrocosmic musical structures. American psychological culture has seized on one of Gurdjieff's introductions, the enneagram. Although for many students of the Gurdjieff tradition the enneagram remains a "koan," challenging and never explicated once and for all, the enneagram figure has been used as the basis for personality analysis, for example in the Enneagram of Personality, developed by Oscar Ichazo, Helen Palmer, and others, and in that application is not related to Gurdjieff's teaching or to his explanations of the enneagram. Enneagram Figure The Enneagram is a nine-pointed geometric figure. ... Enneagram Figure The Enneagram of Personality - usually known simply, but confusingly, as the Enneagram (and usually Enneagram rather than enneagram) - is a particular application of the Fourth Way enneagram figure in connection with personality and character issues. ...


Groups

Gurdjieff had influenced the formation of many groups after his death, all of which still function today and follow his ideas.


The Gurdjieff Foundation, the largest organization directly linked to Mr. Gurdjieff, was organized by Jeanne de Salzmann during the early 1950s, and led by her in cooperation with other direct pupils. The main three branches of the Foundation are The Gurdjieff Foundation of New York, The London-based Gurdjieff Society, the Institut Gurdjieff (Paris), and the network of foundations in South America founded by the late Natalie de Etievan, daughter of Jeanne de Salzmann. Connected to these four foundations are numerous smaller groups around the world, collected under the umbrella of the International Association of Gurdjieff Foundations. The president of the Gurdjieff Foundation of New York was Lord Pentland, who retained this position until his death. Jeanne de Salzmann was a close pupil of G. I. Gurdjieff who was his recognized deputy by many of Gurdjieffs other pupils. ...


There are also other groups formed by one or another of Gurdjieff's pupils. Willem Nyland, one of Gurdjieff's closest students and an original founder and trustee of The Gurdjieff Foundation of New York, left to form his own groups in the early 1960s. Jane Heap was sent to London by Gurdjieff, where she led groups until her death in 1964. Louise Goepfert March, who became a pupil of Gurdjieff's in 1929, started her own groups in 1957 and founded the Rochester Folk Art Guild in the Finger Lakes region of New York State; her efforts were closely linked to the Gurdjieff Foundation of New York. There are also independent groups which were formed and led by John G. Bennett. Jane Heap (1883 - 1964) was an American publisher and a significant figure in the development and promotion of literary modernism. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ...


There are also third-generation independent groups today such as those of William Patrick Patterson (student of Lord Pentland). William Patrick Paterson is a Fourth Way teacher who was a long-time student of Lord John Pentland. ...


Currently, Gurdjieff's influence has expanded from traditional Gurdjieffianism to variants with no relationship to him or his teaching apart from the use of his name.


Criticism

Criticism of Gurdjieff's system largely focuses on his insistence that people are "asleep" in a state closely resembling "hypnotic sleep." Gurdjieff said, even specifically at times, that a pious, good, and moral man was no more "spiritually developed" than any other person; they are all equally "asleep."


The primary criticism of Gurdjieff's work is that it attaches no value to almost everything that comprises the life of an average man. According to Gurdjieff, everything an "average man" possesses, accomplishes, does, and feels is completely accidental and without any initiative.


In his most elaborate writing, Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson (see bibliography), Gurdjieff records his reverence for the founders of the mainstream religions of East and West and his contempt by and large for what successive generations of believers have made of those religious teachings. His ironical discussions of "orthodoxhydooraki" and "heterodoxhydooraki"--orthodox fools and heterodox fools, from a Russian word -- position him as a critic of religious distortion and, in turn, as a target for criticism from some within those traditions. Gurdjieff has been interpreted by some to have had a total disregard for the value of mainstream religion, philanthropic work, and the value of doing right or wrong in general.


Gurdjieff's detractors, despite his seeming total lack of pretension to any kind of "guru holiness," argue that the many anecdotes of his sometimes unconventional behavior display the unsavory and impure character of a man who was a cynical manipulator of his followers. [4] Gurdjieff's own pupils wrestled to understand him. For example, in a written exchange between Luc Dietrich and Henri Tracol dating to 1943: "L.D.: How do you know that Gurdjieff wishes you well? H.T.: I feel sometimes how little I interest him--and how strongly he takes an interest in me. By that I measure the strength of an intentional feeling." [26]


Other Views

Gurdjieff's funeral
Gurdjieff's funeral

With so much surrounding Gurdjieff and his teaching, other views are possible. For example, during the Russian period he spoke with respect of the obyvatel, the simple householder or salt-of-the-earth peasant, who lives by traditional values and slowly develops himself. Much later, in Paris, he gave encouragement and financial help to a multitude of people who were hard up for one reason or another. His Paris flat had, people say, one of the world's worst art collections, consisting of pieces purchased from indigent artists as a cover for providing them with funds without humiliating them. Diogenes, the ancient Greek Cynic philosopher whom Gurdjieff resembles, once said of himself that like the chorus master, he set the note a little high so that the chorus would hit the right note. For his pupils and in his writings, Gurdjieff set the note "a little high" as a goal and inspiration, while in his personal conduct he was generous to "the average man." Many such people attended his funeral at the Russian cathedral, rue Daru. Gurdjieff's pupils did not know them. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1050 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1050 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Diogenes (Διογένης) is a Greek name shared by several important historical figures: Diogenes of Sinope ( 412- 323 BC), better known as Diogenes the Cynic or simply Diogenes Diogenes Apolloniates (c:a 460 BC), philosopher Diogenes of Seleukia (c:a 150 BC) Diogenes Laertius (between 200- 500 AD), historian This is... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ...


Bibliography

Gurdjieff is best known through the published works of his pupils. His one-time student P. D. Ouspensky wrote In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching, which some regard as a crucial introduction to the teaching. Others refer to Gurdjieff's own books (detailed below) as the primary texts. P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ...


Accounts of time spent with Gurdjieff have been published by A. R. Orage, Charles Stanley Nott, Thomas and Olga de Hartmann, Fritz Peters, René Daumal, John G. Bennett, Maurice Nicoll, Margaret Anderson, and Louis Pauwels, among others. Many others were drawn to his 'ideas table': Frank Lloyd Wright[27], Kathryn Hulme, P. L. Travers, Katherine Mansfield, and Jean Toomer. Alfred Richard Orage was a socialist known for editing the magazine New Age. ... Charles Stanley Nott; (1887- 1978), was an author, publisher, translator and a student of Gurdjieff. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... René Daumal (16 March, 1908 - 21 May, 1944) was a French writer, philosopher and poet. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... Maurice Nicoll (July 19, 1884 - August 30, 1953). ... Margaret Caroline Anderson (November 24, 1886 - October 18, 1973) was founder and editor of the celebrated literary magazine The Little Review, which published an extraordinary collection of modern American and English writers between 1914 and 1929. ... Louis Pauwels (born in Belgium, August 2, 1920 - January 28, 1997) was a French journalist and writer. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... Kathryn Hulme (January 6, 1900 - 1981). ... Pamela Lyndon Travers (9 August 1899 - 23 April 1996) was born Helen Lyndon Goff in Maryborough, Queensland, Australia, was the author of Mary Poppins and a student of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Katherine Mansfield (14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist writer of short fiction. ... Jean Toomer (December 26, 1894–March 30, 1967) was a poet, novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance. ...


Three books by Gurdjieff were published after his death: Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am'. This trilogy is Gurdjieff's legominism, known collectively as All and Everything. A legominism is, according to Gurdjieff, "one of the means of transmitting information about certain events of long-past ages through initiates". A book of his early talks was also collected by his student and personal secretary, Olga de Hartmann, and published in 1973 as Views from the Real World: Early Talks in Moscow, Essentuki, Tiflis, Berlin, London, Paris, New York, and Chicago, as recollected by his pupils. This is the first of a three volume set written by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... Life is Real Only Then, When I Am is the incomplete text of the Third Series of All and Everything by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... A trilogy is a set of three works of art, usually literature or film, that are connected and can be seen as a single work, as well as three individual ones. ... All and Everything Ten Books in Three Series by G. I. Gurdjieff including Beelzebubs Tales to his Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When I Am. In his prospectus for All and Everything, printed at the beginning of each part of the trilogy, Gurdjieff... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Views from the Real World: Early Talks in Moscow, Essentuki, Tiflis, Berlin, London, Paris, New York and Chicago, as recollected by his pupils published in 1973, considered to be one of the best introductions to the ideas of G. I. Gurdjieff. ...


The feature film Meetings with Remarkable Men (1979), based on Gurdjieff's book by the same name, depicts rare performances of the sacred dances taught to serious students of his work, known simply as the movements. The film was written by Jeanne de Salzmann and Peter Brook, directed by Brook, and stars Dragan Maksimovic and Terence Stamp. The movements is the name given to the collective body of sacred dances that were collected or authored by G. I. Gurdjieff and taught to his students as part of the work of self observation and self study the aim of which was development of a stable subjective and then... Jeanne de Salzmann was a close pupil of G. I. Gurdjieff who was his recognized deputy by many of Gurdjieffs other pupils. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Terence Henry Stamp (born July 22, 1938[1]) is an English actor. ...


Works written by Gurdjieff

All and Everything Ten Books in Three Series by G. I. Gurdjieff including Beelzebubs Tales to his Grandson, Meetings with Remarkable Men, and Life is Real Only Then, When I Am. In his prospectus for All and Everything, printed at the beginning of each part of the trilogy, Gurdjieff... This is the first of a three volume set written by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... Life is Real Only Then, When I Am is the incomplete text of the Third Series of All and Everything by G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Views from the Real World: Early Talks in Moscow, Essentuki, Tiflis, Berlin, London, Paris, New York and Chicago, as recollected by his pupils published in 1973, considered to be one of the best introductions to the ideas of G. I. Gurdjieff. ...

Books about G. I. Gurdjieff and The Fourth Way

  • The Unknowable Gurdjieff, Margaret Anderson, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1962, ISBN 0-7100-7656-8
  • Gurdjieff: A Very Great Enigma by J. G. Bennett, 1969
  • Gurdjieff: Making a New World by J. G. Bennett 1973, ISBN 0-06-090474-7
  • Idiots in Paris by J. G. Bennett and E. Bennett, 1980
  • Becoming Conscious with G.I. Gurdjieff, Solanges Claustres, Eureka Editions, 2005
  • Mount Analogue by René Daumal 1st edition in French, 1952; English, 1974
  • The Fellowship: The Untold Story of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Taliesin Fellowship by Roger Friedland and Harold Zellman, 2006, (includes especially extensive documentation on "the strong influence the occultist Georgi Gurdjieff had on Wright and especially his wife Oglivanna."[28])
  • Gurdjieff Unveiled by Seymour Ginsburg, 2005
  • Our Life with Mr. Gurdjieff by Thomas and Olga de Hartmann, 1964, Revised 1983 and 1992
  • Undiscovered Country by Kathryn Hulme, 1966
  • The Oragean Version by C. Daly King, 1951
  • The Gurdjieff Years 1929-1949: Recollections of Louise March by Annabeth McCorkle
  • Psychological Commentaries on the Teachings of Gurdjieff and Ouspensky by Maurice Nicoll, 1952, 1955, 1972, 1980, (6 volumes)
  • Teachings of Gurdjieff - The Journey of a Pupil by C. S. Nott, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1961
  • On Love by A. R. Orage, 1974
  • Psychological Exercises by A. R. Orage 1976
  • In Search of the Miraculous by P. D. Ouspensky, 1949 (numerous editions)
  • The Fourth Way by P. D. Ouspensky, 1957
  • The Psychology of Man's Possible Evolution by P. D. Ouspensky, 1978
  • Eating The "I": An Account of The Fourth Way: The Way of Transformation in Ordinary Life, William Patrick Patterson, 1992
  • Ladies of the Rope: Gurdjieff's Special Left Bank Women's Group, William Patrick Patterson 1999
  • Struggle of the Magicians: Exploring the Teacher-Student Relationship, William Patrick Patterson 1996
  • Taking with the Left Hand: Enneagram Craze, The Fellowship of Friends, and the Mouravieff Phenomenon, William Patrick Patterson, 1998
  • Voices in the Dark: Esoteric, Occult & Secular Voices in Nazi-Occupied Paris 1940-44, William Patrick Patterson, 2001
  • Boyhood with Gurdjieff by Fritz Peters, 1964
  • Gurdjieff Remembered by Fritz Peters, 1965
  • The Gurdjieff Work by Kathleen Speeth ISBN 0-87477-492-6
  • Gurdjieff: A Master in Life, Tcheslaw Tchekhovitch, Dolmen Meadow Editions, Toronto, 2006
  • Toward Awakening by Jean Vaysse, 1980
  • Gurdjieff: An Approach to his Ideas, Michel Waldberg, 1981, ISBN 0-7100-0811-2
  • A Study of Gurdjieff's Teaching, Kenneth Walker, 1957
  • Gurdjieff: The Key Concepts, Sophia Wellbeloved, Routledge, London and N.Y., 2003, ISBN 0-415-24898-1
  • Gurdjieff, Astrology and Beelzebub's Tales, Sophia Wellbeloved, Solar Bound Press, N.Y., 2002
  • The War Against Sleep: The Philosophy of Gurdjieff, Colin Wilson, 1980
  • Who Are You Monsieur Gurdjieff?, René Zuber 1980
  • Monsieur Gurdjieff, Louis Pauwels, France, 1954. [5]

Margaret Caroline Anderson (November 24, 1886 - October 18, 1973) was founder and editor of the celebrated literary magazine The Little Review, which published an extraordinary collection of modern American and English writers between 1914 and 1929. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8 June 1897 - 13 December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8 June 1897 - 13 December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... René Daumal (16 March, 1908 - 21 May, 1944) was a French writer, philosopher and poet. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... Taliesin in Spring Green, Wisconsin was the summer home of American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright. ... Seymour Ginsburg (1928-2004) was a pioneer of automata theory, formal language theory, and database theory in particular; and computer science in general. ... Thomas and Olga de Hartmann were students of G. I. Gurdjieff. ... Kathryn Hulme (January 6, 1900 - 1981). ... Maurice Nicoll (July 19, 1884 - August 30, 1953). ... Alfred Richard Orage was a socialist known for editing the magazine New Age. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... William Patrick Paterson is a Fourth Way teacher who was a long-time student of Lord John Pentland. ... William Patrick Paterson is a Fourth Way teacher who was a long-time student of Lord John Pentland. ... Kenneth James Walker, or Kendo as he is affectionatly known to his massive German fan base, was born in Cork, Ireland on January, 21st 1976. ... For other uses, see Colin Wilson (disambiguation). ...

Comprehensive biographies

  • The Harmonious Circle: The Lives and Work of G. I. Gurdjieff, P. D. Ouspensky, and Their Followers by James Webb, 1980, Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0-399-11465-3
  • Gurdjieff: The anatomy of a Myth by James Moore, 1991, ISBN 1-86204-606-9
  • Gurdjieff: An Introduction To His Life and Ideas by John Shirley, 2004, ISBN 1-58542-287-8

James Webb (1945 - 1980) was an English historian and biographer. ... James Moore (born December 16, 1929) in Cornwall, England. ... John Patrick Shirley (born February 10, 1953) is an American science fiction and horror writer of novels, short stories, and television & film scripts. ...

Videos/DVDs about G. I. Gurdjieff and the Fourth Way

Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ...

See also

In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the... In Gurdjieffs Fourth Way tradition, the Centers refer to separate apparatuses within a being that dictate specific functions within that being. ... The Ray of Creation is a metaphysical cosmology which was taught by G.I. Gurdjieff. ... The movements is the name given to the collective body of sacred dances that were collected or authored by G. I. Gurdjieff and taught to his students as part of the work of self observation and self study the aim of which was development of a stable subjective and then...

References

  1. ^ Gurdjieff International Review
  2. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of the Miraculous
  3. ^ S. Wellbeloved, Gurdjieff, Astrology and Beelzebub's Tales, pp.9-13
  4. ^ http://www.gurdjieff.org.uk/gs9.htm Chronology of Gurdjieff's Life by James Moore
  5. ^ "In Gurdjieff’s wake in Istanbul", Gurdjieff Movements, March 2003.
  6. ^ John G. Bennett (1983). Witness.
  7. ^ James Moore (1993). Gurdjieff – A Biography: The Anatomy of a Myth.
  8. ^ P.D. Ouspensky (1949), In Search of the Miraculous
  9. ^ G. I. Gurdjieff and His School by Jacob Needleman
  10. ^ P.D. Ouspensky (1949), In Search of the Miraculous, Chapter 2
  11. ^ Gurdjieff International Review
  12. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of the Miraculous, Chapter 2
  13. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1971). The Fourth Way, Chapter 1
  14. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of the Miraculous, Chapter 9
  15. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of the Miraculous, Chapter 1
  16. ^ G.I. Gurdjieff (1963) Meetings with Remarkable Men, Chapter 11
  17. ^ Seekerbooks.com Book review of Gary Lachman. In Search of the miraculles: Genius in the Shadow of Gurdjieff.[1]
  18. ^ Physical Training Traditions in Europe
  19. ^ William Segal (2003). Voice At The Borders Of Silence
  20. ^ Ouspensky, P. D. In Search of the Miraculous, p. 70, Harourt Brace & Co. 1949, ISBN 0-15-644508-5
  21. ^ Gurdjieff, G. All and Everything, p. 10, E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc., 1950
  22. ^ Gurdjieff, G. The Herald of Coming Good, p. 12, Paris 1933
  23. ^ P. D. Ouspensky (1971). The Fourth Way, Chapter 1
  24. ^ Michael Waldberg (1990). Gurdjieff – An Approach to his Ideas, Chapter 1
  25. ^ Friedland and Zellman, The Fellowship, pp.33-135
  26. ^ Henry Tracol, The Taste For Things That Are True, p. 84, Element Books: Shaftesbury, 1994
  27. ^ Friedland and Zellman, The Fellowship, pp.33-135
  28. ^ |Review of The Fellowship

P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... John Godolphin Bennett, (8th June 1897 - 13th December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. ... James Moore (born December 16, 1929) in Cornwall, England. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 5, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher with an analytic and mystical bent who combined geometry and psychology in his discussion of higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 5, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher with an analytic and mystical bent who combined geometry and psychology in his discussion of higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... The Fourth Way has come to be used as a general descriptive term for the body of ideas and teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff, which are also sometimes called The Work or The Gurdjieff Work. // When asked about the teaching he was setting forth, Gurdjieff said, The teaching whose theory... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky recollects the teachings of an individual to whom he refers only as G. and the authors ambivalent relationship with G., leading to his break with him. ... Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (January 13, 1872 - October 29, 1949), the Greek-Armenian mystic and teacher of dancing born in Alexandropol, Armenia (then of the Russian Empire, now Gyumri, Armenia), traveled to many parts of the world (i. ... Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by Greek-Armenian mystic G. I. Gurdjieff, as well as its G. I. Gurdjieffs personal autobiography. ... P.D. Ouspensky Peter D. Ouspensky (March 4, 1878, Moscow - October 2, 1947, Lyne Place, Surrey, England), (Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii, also Uspenskii or Uspensky) was a Russian philosopher who invoked geometry in his discussions of psychology and higher dimensions of existence. ... The Fourth Way has come to be used as a general descriptive term for the body of ideas and teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff, which are also sometimes called The Work or The Gurdjieff Work. // When asked about the teaching he was setting forth, Gurdjieff said, The teaching whose theory...

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G. I. Gurdjieff

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Critics

The Teachers of Gurdjieff (ISBN 0877282137) is a book by Rafael Lefort that begins as a journey to the middle east and central asia in search of the sources of Gurdjieffs teaching, and culminates in the authors own spiritual awakening, by meeting and opening to the teachings of... Idries Shah (16 June 1924–23 November 1996) (Persian: ادریس شاه), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayyid Idris al-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس الهاشمي), was an author in the Naqshbandi sufist tradition on works ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies, and was descended from the revered family, the Sadaat of... Robert Todd Carroll (1945-), Ph. ...

 
 

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