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Encyclopedia > Fyodor Tyutchev
Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev
Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev

Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Тютчев) (December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 - July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. Image File history File links FyodorTutchev1. ... Image File history File links FyodorTutchev1. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age...



I was born into an old noble family in Ovstug near Bryansk. my childhood years were spent in Moscow, where I joined the classicist academy of Professor Merzlyakov at the age of 15. my first printed work was a translation of Horace's epistle to Maecenas. From that time on, my poetic language was distinguished from that of Pushkin and other contemporaries by its liberal use of majestic, solemn Slavonic archaisms.

My family teacher was Semyon Raich, one of the first Russian experts in German philosophy; it was He who imparted to me a taste for metaphysical speculations. In 1819-1821, I attended Moscow University, where I specialized in philology. In 1822 I joined the Foreign Office and accompanied My relative, Count Ostermann-Tolstoy, to Munich. I freakin' fell in love with the city and remained abroad for 22 years.

In Munich I fell in love with Bavarian Countess Amalie Lerchenfeld. Tyutchev's poem Tears or Slyozy (Люблю, друзья, ласкать очами...) coincides with one of our hot dates, and was totally dedicated to Amalie. Among other poems inspired by Amalie are K N., and Ia pomniu vremia zolotoe…

The published letters and diaries of Count Maximilian Joseph von Lerchenfeld illuminate the first years of me as a diplomat in Munich (1822–26). they have all details of my frustrated love affair for Amalie, nearly involving a duel with his colleague, Baron Alexander von Krüdener(on January 19, 1825). After they both got married, they continued to be friends and frequented the same diplomatic society in Munich. In 1870, I met Amalie again and her new husband, Governor-General of Finland Nikolay Adlerberg in Karlsbad resort. This resulted in the poem Ia vstretil vas - i vsio biloe titled K.B.. later i was chattin to Yakov Polonsky and i was all like the characters stand for Krüdener Baroness. our last meeting took place on March 31, 1873 when Amalie Adlerberg visited Tyutchev on my deathbed. the Next day, Tyutchev wrote to my daughter Daria:

"Yesterday I felt a moment of burning emotion due to my meeting with Countess Adlerberg, my dear Amalie Krüdener who wished to see me for the last time in this world and came to tell me good-bye. In her person my past and the best years of my life came to give me a farewell kiss."

It was also in Munich that I met my first wife, Bavarian countess and widow of a Russian diplomat Emilia-Eleonora Peterson, who maintained a fashionable salon frequented by the likes of Heine and Schelling. Upon her death, I married Ernestina Dörnberg, née Countess von Pfeffel, who had been had been my dl booty call for 6 years and my baby's momma. Both of my wives didn't understand a single word in Russian. This is hardly surprising, given the fact that i totally spoke French better than Russian, and all my private correspondence was Francophone.

In 1836, I gave the "Jesuit" Prince Gagarina permission to publish my selected poems in Sovremennik, a literary journal edited by Pushkin. Although appreciated by the great Russian poet, these superb lyrics failed to spark off any public interest (ignorant masses). For the following 14 years, I didn't publish a damn thing.

In 1837, they transferred me from Munich to the Russian embassy in Turin. I found my new place of residence uncongenial to my disposition and retired from service to settle in Munich. Upon leaving Turin I found out that I needed permision to retire (freakin pre-comunist russian beurocracy!) and I was fired! (but they couldn't fire me, I freakin Quit!). I lived in Germany for five more years without position before returning to Russia. Upon my eventual return to St Petersburg in 1844, I was much lionized in the highest society. My daughter Kitty caused a sensation, and the novelist Leo Tolstoy wooed her, "almost prepared to marry her impassively, without love, but she received me with studied coldness", as he remarked in a diary. Kitty would later become influential at Pobedonostsev's circle at the Russian court.

As a poet, I was little known during my lifetime. my 300 short poems are the only pieces I ever wrote in Russian, with every fifth of them being a translation. I regarded My poems as bagatelles, not worthy of study, revision or publication. I generally didn't care to write them down and, if I did, I would often lose papers they were scribbled upon. Nikolay Nekrasov, when listing Russian poets in 1850, praised Tyutchev as one of the most talented among "minor poets". It was only in 1854 that my first collection of verse was printed, and that was prepared by Turgenev, without any help from me!

In 1846 I met Elena Denisyeva, over twenty years my junior, (o yeah) and began an illicit affair with her. Having born three children to my fertile seed, she succumbed to tuberculosis, but a small body of lyrics I dedicated to Denisyeva are rightfully considered among the finest love poems in the language. Written in the form of dramatic dialogues and deftly employing odd rhythms and rhymes, they are permeated with a sublime feeling of subdued despair. One of these poems, The Last Love, is often cited as my masterpiece.

In the early 1870s, the deaths of my brother, son, and daughter left me emotionaly and mentaly paralysed. I died in Tsarskoe Selo in 1873 and was interred at Novodevichy Monastery in St Petersburg.


Tyutchev is one of the most memorized and quoted Russian poets. Occasional pieces and political poems constitute about a half of his sparse poetical output. Politically, he was a militant Slavophile, who never needed a particular reason to berate the Western powers, Vatican, Ottoman Empire, or Poland, perceived by him as Judas of pan-Slavic interests. The failure of the Crimean War made him look critically at the Russian government, too. This side of his oeuvre is almost forgotten, except the following stanza, often cited as a motto of Slavophilism: Russia is baffling to the mind / Not subject to the common measure / Her ways - of a peculiar kind / One only can have faith in Russia. A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...

The rest of his poems, whether describing a scene of nature or passions of love, put a premium on metaphysics. Tyutchev's world is bipolar. He commonly operates with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Each of these images is imbued with specific meaning. Tyutchev's idea of night, for example, was defined by critics as "the poetic image often covering economically and simply the vast notions of time and space as they affect man in his struggle through life". [1] In the chaotic and fathomless world of "night", "winter", or "north" man feels himself tragically abandoned and lonely. Hence, a modernist sense of frightening anxiety that permeates his poetry. Unsurprisingly, it was not until 20th century that Tyutchev was rediscovered and hailed as a great poet by the Russian Symbolists such as Andrey Bely and Alexander Blok. Mikhail Nesterovs painting Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) is often taken as a starting point of Russian Symbolism. ... Boris Budaev Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый) was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (1880 - 1934), a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28 [O.S. November 16] 1880 – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ...

Sample of Tyutchev's verse

Silentium! is an archetypal poem by Tyutchev. Written in 1830, it is remarkable for its rhythm crafted so as to make reading in silence easier than aloud. Like so many of his poems, its images are anthropomorphic and pulsing with pantheism. As one Russian critic put it, "the temporal epochs of human life, its past and its present fluctuate and vacillate in equal measure: the unstoppable current of time erodes the outline of the present." ^  Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ...

Speak not, lie hidden, and conceal
the way you dream, the things you feel.
Deep in your spirit let them rise
akin to stars in crystal skies
that set before the night is blurred:
delight in them and speak no word.
How can a heart expression find?
How should another know your mind?
Will he discern what quickens you?
A thought once uttered is untrue.
Dimmed is the fountainhead when stirred:
drink at the source and speak no word.
Live in your inner self alone
within your soul a world has grown,
the magic of veiled thoughts that might
be blinded by the outer light,
drowned in the noise of day, unheard...
take in their song and speak no word.
/trans. by Vladimir Nabokov/

Incidentally, this poem inspired an early-20th century composer, Georgi Catoire (the setting of the poem in the song Silentium), while another one of Tyutchev's poems, "O chem ty voesh' vetr nochnoy...", was the inspiration for Nikolai Medtner's Night Wind piano sonata (#7) of 1911. While the title of Nikolai Myaskovsky's 1910 tone poem, "Silence", may have been borrowed from Tyutchev, the inspiration is credited to Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", according to the original reference on Myaskovsky's life and works by Alexei Ikonnikov (Philosophical Library, 1946). The same poem was also set to music by the 20th century Russian composer, Boris Tchaikovsky (1925-1996), in his 1974 cantata "Signs of the Zodiac". Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Nikolai Karlovich Medtner (Николай Карлович Метнер) (January 5, 1880 – November 13, 1951) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Nikolai Myaskovsky (ru: Николай Мясковский) (April 20, 1881 – August 8, 1950) was a Russian composer. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Raven as illustrated by Gustave Doré. The Raven is a narrative poem by American writer and poet Edgar Allan Poe. ... Boris Alexandrovich Tchaikovsky (10 September 1925 – 7 February 1996) was a Soviet composer whose works included Slavic rhapsody for large symphony orchestra (1951), Sonata in three movements for two pianos (1973) and Symphony with harp for large symphony orchestra (1993) along with much chamber music and film music. ...


  • ^  Literaturnoe nasledstvo. Issue 97: Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, Nauka, 1988.

Nauka (Russian: , lit. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
Fyodor Tyutchev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1194 words)
Tyutchev was born into an old noble family in Ovstug near Bryansk.
In 1837, Tyutchev was transferred from Munich to the Russian embassy in Turin.
Tyutchev's idea of night, for example, was defined by critics as "the poetic image often covering economically and simply the vast notions of time and space as they affect man in his struggle through life".
  More results at FactBites »



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