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Encyclopedia > Futurism (art)

Futurism was a 20th century art movement. Although a nascent Futurism can be seen surfacing throughout the very early years of the twentieth century, the 1907 essay Entwurf einer neuen Ästhetik der Tonkunst (Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music) by the Italian composer Ferruccio Busoni is sometimes claimed as its true jumping-off point. Futurism was a largely Italian and Russian movement although it also had adherents in other countries, England for example. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844–1926). ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ...


The Futurists explored every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre, music, architecture and even gastronomy. The Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was the first among them to produce a manifesto of their artistic philosophy in his Manifest of Futurism (1909), first released in Milan and published in the French paper Le Figaro (February 20). Marinetti summed up the major principles of the Futurists, including a passionate loathing of ideas from the past, especially political and artistic traditions. He and others also espoused a love of speed, technology and violence. The car, the plane, the industrial town were all legendary for the Futurists, because they represented the technological triumph of man over nature. For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... The Futurists in Paris, February 1912. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... The Futurist Manifesto was written in 1909 by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and issued to provide a concise collection of Futurists thoughts, beliefs and intentions, in a declaratory form. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ...


Marinetti's impassioned polemic immediately attracted the support of the young Milanese paintersBoccioni, Carrà, and Russolo—who wanted to extend Marinetti's ideas to the visual arts (Russolo was also a composer, and introduced Futurist ideas into his compositions). The painters Balla and Severini met Marinetti in 1910 and together these artists represented Futurism's first phase. Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Museum of Modern Art, New York) Umberto Boccioni (October 19, 1882–August 16, 1916) was an Italian painter and sculptor and a member of the Futurist movement. ... Carlo Carrà Carlo Carrà (11 February 1881-13 April 1966) was an Italian painter, a leading figure of the futurist movement that flourished in Italy during the beginning of the 20th century. ... Luigi Russolo ca. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Giacomo Balla (July 24, 1871 - March 1, 1958) was an Italian painter. ... Gino Severini (April 7, 1883 – February 26, 1966), was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. ...


The Italian painter and sculptor Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916) wrote the Manifesto of Futurist Painters in 1910 in which he vowed: Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

We will fight with all our might the fanatical, senseless and snobbish religion of the past, a religion encouraged by the vicious existence of museums. We rebel against that spineless worshiping of old canvases, old statues and old bric-a-brac, against everything which is filthy and worm-ridden and corroded by time. We consider the habitual contempt for everything which is young, new and burning with life to be unjust and even criminal.

Futurists dubbed the love of the past "pastism", and its proponents "pastists" (cf. Stuckism). The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ...

Contents

Cubo-Futurism

Image from an Agitprop poster by Mayakovsky.
Image from an Agitprop poster by Mayakovsky.
Main articles: Russian Futurism and Cubo-Futurism

Cubo-Futurism was the main school of Russian Futurism which imbued influence of Cubism and developed in Russia in 1913. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Agitprop poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky. ... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the Victory Over the Sun. ... Cubo-Futurism was a variation of Cubism that developed in Russia in 1913. ...


Like their Italian predecessors, the Russian Futurists — Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksey Kruchenykh, Vladimir Mayakovsky, David Burlyuk — were fascinated with dynamism, speed, and restlessness of modern urban life. They purposely sought to arouse controversy and to attract publicity by repudiating static art of the past. The likes of Pushkin and Dostoevsky, according to them, should have been "heaved overboard from the steamship of modernity". They acknowledged no authorities whatsoever; even Marinetti, principles of whose manifesto they adopted earlier — when he arrived to Russia on a proselytizing visit in 1914 — was obstructed by most Russian Futurists who now did not profess to owe anything to him. Velemir Khlebnikov portrait by Wladimir Burliuk, 1913 Velimir Khlebnikov (Russian: Велимир Хлебников; first name also spelled Velemir; last name also spelled Chlebnikov, Hlebnikov, Xlebnikov), pseudonym of Viktor Vladimirovich Khlebnikov (November 9, 1885 (October 28, 1885 (O.S.)) – June 28, 1922), was a central part of the Russian Futurist movement but his work... Portrait by Mikhail Larionov. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 19 [O.S. July 7] 1893 – April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet, among the foremost representatives of early-20th century Futurism. ... David Burliuk Revolution, 1917 David or Davyd Burliuk (July 21, 1882–January 15, 1967) was a Ukrainian avant-garde artist (Futurist, Neo-Primitivist), book illustrator, publicist, and author associated with Russian Futurism. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... The Futurists in Paris, February 1912. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In contrast to Marinetti's circle, Russian Futurism was a literary rather than artistic movement. Although many leading poets (Mayakovsky, Burlyuk) dabbled in painting, their interests were primarily literary. On the other hand, such well-established artists as Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova, and Kazimir Malevich found inspiration in the refreshing imagery of Futurist poems and experimented with versification themselves. The poets and painters attempted to collaborate on such innovative productions as the Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun, with texts by Kruchenykh and sets contributed by Malevich. Self-Portrait, 1910 Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov (1881-1964) was a celebrated Russian painter, husband of Natalia Goncharova. ... Self Portrait with Yellow Lilies. ... Self-portrait, 1933 (detail) Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Russian: , Polish: , Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German: ), (February 23, 1879 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and art theoretician, pioneer of geometric abstract art and one of the most important members of the Russian avant-garde. ... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the opera. ...


The movement began to waste away after the revolution of 1917. Many prominent members of the Russian Futurism emigrated abroad. Artists like Mayakovsky and Malevich become the prominent members of the Soviet establishment and Agitprop of the 1920s. Others like Khlebnikov were persecuted for their beliefs. Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 7 (O.S.) = July 19 (N.S.), 1893 - April... Self-portrait, 1933 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Казимир Северинович Малевич, Polish Malewicz, Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German Kasimir Malewitsch), (February 12, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and... Soviet redirects here. ... Agitprop poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky. ...


Futurism in Music

An important musical Futurist work is Arthur Honegger's symphonic poem "Pacific 231". Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Pacific 231 is an orchestral work by Arthur Honegger, written in 1923. ...


Futurism in the 1920s and 1930s

Many Italian Futurists instinctively supported the rise of fascism in Italy in the hope of modernizing the society and the economy of a country that was still torn between unfulfilled industrial revolution in the North and the rural, archaic South. Marinetti founded the Partito Politico Futurista (Futurist Political Party) in early 1918, which only a year later was absorbed into Benito Mussolini's Fasci di combattimento, making Marinetti one of the first supporters and members of the National Fascist Party. However, he opposed Fascism's later canonical exultation of existing institutions, calling them "reactionary." Nevertheless, he stayed a notable force in developing the party thought throughout the regime. Some Futurists' aestheticization of violence and glorification of modern warfare as the ultimate artistic expression and their intense nationalism also induced them to embrace fascism. Many Futurists became associated with the regime over the 1920s, which gave them both official recognition and the ability to carry out important works, especially in architecture. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... The aestheticization of violence in high culture art or mass media is the depiction of violence in a manner that is stylistically excessive in a significant and sustained way so that audience members are able to connect references from the play of images and signs to artworks, genre conventions, cultural... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ...


However, some leftists that came to Futurism in the earlier years continued to oppose Marinetti's domination of the artistic and political direction of Futurism.


Futurism expanded to encompass other artistic domains. In architecture, it was characterized by a distinctive thrust towards rationalism and modernism through the use of advanced building materials. In Italy, futurist architects were often at odds with the fascist state's tendency towards Roman imperial/classical aesthetic patterns. However several interesting futurist buildings were built in the years 1920–1940, including many public buildings: stations, maritime resorts, post offices, etc. See, for example, Trento's railway station built by Angiolo Mazzoni. In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ... Panorama of Trento. ... Angiolo Mazzoni (1894-1979), Italian modernist architect, designed many public buildings during the 1920s and 1930s, among which post offices and train stations. ...


The legacy of Futurism

The cover of the last edition of BLAST, journal of the British Vorticist movement, a movement heavily influenced by futurism.
The cover of the last edition of BLAST, journal of the British Vorticist movement, a movement heavily influenced by futurism.

Futurism influenced many other twentieth century art movements, including Art Deco, Vorticism, Constructivism, Surrealism and Dada. Futurism as a coherent and organized artistic movement is now regarded as extinct, having died out in 1944 with the death of its leader Marinetti, and Futurism was, like science fiction, in part overtaken by 'the future'. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x760, 158 KB)The cover of the second (and last) edition of BLAST, by Wyndham Lewis and friends. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x760, 158 KB)The cover of the second (and last) edition of BLAST, by Wyndham Lewis and friends. ... Ezra Pound, who gave Vorticism its name and contributed to Blast. ... Asheville City Hall. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


Nonetheless the ideals of futurism remain as significant components of modern Western culture; the emphasis on youth, speed, power and technology finding expression in much of modern commercial cinema and culture. Ridley Scott consciously evoked the designs of Sant'Elia in Blade Runner. Echoes of Marinetti's thought, especially his "dreamt-of metallization of the human body", are still strongly prevalent in Japanese culture, and surface in manga/anime and the works of artists such as Shinya Tsukamoto, director of the "Tetsuo" (lit. "Ironman") films. Futurism has produced several reactions, including the literary genre of cyberpunk — in which technology was often treated with ambivalence — whilst artists who came to prominence during the first flush of the Internet, such as Stelarc, Natasha Vita-More and Mariko Mori, produce work which comments on futurist ideals. Natasha Vita-More also designed Primo Posthuman as the artistic futurists body design. Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, for many a symbol of the changes of the Western culture during the Renaissance Western culture or Western civilization is a term used to generally refer to most of the cultures of European origin and most of their descendants. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, County Durham) is an influential Academy Award-nominated English film director, and producer. ... Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuova, 1914. ... Blade Runner is a 1982 cyberpunk, neo-noir film directed by Ridley Scott from a screenplay written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, loosely based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick. ... Manga )   (pl. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Shinya Tsukamoto (塚本 晋也 Tsukamoto Shinya) is a Japanese film director and actor with a considerable cult following both domestically and abroad. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Stelarc (born Stelios Arcadiou on June 19, 1946) to Greek Cypriot parents is an Australian performance artist whose works focus heavily on futurism and extending the capabilities of the human body. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ... Mariko Mori (森万里子, Mori Mariko, b. ... Natasha Vita-More (born Nancie Clark) is an influential transhumanist theorist and futurist. ...


A revival of sorts of the Futurist movement began in 1988 with the creation of the Neo-Futurist style of theatre in Chicago, which utilizes Futurism's focus on speed and brevity to create a new form of immediate theatre. Currently, there are active Neo-Futurist troupes in Chicago and New York. The Neo-Futurists are an experimental theater troupe founded by Greg Allen in 1988, beginning with the play Too Much Light Makes the Baby Go Blind. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Another revival in the San Francisco area, perhaps best described as Post-Futurist, centers around the band Sleepytime Gorilla Museum, who took their name from a (possibly fictitious) Futurist press organization (described by founder John Kane as "the fastest museum alive") dating back to 1916. SGM's lyrics and (very in-depth) liner notes routinely quote and reference Marinetti and "The Futurist Manifesto," and juxtapose them with opposing views such as those presented in Industrial Society and Its Future (also known as the Unabomber Manifesto, attributed to Theodore Kaczynski). This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Sleepytime Gorilla Museum (often abbreviated to SGM) are an American avant-rock band, formed in 1999 in Oakland, California. ... Theodore Kaczynski Theodore John Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942) is a Polish-American terrorist who attempted to fight against what he perceived as the evils of technological progress by engaging in an almost eighteen-year-long campaign of sending mail bombs to various people, killing three and wounding 29. ... Unabomber is a nickname applied to three people: Theodore Kaczynski, an American terrorist. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Prominent Futurist artists

Giacomo Balla (July 24, 1871 - March 1, 1958) was an Italian painter. ... Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Museum of Modern Art, New York) Umberto Boccioni (October 19, 1882–August 16, 1916) was an Italian painter and sculptor and a member of the Futurist movement. ... Carlo Carrà Carlo Carrà (11 February 1881-13 April 1966) was an Italian painter, a leading figure of the futurist movement that flourished in Italy during the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Futurists in Paris, February 1912. ... Ambrogio Casati (1897 – 1977) was an Italian painter. ... Primo Conti. ... Fortunato Depero (March 30, 1892 - November 29, 1960) was an Italian futurist painter, writer, sculptor and graphic designer. ... David Burliuk Revolution, 1917 David or Davyd Burliuk (July 21, 1882–January 15, 1967) was a Ukrainian- Russian avant-garde artist (Futurist, Neo-Primitivist), book illustrator, publicist, and author associated with Russian Futurism. ... Wladimir Burliuk, Portrait of Velemir Khlebnikov, 1913 Wladimir Burliuk (Russian: , 1886–1917) was an avant-garde artist (Neo-Primitivist and Cubo-Futurist), book illustrator. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 19 [O.S. July 7] 1893 – April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet, among the foremost representatives of early-20th century Futurism. ... Angiolo Mazzoni (1894-1979), Italian modernist architect, designed many public buildings during the 1920s and 1930s, among which post offices and train stations. ... Luigi Russolo ca. ... A custom made instrument is a musical instrument that is considered to be of ones own design and/or a modification or extension of a defined guideline of a certain instrument. ... Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuova, 1914. ... Gino Severini (April 7, 1883 – February 26, 1966), was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Futurism (art)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Cubo-Futurism was a variation of Cubism that developed in Russia in 1913. ... Futures studies researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world, mechanisms of change, and the driving forces of change. ... Mikhail Larionov Red Rayonism 1913 Rayonism (or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911. ... Universal Flowering (Mirovoi rastsvet) is the name given by Pavel Filonov to his system of analytical art. ... The Neo-Futurists are an experimental theater troupe founded by Greg Allen in 1988, beginning with the play [[Too Much Light Makes the Baby Go Blind] 30 Plays in 60 Minutes]. Neo-Futurism, inspired by the Italian Futurist movement from the early 20th century, is based on an aesthetics of... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the Victory Over the Sun. ... The Art manifesto has been a recurrent feature associated with the avant-garde in Modernism. ... Futurist meals is derived from the Manifesto of Futurist Cooking (1930). ...

Further reading

  • Gentile, Emilo. 2003. The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-97692-0
  • I poeti futuristi, dir. by M. Albertazzi, w. essay of G. Wallace and M. Pieri, Trento, La Finestra editrice, 2004. ISBN 88-88097-82-1
  • John Rodker (1927). The future of futurism. New York: E.P. Dutton & company.

John Rodker (18 December 1894 – 6 October 1955) was a British writer, modernist poet, and publisher of some of the major modernist figures. ...

External links

  • "Futurism and the Futurists"
  • Futurism: Manifestos and Other Resources
  • The Futurist Moment: Howlers, Exploders, Crumplers, Hissers, and Scrapers by Kenneth Goldsmith
  • 1910 Futurist Movement Manifesto
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20th century - Modernity - Modern history
Modernism (music): 20th century classical music - Atonality - Serialism - Jazz
Modernist literature - Modernist poetry
Modern Art: Symbolism (arts) - Impressionism - Expressionism - Cubism - Constructivism - Surrealism - Dadaism - Futurism (art) - Fauvism - Pop Art - Abstract expressionism - Abstract art - Minimalism - Lyrical Abstraction - Color Field - Art Deco
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...Preceded by Romanticism Followed by Postmodernism...
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Futurism - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Futurism (531 words)
Futurism was a refreshing contrast to the sentimentality of Romanticism.
Futurism was therefore very unusual among art movements in that it started with a name and idea, with the works of art expressing that idea coming afterwards.
Fascism used both traditional and avant-garde art for propaganda purposes, and Futurism was one of a number of movements plundered for imagery.
Futurism (art) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1321 words)
Futurism was a 20th century art movement, not to be confused with Futurist - trend watching.
Futurism as a coherent and organized artistic movement is now regarded as extinct, having died out in the 1944 with the death of his leader Marinetti, and Futurism was, like science fiction, in part overtaken by 'the future'.
Futurism has produced several reactions, including the literary genre of cyberpunk - in which technology was often treated with ambivalence - whilst artists who came to prominence during the first flush of the Internet, such as Stelarc, Natasha Vita-More and Mariko Mori, produce work which comments on futurist ideals.
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