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Encyclopedia > Fusor
U.S. Patent 3,386,883  - fusor — June 4, 1968
U.S. Patent 3,386,883  - fusor — June 4, 1968

The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. It has also been developed in various incarnations by researchers including Elmore, Tuck, and Watson, and more lately by George Miley and Robert W. Bussard. Unlike most controlled fusion systems, which slowly heat a magnetically confined plasma, the fusor injects "high temperature" ions directly into a reaction chamber, thereby avoiding a considerable amount of complexity. The approach is known as inertial electrostatic confinement. Download high resolution version (430x651, 112 KB)US3386883 - fusor This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... Download high resolution version (430x651, 112 KB)US3386883 - fusor This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... An invention is an object, process, or technique which displays an element of novelty. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Robert W. Bussard (born 1928) is an American physicist working primarily in nuclear fusion energy research. ... Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to fusion energy that uses magnetic fields to confine the fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ...


Hopes at the time were high that it could be quickly developed into a practical power source. However, as with other fusion experiments, development into a generator has proven difficult. Nevertheless, the fusor has since become a practical neutron source and is produced commercially for this role. It has been assembled in low-power forms by hobbyists. Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

History

Invention

The fusor was originally conceived by Philo Farnsworth, better known for his pioneering work in television. In the early 1930s he investigated a number of vacuum tube designs for use in television, and found one that led to an interesting effect. In this design, which he called the multipactor, electrons moving from one electrode to another were stopped in mid-flight with the proper application of a high-frequency magnetic field. The charge would then accumulate in the center of the tube, leading to high amplification. Unfortunately it also led to high erosion on the electrodes when the electrons eventually hit them, and today the multipactor effect is generally considered a problem to be avoided. Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... e- redirects here. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... It has been suggested that shortwave be merged into this article or section. ... This template is misplaced. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... The Multipactor effect is a phenomenon in radio frequency (rf) amplifier vacuum tubes and waveguides, where, under certain resonant conditions, secondary electron emission may multiply and destroy the rf device. ...


What particularly interested Farnsworth about the device was its ability to focus electrons at a particular point. One of the biggest problems in fusion research is to keep the hot fuel from hitting the walls of the container. If this is allowed to happen, the fuel cannot be kept hot enough for the fusion reaction to occur. Farnsworth reasoned that he could build an electrostatic plasma confinement system in which the "wall" fields of the reactor were electrons or ions being held in place by the multipactor. Fuel could then be injected through the wall, and once inside it would be unable to escape. He called this concept a virtual electrode, and the system as a whole the fusor. Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... An important field of plasma physics is the equilibria and stability of the plasma. ...


Design

His original fusor designs were based on cylindrical arrangements of electrodes, like the original multipactors. Fuel was ionized and then fired from small accelerators through holes in the outer (physical) electrodes. Once through the hole they were accelerated towards the inner reaction area at high velocity. Electrostatic pressure from the positively charged electrodes would keep the fuel as a whole off of the walls of the chamber, and impacts from new ions would keep the hottest plasma in the center. He referred to this as inertial electrostatic confinement, a term that continues to be used to this day.


Various models of the fusor were constructed in the early 1960s. Unlike the original conception, these models used a spherical reaction area but were otherwise similar. Farnsworth ran a fairly "open" lab, and several of the lab techs also built their own fusor designs. Although generally successful, the fusor had a problem being scaled up: as the fuel was delivered via accelerators, the amount of fuel that could be used in the reaction was quite low.


Robert Hirsch

US3530497 — Hirsch–Meeks fusor
US3530497 — Hirsch–Meeks fusor

Things changed dramatically with the arrival of Robert Hirsch at the lab. He proposed an entirely new way of building a fusor without the ion guns or multipactor electrodes. Instead the system was constructed as two similar spherical electrodes, one inside the other, all inside a larger container filled with a dilute fuel gas. In this system the guns were no longer needed, and corona discharge around the outer electrodes was enough to provide a source of ions. Once ionized, the gas would be drawn towards the inner (negatively charged) electrode, which they would pass by and into the central reaction area. US3530497 - Hirsch-Meek fusor This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... US3530497 - Hirsch-Meek fusor This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... Robert Hirsch is a senior energy program adviser for Science Applications International Corporation. ... In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking (also known as arcing) is not favoured. ...


The overall system ended up being similar to Farnsworth's original fusor design in concept, but used a real electrode in the center. Ions would collect near this electrode, forming a shell of positive charge that new ions from outside the shell would penetrate due to their high speed. Once inside the shell they would experience an additional force keeping them inside, with the cooler ones collecting into the shell itself. It is this later design, properly called the Hirsch–Meeks fusor, that continues to be experimented with today.


Work at Farnsworth Television labs

New fusors based on Hirsch's design were first constructed in the later 1960s. Even the first test models demonstrated that the design was effective; soon they were showing production rates of up to a billion neutrons per second, and rates of up to a trillion per second have been reported.


All of this work had taken place at the Farnsworth Television labs, which had been purchased in 1949 by ITT Corporation with plans of becoming the next RCA. In 1961 ITT placed Harold Geneen in charge as CEO. Geneen decided that ITT was no longer going to be a telephone/electronics company, and instituted a policy of rapidly buying up companies of any sort. Soon ITT's main lines of business were insurance, Sheraton Hotels, Wonderbread and Avis Rent-a-Car. In one particularly busy month they purchased 20 different companies, all of them unrelated. It didn't matter what the companies did, as long as they turned a profit. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... ITT Corporation, NYSE: ITT is a large American manufacturing company with 2006 revenues of $7. ... RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by RCA Trademark Management S.A. [1], owned by Thomson SA. The trademark is used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson SA, which manufactures consumer electronics like RCA-branded televisions... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Harold Sydney Geneen (January 22, 1910-November 21, 1997), was an outstanding American businessman. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ...


A fusion research project was not regarded as immediately profitable. In 1965 the board of directors started asking Geneen to sell off the Farnsworth division, but he had his 1966 budget approved with funding until the middle of 1967. Further funding was refused, and that ended ITT's experiments with fusion. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


The team then turned to the AEC, then in charge of fusion research funding, and provided them with a demonstration device mounted on a serving cart that produced more fusion than any existing "classical" device. The observers were startled, but the timing was bad; Hirsch himself had recently revealed the great progress being made by the Soviets using the tokamak. In response to this surprising development, the AEC decided to concentrate funding on large tokamak projects, and reduce backing for alternative concepts. Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ...


Work at Brigham Young University

Farnsworth then moved to Brigham Young University and tried to hire on most of his original lab from ITT into a new company. The company started operations in 1968, but after failing to secure several million dollars in seed capital, by 1970 they had burned through all of Farnsworth's savings. The IRS seized their assets in February 1971, and in March Farnsworth suffered a bout of pneumonia which resulted in his death. The fusor effectively died along with him. Brigham Young University Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, is the flagship university of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        “IRS” redirects here. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...


Recent developments

In the early 1980s, disappointed by the slow progress on "big machines", a number of physicists took a fresh look at alternative designs. George Miley at the University of Illinois picked up on the fusor and re-introduced it into the field. A low but steady interest in the fusor has remained since then. An important development was the successful commercial introduction of a fusor-based neutron generator. Since 2006 Robert W. Bussard has given talks on a reactor similar in design to the Fusor, now called Polywell, that he states will be capable of useful power generation. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Neutron generators are devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together. ... Robert W. Bussard (born 1928) is an American physicist working primarily in nuclear fusion energy research. ... WB-6, the latest experiment, assembled The Polywell is a gridless inertial electrostatic confinement fusion concept utilizing multiple magnetic mirrors. ...


The fusor as a power source

Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor during operation in so called "star mode" characterized by "rays" of glowing plasma which appear to emanate from the gaps in the inner grid.

Farnsworth fusor in operation, courtesy Richard Hull Richard Hull at http://www. ... Farnsworth fusor in operation, courtesy Richard Hull Richard Hull at http://www. ...

Basic fusion

Nuclear fusion refers to reactions in which light nuclei are combined to become heavier nuclei. Several such reactions release energy that can, in principle, be harnessed to provide fusion power. The lowest energy reaction occurs in a mix of deuterium and tritium, when the ions have to have a temperature of at least 4 keV (kiloelectronvolts), equivalent to about 45 million kelvins. At such temperatures, the fuel atoms are ionized and constitute a plasma. In a practical fusion power plant, fusion reactions have to occur fast enough to make up for energy losses. The rate of reaction varies with the temperature and the density of the fuel and the loss rate is characterized by the energy confinement time τE. The minimum conditions required are expressed in the Lawson criterion. In the most successful approach, the necessary conditions are approached by heating a plasma contained by magnetic fields. This has proven to be very difficult in practice. The complexity of the systems applied detracts from the usefulness of the design for a practical generator. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it passes through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt, in vacuum. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to fusion energy that uses magnetic fields to confine the fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. ...


Fusor fusion

In the original fusor design, several small particle accelerators, essentially TV tubes with the ends cut off, inject ions at a relatively low voltage into a vacuum chamber. In the Hirsch version of the fusor, the ions are produced by ionizing a dilute gas in the chamber. In either version there are two concentric electrodes, the inner one being charged negatively with respect to the outer one to about 80 kV. Once the ions enter the region between the electrodes, they are accelerated towards the center. For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ...


In the fusor, the ions are accelerated to several keV by the electrodes, so heating as such is not necessary (as long as the ions fuse before losing their energy by any process). Whereas 45 megakelvins is a very high temperature by any standard, the corresponding voltage is only 4 kV, a level commonly found in such devices as neon lights and televisions. To the extent that the ions remain at their initial energy, the energy can be tuned to take advantage of the peak of the reaction cross section or to avoid disadvantageous (for example neutron-producing) reactions that might occur at higher energies. A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing neon gas at low pressure. ...


The ease with which the ion energy can be increased appears to be particularly useful when "high temperature" fusion reactions are considered, such as proton-boron-11, which has plentiful fuel, requires no radioactive tritium, and produces no neutrons in the primary reaction. Base for aneutronic nuclear fusion. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ...


Power density

Because a potential well cannot simultaneously trap both ions and electrons, there must be some regions of charge accumulation, which will result in an upper limit on the achievable density. The corresponding upper limit on the power density, even assuming D-T fuel, may be too low for power production. A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ...


Thermalization of the ion velocities

When they first fall into the center of the fusor, the ions will all have the same energy, but the velocity distribution will rapidly approach a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This would occur through simple Coulomb collisions in a matter of milliseconds, but beam-beam instabilities will occur orders of magnitude faster still. In comparison, any given ion will require a few minutes before undergoing a fusion reaction, so that the monoenergetic picture of the fusor, at least for power production, is not appropriate. One consequence of the thermalization is that some of the ions will gain enough energy to leave the potential well, taking their energy with them, without having undergone a fusion reaction. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A Coulomb collision is a collision between two particles when the force between them is given by Coulombs Law. ...


Electrodes

There are a number of unsolved challenges with the electrodes in a fusor power system. To begin with, the electrodes cannot influence the potential within themselves, so it would seem at first glance that the fusion plasma would be in more or less direct contact with the inner electrode, resulting in contamination of the plasma and destruction of the electrode. However, the majority of the fusion tends to occur in microchannels formed in areas of minimum electric potential[1], which present themselves as visible "rays" penetrating the core. These form due to the fact that the forces within the region correspond to roughly stable "orbits". 40% or so of the high energy ions in a typical grid operating in star mode may be within these microchannels[2]. Nonetheless, grid collisions remain the primary energy loss mechanism for Farnsworth-Hirsch fusors. Complicating issues is the challenge in cooling the central electrode; any fusor producing enough power to run a power plant seems destined to also destroy its inner electrode. As one fundamental limitation, any method which produces a neutron flux that is captured to heat a working fluid will also bombard its electrodes with that flux, heating them as well.


Attempts to resolve these problems include Bussard's Polywell system, D. C. Barnes' modified Penning trap approach, and the University of Illinois's fusor which retains grids but attempts to more tightly focus the ions into microchannels to attempt to avoid losses. While all three are IEC devices, only the latter case is actually a "fusor". Robert W. Bussard (born 1928) is an American physicist working primarily in nuclear fusion energy research. ... WB-6, the latest experiment, assembled The Polywell is a gridless inertial electrostatic confinement fusion concept utilizing multiple magnetic mirrors. ... Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ...


Bremsstrahlung

One oft-presented concern is Bremsstrahlung (German for "braking radiation"). In Fundamental limitations on plasma fusion systems not in thermodynamic equilibrium, Todd Rider shows that a quasineutral isotropic plasma will lose energy due to Bremsstrahlung at a rate prohibitive for any fuel other than D-T (or possibly D-D or D-He3). This paper is not applicable to IEC fusion, as a quasineutral plasma cannot be contained by an electric field, which is a fundamental part of IEC fusion. However, in a further paper, "A general critique of inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion systems", Rider addresses the common IEC devices directly, including the fusor. In the case of the fusor the electrons are generally separated from the mass of the fuel isolated near the electrodes, which limits the loss rate. However, Rider demonstrates that practical fusors operate in a range of modes that either lead to significant electron mixing and losses, or alternately lower power densities. This appears to be a sort of catch-22 that limits the output of any fusor-like system. (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ...


Fusor as a neutron source

Production source
Neutrons
Mass: 940 MeV
Electric Charge: 0 C
Spin: 1/2

Regardless of its possible use as an energy source, the fusor has already been demonstrated as a viable neutron generator. Fluxes are not as high as can be obtained from nuclear reactor or particle accelerator sources, but are sufficient for many uses. Importantly, the neutron source easily sits on a benchtop, and can be turned off at the flick of a switch. A commercial fusor was developed as a non-core business within DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Space Infrastructure, Bremen between 1996 and early 2001[citation needed]. After the project was effectively ended, the former project manager established a company which is called NSD-Fusion[citation needed]. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... Neutron generators are devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... Luftwaffe Tornado ECR Deutsche Aerospace AG Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG Founded May 19, 1989 as Deutsche Aerospace AG, bundling space and aeronautic elements of Daimler-Benz (including Dornier Luftfahrt), Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB), MTU München, and Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST) In 1992, the helicopter division was...


Hobbyists

Industrial infrastructure is not required to build a fusor. Small demonstration fusors that achieve fusion have been constructed by amateurs, including high-school students doing science projects. [1][2]


Each electrode is spot-welded from hoops of stainless-steel wire (often welding rod) at right angles. The fusor's electrode dimensions are not very critical. The outer electrode can range from baseball to beach-ball size (100 to 600 mm diameter), and the inner from ping-pong ball to baseball size (40 to 100 mm diameter). Usually such projects use the high-voltage transformer from a neon sign or x-ray machine, and high voltage rectifier from a hobby shop. Spark plug wires carry the power, with spark plugs or similar ceramic insulators to pass it into the vacuum chamber. Deuterium is available in lecturer bottles and is not a controlled nuclear material. Neutrons can be detected by measuring induced radioactivity in aluminium, silver or indium foil after moderating the neutrons with wax, water or plastic, or a plastic neutron luminescent material can be used with a photodetector. Advanced and sensitive neutron detectors using boron trifluoride or helium-3 filled tubes are becoming increasingly common, but a functioning neutron counter is very hard to find on the surplus market. The major expense is usually the vacuum pump. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... Photosensors or photodetectors appear in several varieties: Photoresistors or Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) which change resistance when illuminated Photovoltaic cells or solar cells which produce a voltage and supply an electric current when illuminated Photodiodes which can operate in photovoltaic mode or photoconductive mode Phototubes containing a photocathode which emits... Boron trifluoride is the chemical compound with the formula BF3. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ...


The voltages are extremely dangerous (exceeding 20,000 volts), and neutron emissions can present a hazard if voltages above 40 kilovolts are used. The X-ray emissions are the greatest radiological hazard associated with the Fusor, and proper steps must be taken to shield X-ray transparent regions such as viewports.


References

Patents

  • Bennett, W. H., U.S. Patent 3,120,475 , Feb, 1964. (Thermonuclear power)
  • P.T. Farnsworth, U.S. Patent 3,258,402 , June, 1966 (Electric discharge — Nuclear interaction)
  • P.T. Farnsworth, U.S. Patent 3,386,883 . June, 1968 (Method and apparatus)
  • Hirsch, Robert, U.S. Patent 3,530,036 . September, 1970 (Apparatus)
  • Hirsch, Robert, U.S. Patent 3,530,497 . September, 1970 (Generating apparatus — Hirsch/Meeks)
  • Hirsch, Robert, U.S. Patent 3,533,910 . October, 1970 (Lithium-Ion source)
  • Hirsch, Robert, U.S. Patent 3,655,508 . April, 1972 (Reduce plasma leakage)
  • P.T. Farnsworth, U.S. Patent 3,664,920 . May, 1972 (Electrostatic containment)
  • R.W. Bussard, "Method and apparatus for controlling charged particles", U.S. Patent 4,826,646 , May, 1989 (Method and apparatus — Magnetic grid fields).
  • R.W. Bussard, "Method and apparatus for creating and controlling nuclear fusion reactions", U.S. Patent 5,160,695 , November, 1992 (Method and apparatus — Ion acoustic waves).

Journals

  • Reducing the Barriers to Fusion Electric Power; G.L. Kulcinski and J.F. Santarius, October 1997 Presented at "Pathways to Fusion Power", submitted to Journal of Fusion Energy, vol. 17, No. 1, 1998. (Abstract in PDF)
  • Robert L. Hirsch, "Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement of Ionized Fusion Gases", Journal of Applied Physics, v. 38, no. 7, October 1967
  • Irving Langmuir, Katharine B. Blodgett, "Currents limited by space charge between concentric spheres" Physics Review, vol. 24, No. 1, pp49-59, 1924
  • R. A. Anderl, J. K. Hartwell, J. H. Nadler, J. M. DeMora, R. A. Stubbers, and G. H. Miley, Development of an IEC Neutron Source for NDE, 16th Symposium on Fusion Engineering, eds. G. H. Miley and C. M. Elliott, IEEE Conf. Proc. 95CH35852, IEEE Piscataway, NJ, 1482–1485 (1996).
  • "On the Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement of a Plasma" William C. Elmore, James L. Tuck, Kenneth M. Watson, "The Physics of Fluids" v. 2, no 3, May-June, 1959

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... Irving Langmuir at home (c. ... // Katharine Blodgett was named the first woman to ever get her Ph. ...

Other

  1. ^ McDermott
  2. ^ Make
  • D-3He Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device; R.P. Ashley, G.L. Kulcinski, J.F. Santarius, S. Krupakar Murali, G. Piefer; IEEE Publication 99CH37050, pg. 35-37, 18th Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Albuquerque NM, 25-29 October 1999. (PDF)
  • G.L. Kulcinski, Progress in Steady State Fusion of Advanced Fuels in the University of Wisconsin IEC Device, March 2001
  • Fusion Reactivity Characterization of a Spherically Convergent Ion Focus, T.A. Thorson, R.D. Durst, R.J. Fonck, A.C. Sontag, Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 38, No. 4. p. 495, April 1998. (abstract)
  • Convergence, Electrostatic Potential, and Density Measurements in a Spherically Convergent Ion Focus, T. A. Thorson, R. D. Durst, R. J. Fonck, and L. P. Wainwright, Phys. Plasma, 4:1, January 1997.
  • R.W. Bussard and L. W. Jameson, "Inertial-Electrostatic Propulsion Spectrum: Airbreathing to Interstellar Flight", Journal of Propulsion and Power, v 11, no 2. The authors describe the proton — Boron 11 reaction and its application to ionic electrostatic confinement.
  • R.W. Bussard and L. W. Jameson, "Fusion as Electric Propulsion", Journal of Propulsion and Power, v 6, no 5, September-October, 1990 (This is the same Bussard who conceived the Bussard Ramjet widely used in science-fiction for interstellar rocketry)
  • Todd H. Rider, "A general critique of inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion systems", M.S. thesis at MIT, 1994.
  • Todd H. Rider, "Fundamental limitations on plasma fusion systems not in thermodynamic equilibrium", Ph. D. thesis at MIT, 1995.
  • Todd H. Rider, "Fundamental limitations on plasma fusion systems not in thermodynamic equilibrium" Physics of Plasmas, April 1997, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp. 1039-1046.

October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ...

Presentations

  • Could Advanced Fusion Fuels Be Used with Today's Technology?; J.F. Santarius, G.L. Kulcinski, L.A. El-Guebaly, H.Y. Khater, January 1998 [presented at Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting, August 27 - August 29, 1997, Aspen CO; Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, p. 33].
  • R.W. Bussard and L. W. Jameson, "From SSTO to Saturn's Moons, Superperformance Fusion Propulsion for Practical Spaceflight", 30th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 27 June 29 June 1994, AIAA-94-3269
  • Robert W. Bussard presentation video to Google Employees - Google TechTalks, 9 November 2006.
  • "The Advent of Clean Nuclear Fusion: Super-performance Space Power and Propulsion", Robert W. Bussard, Ph.D., 57th International Astronautical Congress, October 2-6, 2006.


August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...

Fusion power
v  d  e
Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion
Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion
Methods of fusing nuclei

Magnetic confinement: - Tokamak - Spheromak - Stellarator - Reversed field pinch - Field-Reversed Configuration - Levitated Dipole
Inertial confinement: - Laser driven - Z-pinch - Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) - Fusor (electrostatic confinement)
Other forms of fusion: - Muon-catalyzed fusion - Pyroelectric fusion - Migma Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. ... Migma was a proposed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich around 1973. ...

List of fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) | JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | KSTAR (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | Tore Supra (France) | ASDEX Upgrade (Germany) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | UCLA ET (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | Wendelstein 7-X (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial) Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the Naka Fusion Research Establishment in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... Magnetic coils and plasma of the Wendelstin 7-X stellarator Plasma vessel of Wendelstein 7-X Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2012. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... Look up demo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inertial confinement devices
Laser driven: - NIF (USA) | OMEGA laser (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | Novette laser (USA) | Nike laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Argus laser (USA) | Cyclops laser (USA) | Janus laser (USA) | Long path laser (USA) | 4 pi laser (USA) | LMJ (France) | Luli2000 (France) | GEKKO XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers (Russia) | Vulcan laser (UK) | Asterix IV laser (Czech Republic) | HiPER laser (European)
Non-laser driven: - Z machine (USA) | PACER (USA)
A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... Final amplifier of the Nike laser where laser beam energy is increased from 150 J to ~5 Kj by passing through a krypton/fluorine/argon gas mixture excited by irradiation with two opposing 670,000 volt electron beams. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... Physicist Frank Rainer (inset), who was involved in laser research and development at LLNL since 1966, holds the target chamber seen at the center of the larger picture. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... LULI2000 is a high-power laser system dedicated to scientific research. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Russian federation at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16() with the ~2Kj output ISKRA-4 laser being completed in 1979 and the ~30Kj output ISKRA-5 laser which was completed in 1989. ... The Vulcan laser is an 8 beam 2. ... The Asterix IV laser in Prague (commonly reffered to by the acronym PALS for Prague Asterix Laser System) is a high power photolytically pumped iodine gas laser which is capable of producing ~300 to 500 picosecond long pulses of light at the fundamental line of 1. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fusor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3001 words)
Nevertheless, the fusor has since become a practical neutron source and is produced commercially for this role.
In the Hirsch version of the fusor, the ions are produced by ionizing a dilute gas in the chamber.
In the fusor, the ions are accelerated to several keV by the electrodes, so heating as such is not necessary (as long as the ions fuse before losing their energy by any process).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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