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Encyclopedia > Fur trade
An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s.

The fur trade is a worldwide industry which involves the collection and sale of animal fur. Image File history File links Alberta_1890s_fur_trader. ... Image File history File links Alberta_1890s_fur_trader. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Russian fur trade

Before the colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major fur supplier of Western Europe and parts of Asia. Fur was a major Russian export since the early middle-ages. Originally the majority of furs exported from Russia were pelts of martens, beavers, wolves, foxes, squirrels and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries Russians tamed Siberia — a region rich with various valuable kinds of fur-bearing animals such as arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In search of sea otter and, later, the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. Between the 17th and second half of the 19th century, Russia was the biggest supplier of fur in the world until the U.S. and Canada joined the fur market. Fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. To this day sable is a regional symbol of Ural Sverdlovsk oblast and Siberian Novosibirsk, Tyumen and Irkutsk oblasts of Russia. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Species Martes americana Martes flavigula Martes foina Martes gwatkinsii Martes martes Martes melampus Martes pennanti Martes zibellina For the Wiltshire village see Marten, Wiltshire. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758 The Sable (Martes zibellina) is a small mammal, closely akin to the martens, living in southern Russia near the Ural Mountains through Siberia and Mongolia to Hokkaidō in Japan. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The stoat (Mustela erminea) is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Binomial name Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus, is an eared seal. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Russian colonization of the Americas proceeded in several places. ... Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ... Novosibirsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Tyumen Oblast Coat of Arms Tyumen Oblast flag Tyumen Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in Urals Federal District. ... Irkutsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in south-eastern Siberia in the basins of Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska rivers, and occupies an area of 767,900 km² (4. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...


North American fur trade

The North American fur trade was a central part of the early history of contact in The New World (North America) between European-Americans and Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada. In 1578 there were 350 European fishing vessels at Newfoundland and sailors began to trade metal implements (particularly knives) for the natives' well worn pelts. The worn pelt was always highly desired by the Europeans as the outer coarse guard hair was worn off and the addition of human oils combined to make a particularly soft and beautiful result. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Articles on fur trading posts and forts

By the early 1800s several companies established strings of fur trading posts and forts across North America.

Fort Carlton was a Hudsons Bay Company fur trade post during much of the 19th century. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Fort Lisa was started by famed fur trapper Manuel Lisa in North Omaha, Nebraska in 1806, may have been were Sacagawea died, and was home to several firsts in Nebraska history. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... Cabannes Trading Post was established in 1822 by the American Fur Company as Fort Robidoux, named for the fur trapper Joseph Robidoux. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... Fontenelles Post was established by the American Fur Company near Bellevue, Nebraska in 1806. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Dauphin Island, Alabama is a town in Mobile County, Alabama, on a barrier island also named Dauphin Island. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... Fort Mackinac painting Fort Mackinac was a military outpost garrisoned from the late 18th century to the late 19th century on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje or Fort Oranije) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... 19th century illustration of Fort Duquesne, by Alfred Waud. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Fortress of Louisbourg: Siege of 1758. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Fort Atkinson was the first United States Army post estabished west of the Missouri River in the United States. ... Fort Snellings round tower A view of the grounds of Fort Snelling taken from the round tower Fort Snelling is a former military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota. ... Old Fort Providence, located near the mouth of Yellowknife Bay, Northwest Territories, Canada, was one of the first fur trading outposts on Great Slave Lake. ... Fort Nisqually is a living history museum located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, within the boundaries of Point Defiance Park. ... Daniel Greysolon Dulhut had built a fort, (Fort Caministigoyan), at the Kaministiquia River in 1679. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Fort de Buade was a French fort operating at the present site of St. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trading outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California in the United States. ... Fort Hall Fort Hall in the United States was a 19th century outpost in the eastern Oregon Country. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... Fort Saint Joseph was a fort near present day Niles, Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

Early Organization

The first organized attempt to control the fur trade in New France was undertaken by Francis Grave and Captain Chauvin. In 1599 they acquired a monopoly from Henry IV and tried to establish a colony at the mouth of the Saguenay River(Tadoussac, Quebec). French explorers (and Coureur des bois), (Étienne Brûlé, Samuel de Champlain, Radisson and Groseilliers, La Salle, Le Sueur) while seeking routes through the continent, established relationships with Amerindians and continued to expand the trade of fur pelts for items considered 'common' by the Europeans. Fur (especially beaver) was prized and very expensive in European markets. In 1613 Henry Christiansen and Adrian Block headed expeditions to establish fur trade relationships with the Mohawks and Mohicans. By 1614 the Dutch were sending vessels to Manhattan to secure large returns from fur trading. Radisson and Groseilliers, bitter with the rejection of their first big unlicenced fur haul, pulled the British into the trade in 1668. They convinced businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts and Charles II that there was a tremendous amount of money to be made in the best fur country north of New France. This was the spark that would become the first commercial corporation in North America and largest fur trading company in the world, The Hudson's Bay Company. Meanwhile, in the English southern colonies (established around 1670), the deerskin trade was established based on the export hub of Charleston, South Carolina. Word spread amongst Native hunters that the Europeans would exchange pelts for European-manufactured goods that were highly desired in native communities. Axe heads, knives, awls, fish hooks, cloth of various type and color, woolen blankets, linen shirts, kettles, jewelry, glass beads, muskets, ammunition and powder were some of the major items exchanged on a 'per pelt' basis. The trading posts also introduced many types of alcohol (especially brandy and rum) for trade.[1] European traders flocked to the continent and made huge profits off the exchange. A metal axe head, for example, was exchanged for one beaver pelt (also called a 'beaver blanket'). The same pelt could fetch enough to buy dozens of axe heads in England, making the fur trade extremely profitable for the European nations. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... This article is about the economic term. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... The Saguenay River is a major river of Quebec, Canada. ... Contemporary Tadoussac Tadoussac in about 1612, illustrated by Samuel de Champlain Tadoussac is a village of 857 inhabitants (2005) in Quebec, Canada which was once an important seventeenth century French trading post. ... A coureur de bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. ... Étienne Brûlé (c. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Pierre-Esprit Radisson Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada. ... Engraving of Cavelier de La Salle A later engraving of Robert de LaSalle Memorial Plaque to de La Salle in Rouen René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer. ... Pierre-Charles Le Sueur (1657–1704) was a French fur trader and explorer in North America. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (fl. ... Mohawk is: A tribe of Native Americans: see Mohawk nation The Mohawk language spoken by the Mohawk people. ... The Mohicans were, during the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, a functional confederation of several branches of Native Americans. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Pierre-Esprit Radisson Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... The deerskin trade between Colonial America and the Native Americans was one of the most important trading relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, especially in the southeast. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...


Socio-economic ties

Often, the political benefits of the fur trade became more important than the economic aspects. Trade was a way to forge alliances and maintain good relations between different cultures and as marriages were the currency of diplomatic ties of that time, the trade was the beginning of the Métis (mixed European and Native American parentage). Consequently, there was much rivalry between different European-American governments for control of the fur trade with the various native societies. Native Americans sometimes based decisions of which side to support in time of war upon which side provided them with the best trade goods in an honest manner. Because trade was so politically important, it was often heavily regulated in hopes (often futile) of preventing abuse. Unscrupulous traders sometimes cheated natives by plying them with alcohol during the transaction, which subsequently aroused resentment and often resulted in violence. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


The fur trade came to a close as game was depleted by overhunting. John Jacob Astor (who controlled the largest American fur trading company) recognized that all fur-bearing animals were becoming scarce and retired in 1834. Expanding European settlement displaced native communities from the best hunting grounds, and demand for furs subsided as European fashion trends shifted. The Native American's lifestyle was forever altered by the trade, in order to continue obtaining European goods on which they had become dependent and to pay off their debts, they often resorted to selling land to the European settlers, which caused resentment on the side of the aboriginals (Native Americans) that would help ignite future wars. John Jacob Astor, detail of an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794 John Jacob (originally either Johann Jakob or Johann Jacob) Astor (July 17, 1763 - March 29, 1848) was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, the creator of the first Trust... The American Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808. ... ...


After the United States became independent, trading with Native Americans in the U.S. was nominally regulated by the Indian Intercourse Act, first passed on July 22, 1790. The Bureau of Indian Affairs issued licenses to trade in the Indian Territory, which in 1834 consisted of most of the United States west of the Mississippi River, where mountain men and traders from Mexico freely operated. The Indian Intercourse Acts were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Liver-Eating Johnson Mountain men were trappers and explorers that roamed the Rocky Mountains from about 1810 to the early 1840s. ...


Early exploration parties were often fur trading expeditions, many of which mark the first recorded instance of Europeans reaching particular regions of North America. For example, Abraham Wood sent fur trading parties on exploring expeditions into the southern Appalachian Mountains, discovering the New River in the process. Simon Fraser was a fur trader who explored much of the Fraser River Abraham Wood was an English fur trader (specifically the deerskin trade) and explorer of colonial Virginia during the 17th century. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, with the New River and its watershed highlighted. ... An undated drawing of Simon Fraser Simon Fraser (1776–18 August 1862) was a fur trader and an explorer who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation). ...


See also

The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) were an intermittent series of conflicts fought in the late 17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and take control of the role of middleman in the fur... The Fur Brigade were convoys of Canadian fur trappers who travelled between trading posts, usually via by canoe or horse (mainly during the early 19th century). ... The history of Siberia may be traced to the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) and the Xiongnu, both flourishing before the Christian era. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in the city of Montreal in British North America. ... Liver-Eating Johnson Mountain men were trappers and explorers that roamed the Rocky Mountains from about 1810 to the early 1840s. ... Manuel Lisa (September 8, 1772 - August 12, 1820) was a well known fur trader and explorer who founded the Missouri Fur Company. ... René Auguste Chouteau (born September 7, 1749 in New Orleans, Louisiana; died February 24, 1829 in St. ... Meaning It is a French word meaning Runners of the woods True Definition When the French Colonized in the new world, they were abundant in the trade of beaver skins. ... The Russian-American Company was a semi-official colonial trading company started by Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov and chartered by tsar Paul I in 1799. ...

References

Bernard Augustine DeVoto (January 11, 1897 - November 13, 1955) was an American historian and author who specialized in the history of the American West. ... Across the Wide Missouri is the title of a 1947 historical work by Bernard De Voto. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Inroduction of alcohol through the fur trade

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fur trade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (535 words)
The fur trade (also called the Indian trade) was a huge part of the early history of contact in North America between European-Americans and American Indians (now often called Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada).
Fur trade was a major Russian export since the early middle-ages.
Fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas.
Fur trade - definition of Fur trade in Encyclopedia (134 words)
The fur trade was a huge part in the early economic development of North America.
For the majority of the fur trade era in North American history the primary fur market was overseas, in Europe.
The fur trade ended as settlers took over the best trapping lands and eradicated wildlife which competed with livestock and humans for resources.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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