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Encyclopedia > Fur farming
A mink farm in the United States

Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ...


The animal most commonly farmed for its fur is the mink. As of 2003, Denmark had the largest fur-farming industry of mink, with 35% of world production.[1] Fur farming takes place mainly in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Holland in Europe. China with its huge fur industry is the largest importer and re-exporter of fur in the world.[2] For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ...


Demand fell in the late 1980s and 1990s because of a number of factors, including the failure of designers to come up with exciting new lines, and also the efforts of animal rights campaigners. Since the turn of the millennium, however, sales worldwide have soared to record highs, fuelled by radically new techniques for working with fur, and a sharp rise in disposable income in China and Russia. This growing demand has led to the development of extensive fur farming operations in countries such as China, where activist groups such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals have raised concerns about what they allege is the inhumane treatment of animals (animals are sometimes skinned while alive) and the nature of some slaughterhouse practices. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics). ...

Contents

History

The first fur farms in North America appeared in the 1860s. Historically, the fur trade played an important economic role in the United States. Fur trappers explored and opened up large parts of North America, and the fashion for beaver hats led to intense competition for supplies of raw materials. Starting in the latter half of the 20th century, producers and wearers of fur have been criticized because of the perceived cruelty involved in animal trapping and because the availability other natural and synthetic fibers that competed with fur. North American redirects here. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Today, 85 percent of the fur industry's skins comes from animals raised on farms. The most farmed fur-bearing animal is the mink, followed by the fox. Chinchilla, lynx, and even hamsters are also farmed for their fur. Sixty-four percent of fur farms are in Northern Europe, 11 percent are in North America, and the rest are dispersed throughout the world, in countries such as Argentina and Russia.[3]


Various types

Mink

Mink have been farmed for fur in the United States for 130 years. In 2005, the U.S. ranked fourth in production behind Denmark, China and the Netherlands. Mink typically breed in March, and give birth to their litters in May. Farmers vaccinate the young kits for botulism, distemper, enteritis, and, if needed, pneumonia. They are harvested in late November and December. Methods for killing animals on fur farms, as on all farms, are detailed in the American Veterinary Medical Association's Report on Euthanasia (published every five to seven years) which is used as the standard for state departments of agriculture which have jurisidction over all farms raising domesticated livestock, including mink. For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ...


The white mink is a breed that has, until recently, lived exclusively in northern Europe. A Canadian mink rancher Percy Verner Noble introduced the species into his farm in 1968. This development has led to a prosperous industry in the North American fur trade. For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


Chinchilla

The international trade in chinchilla fur goes back to the 1500s and the animal (whose name literally means "Little Chincha") is named after the Chincha people of the Andes, who wore its soft and dense fur. By the end of the 19th century, chinchillas had become quite rare. In 1923, Mathias F. Chapman brought the eleven wild chinchillas he had captured to the U.S. for breeding. Only three of these were female. Pop musician Madonna wore a chinchilla fur coat, made of an estimated 40 chinchillas in December 2006,[4] and this outraged animal rights groups who accused the star of ignoring the reality of how animals are farmed for their skins.[5] For other uses, see Chinchilla (disambiguation). ... The Chincha were a Native American people of the Andes. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article is about the American entertainer. ...


Fox

Finland is the world's leading producer of fox pelts. In the USA, fox production is about 10,000 pelts, produced in about 10 states. Wisconsin and Utah have the most and second most number of fur farms in the USA. Canada produces ten to fifteen times as many fox furs as the USA.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A second season episode of Masters of Horror directed by Dario Argento and starring John Saxon and Meat Loaf about stolen racoon pelts that attack anyone unlucky enough to wear them. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Dog and cat

Most dog and cat fur comes from countries in the Far East. Some of the furs come from dogs and cats bred on farms. Many cat and dog furs come from families, who keep a few cats or dogs in very bad conditions, and slaughter them during the winter. German Shepherd are the most commonly killed dogs in China.[7] The USA banned the import, export and sale of products made from dog and cat fur, in 2000,[8] when undercover videos from the Swiss Animal Protection, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and the Humane Society documented dogs and cats being trucked to market without food and water, pulled from their cages, sometimes disemboweled, sometimes bashed on the ground to stun them, then hanged by wires, and skinned when still alive. Italy, France, Denmark, Greece, Belgium and Australia ban the practice,[9] and a European Union ban will take effect on January 1, 2009.[10] Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... A humane society is a group that aims to stop animal and human suffering due to cruelty or other reasons. ... Skinning commonly refers to the act of skin removal, from the verb to skin. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rabbit

The main breed in the rabbit fur farming industry, is the Rex (Castor Rex and Chinchilla Rex). Breeding animals are kept for up to 3 years, and usually give birth twice a year. The kindle are taken from their mothers at 4 weeks old to be put in a nursery with other kindle. After this the mothers are kept separated from their kits, and they get put together only for feeding. When the kits are 7 to 8 weeks old, they are put in solitary cages, where they are kept for ca 6-7 months, and are slaughtered after they have shed their winter fur. The rabbits are kept in bare wire mesh cages. A cage for one rabbit have the floor space of ca. two shoe boxes. The mortality rate for caged Rex is 10 - 15%, mostly from respiratory disease.[11] For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Rabbit breeds are notably different varieties of domestic rabbit created through selective breeding or natural selection. ... Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant/s from the mothers uterus. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ... A cage is an enclosure made of mesh, bars or wires, used to confine, contain or protect something or someone. ... Shoe Box was a 1995 single by the band Barenaked Ladies. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ...


Another breed of rabbit, is the Orylag, which is farmed only in France. The Orylag is bred for fur and meat. They are slaughtered at ca. 20 weeks. It was genetically manipulated and developed by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). The mortality rate for caged Orylag is 25 - 30%, mostly from respiratory disease.[11] The Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) is a French public research institute dedicated to scientific studies surrounding the problems of agriculture. ... The Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) is a French public research institute dedicated to scientific studies surrounding the problems of agriculture. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ...


Broken bones and traumatic lesions are common when rabbits are transported to the slaughter. A small percent is also dead on arrival, often due to the rabbits being tightly packed in, with poor ventilation.[11] A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone becomes cracked, splintered, or bisected as a result of physical trauma. ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Controversy

Opponents of fur farming state that, as with other large scale animal farms, the methods used on fur factory farms are focused on maximizing profits rather on the physical or psychological welfare of the animals.[12][13][14]

Christy Turlington in a PETA advertisement.

As with other types of large scale animal farming, living conditions of animals do vary and the extreme cases are ones of much contention. For example, according to PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), some fur farmers pack animals into small cages, preventing them from taking more than a few steps back and forth.[12] This crowding and confinement is extremely distressing to mink — solitary animals who may occupy as much as 2,500 acres (10 km²) of wetland habitat in the wild. Life in a cage leads minks to self-mutilate — biting at their skin, tails, and feet — and frantically pace and circle endlessly. Zoologists at Oxford University who studied captive mink found that, despite generations of being bred for fur, minks have not been domesticated and suffer greatly in captivity, especially if they are not given the opportunity to swim.[15] Foxes, raccoons, and other animals suffer equally and have been found to cannibalize each other as a reaction to their crowded confinement.[12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Christy Nicole Turlington (born January 2, 1969 in Walnut Creek, California) is an American supermodel best known for representing Calvin Klein fragrances since 1987. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... This article is about the animal. ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ...


Farmers argue that young mink and foxes, such as those found on farms, are not solitary animals while young and actually do better with a "litter mate" to share a pen. Farmers argue that poor health and negative animal behavior on a farm has always resulted in farmers changing and improving living conditions to reach a balance between what is practical for the farmer/owner and what is beneficial for the animals. Farmers argue that the living conditions are optimal for the farmed animals and result in good health, growth and reproduction.


In other cases, as with passing of animal welfare legislation in Italy, animals are required to be "given enriched living environments in which they can climb on branches, dig holes, use a nest of 50 x 50 cm and also have a water basin of at least 2 x 2 metres and 50 cm deep in which to swim." [3]Farmers argue that 50 years ago, the animals were kept in large outdoor holding areas, with pools of water. However, such "farms" resulted in high disease rates for the animals and were not practical.


Farmers argue that today's farmed animals only know farm life. Hunters and trappers argue that the ultimate in "free range" fur comes from wild harvest where the animals live all their lives in the wild.


The methods used for killing the animals vary depending on the animal. For wild furs, biologists and wildlife managers dictate seasons, methods of kill and numbers of animals to be taken.


Mink farmers usually breed female mink once a year. The average litter is three or four kits. The pelts are harvested in the late fall, early winter with the finests animals held over until the next year to restock the farm.


In 2005, the Swiss Animal Protection (SAP) released an undercover video allegedly depicting details of a fur farm in Hebei, China in which men were seen throwing live animals to the ground and skinning them while they were still alive.[16] This video is available on YouTube [17][18] YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...


A short video is available from Italian Web-TV ArcoIris on fur farming in underdeveloped areas of China: Video file: _big.ram (RealPlayer); Video file: _big.wmv (WMV).


Legality

Fur farming was banned in England and Wales by the Fur Farming (Prohibition) Act 2000[19] and in Scotland by the Fur Farming (Prohibition) (Scotland) Act 2002.[20]


At second reading, the ban in England and Wales was justified principally on grounds of public morality.[14][21] A second reading is the state of the legislative process where a draft of a bill is read a second time. ...


In Austria, six of the nine federal states have banned fur farming and in the remaining three there are such strict welfare regulations, in relation to the availability of swimming water, that fur farming is no longer economically viable.[22]


In China, there are no present laws to protect the welfare of animals bred on fur farms.[23]


See also

For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ "Introduction", Viking Fur Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  2. ^ "What are the rules on wearing fur?", 2006-01-12. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  3. ^ "Fur Industry", MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  4. ^ "Fury at Madonna's coat of many chinchillas", The Independent, 2006-12-08. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  5. ^ "Madonna's fur coat outrages animal rights groups", The New Zealand Herald, 2006-12-09. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  6. ^ "Farming For Fur", Fur Commission USA. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  7. ^ "Dog and Cat Fur Trade In China". Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  8. ^ The trade in dog and cat fur, Happy Paws
  9. ^ "Betrayal of Trust: the Global Trade in Cat and Dog Fur", Humane society. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  10. ^ "An Olympic disgrace", 2008-03-24. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  11. ^ a b c "Rabbit fur: face the facts", The Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade (CAFT). Retrieved on 2008-03-28. 
  12. ^ a b c "Inside the Fur Industry: Animal Factories", PETA. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  13. ^ "Frequent Reasons for buying Fur", fur.elehost.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  14. ^ a b "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 5 Mar 1999 (pt 6)", 1999-03-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  15. ^ "Fur Factory Farming", Global Action Network. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  16. ^ "Dying for Fur - Inside the Chinese Fur Trade", Swiss Animal Protection (SAP). Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  17. ^ A Shocking Look Inside Chinese Fur Farming (video), YouTube, Swiss Animal Protection (SAP)
  18. ^ "A Shocking Look Inside Chinese Fur Farms", PETA. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  19. ^ "Explanatory Notes to Fur Farming (Prohibition) Act 2000", Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI), 2000. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  20. ^ "Fur Farming (Prohibition) (Scotland) Act 2002", Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI), 2002. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  21. ^ Bont voor Dieren: Support Our Efforts for Animal Rights. Bont voor Dieren. Retrieved on December 29, 2005.
  22. ^ Bont voor Dieren: Support Our Efforts to Protect Fur Animals.
  23. ^ Dogs and Cats Skinned Alive for Their Fur in China.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A humane society is a group that aims to stop animal and human suffering due to cruelty or other reasons. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the new body incorporating Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the new body incorporating Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ...

Video

  • Dogs and cats cruelty in China at YouTube
YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...

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