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Encyclopedia > Funicular
Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration
Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration
Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks
Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks
The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook
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The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook

A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of transport in which cables attached to a tram-like vehicle on rails move it up and down a very steep slope. Download high resolution version (768x1024, 136 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Funicular Railroad switch Angels Flight Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Angels Flight. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 136 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Funicular Railroad switch Angels Flight Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Angels Flight. ... Current view 1903 view, with the Third Street Tunnel at right Angels Flight is a landmark funicular railway in the Bunker Hill district of downtown Los Angeles, California, United States, which claims to be the shortest railway in the world. ... Nickname: City of Angels Official website: http://www. ... Double switch aka scissors crossovers A railroad switch (known in British and Australian English as (a set of) points or, in technical usage, a turnout) is a mechanical installation provided at a point where rail track A divides into two tracks B and C. It can be set in either... Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Duquesne Incline is a funicular located near Pittsburghs South Side neighborhood and scaling Mt. ... Pittsburgh skyline as viewed from Mount Washington Pittsburgh is a city in Western Pennsylvania, United States, and the county seat of Allegheny County. ... Gütschbahn in Lucerne from Führer für Luzern, Vierwaldstättersee und Umgebung, Lucerne, 1893. ... Gütschbahn in Lucerne from Führer für Luzern, Vierwaldstättersee und Umgebung, Lucerne, 1893. ... Location within Switzerland View of the city from Lake Lucerne Another view across Lake Lucerne The Lion Monument Lucerne (German: Luzern) is a city in Central Switzerland with a population of 60,274 (December 31, 2003), capital of the Canton of Lucerne. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A cable is two or more wires bound together which may be bare, covered or insulated. ... A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland Map showing the tramway system in Oslo, Norway Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden. ... track Rail tracks are used on railways (or railroads), which, together with railroad switches (or points), guide trains without the need for steering. ... Look up Slope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The slope or the gradient is commonly used to describe the measurement of the steepness, incline or grade of a straight line. ...


The word "funicular" derives from the Latin funiculus (thin rope), a diminutive of funis (rope). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Contents


Function

In most funiculars, two cars at the end of a cable go alternately up and down on either two tracks or one track which splits and rejoins in the middle. However, there are differences in funicular layout. In some cases, such as on the Duquesne Incline in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, there are separate parallel tracks and platforms for each vehicle; the carriages' flanged wheels resemble those of standard railway vehicles. In the case of the Angels Flight funicular in Los Angeles, which has a three-rail gantlet track configuration, the two cars share a central rail, but each has its own outside rail, except for the passing segment, where the central rail splits into two. Angels Flight also differs from most funiculars in that it uses separate cables for the two vehicles, linked together with a gear, rather than the same cable, attached to a vehicle at each end. Not to be confused with railcar. ... The Duquesne Incline is a funicular located near Pittsburghs South Side neighborhood and scaling Mt. ... Pittsburgh skyline as viewed from Mount Washington Pittsburgh is a city in Western Pennsylvania, United States, and the county seat of Allegheny County. ... Prov Room 9A Flange A flange is an external or internal rib, or rim, for strength, as the flange of an iron beam; or for a guide, as the flange of a train wheel; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam... Current view 1903 view, with the Third Street Tunnel at right Angels Flight is a landmark funicular railway in the Bunker Hill district of downtown Los Angeles, California, United States, which claims to be the shortest railway in the world. ... This article is about the largest city in California. ... Double switch aka scissors crossovers A railroad switch (known in British and Australian English as (a set of) points or, in technical usage, a turnout) is a mechanical installation provided at a point where rail track A divides into two tracks B and C. It can be set in either...

The Great Incline funicular of the Mount Lowe Railway (1893 - 1938). Arrow denotes location of ascending car on the Macpherson Trestle. Grade: 62%.

However, most funiculars have a two-rail configuration at the top and bottom, with a passing section halfway along the track where the two rails split into four. In such a setup, the gaps in the inside rails for the passing segment and cable path mean that only the outside rail is the guide rail for each car. Unlike standard railways, where each carriage wheel has a flange on the inside to guide it along the rail, a funicular carriage has asymmetrical wheels. Those on the outside have flanges on both sides, keeping them aligned with the outer rail and holding each car in position. In contrast, the inside wheel is typically flat, and only rests on top of the opposite rail; it thus supports the car's weight, but does not guide it. This allows the wheel to pass over the center section, where it passes the other vehicle and, going up, crosses the cable holding the other car. Image File history File links Greatincline. ... Prov Room 9A Flange A flange is an external or internal rib, or rim, for strength, as the flange of an iron beam; or for a guide, as the flange of a train wheel; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam...


Use of funiculars

Funiculars are also called trams or cable cars in many places. Typically the steepness of the track does not vary very much, which differentiates the funicular from a cable railway. In addition, the cars of a funicular are usually permanently attached at the end(s) of the cable whereas the cars on a cable railway can usually detach and reattach to the cable during normal operation. The vehicle is usually specially designed for the particular inclination, so that seats and/or floors remain roughly horizontal. A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland Map showing the tramway system in Oslo, Norway Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ... track Rail tracks are used on railways (or railroads), which, together with railroad switches (or points), guide trains without the need for steering. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transportation. ... Usually considered in the context of the applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other such creative endeavours, design is used as both a noun and a verb. ...


Some urban funiculars are associated with a city's transit system. For example, the Montmartre funicular in Paris and the Vallvidrera and Montjuïc funiculars in Barcelona are fare-integrated with those cities' metro systems. The Naples metro in Italy is integrated with three high-capacity funiculars. Montjuïc - Hill of the Jews in medieval Catalan language or maybe a corruption of Latin Mons Jovicus (that is, hill of Jupiter). ... Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia (Spain). ... Metro is: a general term, synonymous with rapid transit, subway or underground, for an urban underground rail public transit system (see list of rapid transit systems); any of several specific public transport systems, including: Bi-State Development Agency in Missouri and Illinois, d/b/a Metro since 2003 Buffalo Metro... Naples panorama Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ...


Funiculars are often used to ascend mountains. Many cities have short funiculars on hills or cliffs, such as the Montmartre funicular in Paris, or those in the English seaside resort of Scarborough. The Great Orme Tramway in Llandudno, Wales is a street funicular operating on a public road. Mount McKinley in Alaska has the largest visible base-to-summit elevation differences anywhere For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A hill in Hungary with a hillside vintage garden For the landform that extends less than 600 metres above the surrounding terrain and that is smaller than a mountain, see the mountain article. ... Cliffs on the banks of the River Severn, near Bristol, England In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world Paris is the capital and largest city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The seafront of Torquay, a seaside resort in Devon, England. ... The South Bay at Scarborough Scarborough lies on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. ... Two cars passing at a passing loop Victoria station at the foot of the line. ... Llandudno is a seaside resort and town in north Wales. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ...


History

The earliest such railways were water-driven, allowing barge traffic of canals to ascend and descend steep hills. They were used primarily in the early 19th century, especially during the height of the canal-building era in the 1830s in the United States. Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Hydropower is energy obtained from flowing water. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria...


Such railways operated by allowing water in feeder canals at the top of the plane to drive a turbine, raising or lowering a canal barge along a steep slope. Along level sections, the railroads essentially operated as standard towpath canals, with the barges typically drawn by horse or mule. WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ... A towpath is a road or track that runs alongside the banks of a river, canal or other inland waterway. ...


Examples of hydropower inclined plane railroads in the United States included the Allegheny Portage Railroad, part of the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal, built in 1834 with ten planes as the first railroad across the Allegheny Mountains of Pennsylvania. Similarly, the Morris Canal in New Jersey connected the Delaware River with the Passaic River using 23 planes, as well as a series of locks along the gentler gradients. The Allegheny Portage Railroad was the first railroad constructed through the Allegheny Mountains in central Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Map The Main Line of Public Works was a railroad and canal system built by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, running from Philadelphia west across the state to Pittsburgh. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Allegheny Mountains are a part of the Appalachian mountain range of the eastern United States. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... The Morris Canal was a canal and series of water-driven inclined plane railroads that ran across northern New Jersey in the United States from the middle of the 19th century until the 1920s. ... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... Delaware River Watershed The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... The Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey The Passaic River is a tributary of Newark Bay, approximately 80 mi (129 km long), in northern New Jersey in the United States. ... Canal locks in England. ...


One of the most famous funiculars of its time was the Great Incline of the Mount Lowe Railway in Altadena, California, combining a funicular raising passengers 2,800 feet (850 meters) up the side of Mount Echo (elev. 3500 ft or 1050 m) with two electric traction, narrow-gaged trolley systems on either end. A particular feature of the Great Incline was that it was the first of the three-railed funiculars borne out of the need to reduce the amount of wide grading on the incline. The Mount Lowe Railway was opened on July 4, 1893. By 1902 it was operated by Pacific Electric Railway. It ran along tracks built around the edges of the foothills arriving at a final destination Ye Alpine Tavern, only 1,100 ft (330 m) from the Mount Lowe summit. In 1936 the last of the standing buildings, the Tavern, was burned down, but the line was not abandoned until after the deluge of 1938. The Mount Lowe Railway began as a collaborrative effort between Thaddeus Lowe and David J. MacPherson. ... Altadena is a census-designated place located in Los Angeles County, California. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Pacific Electric Railway (AAR reporting mark PE), also known as the Red Car system, was a mass transit system in Southern California using streetcars, light rail and buses. ... Mount Lowe is a mountain on the southern fold of the San Gabriel Mountains. ...


The funicular on Mount Vesuvius inspired the song Funiculì Funiculà (by Luigi Denza with text by Peppino Turco) [1]. The funicular was wrecked repeatedly by volcanic eruptions and finally abandoned after the eruption of 1944. This article is about the volcano in Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Luigi Denza (February 24, 1846 - January 26, 1922), was an Italian composer. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Funiculars of the world

The world's steepest passenger railway is claimed as the Katoomba Scenic Railway, a funicular down the wall of the Jamison Valley near Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia, with maximum grade of 122% (52° from horizontal, 90° being vertical). [2] Scenic World is a popular privately-owned tourist attraction located at the sourthern end of the town of Katoomba in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, about 100 kilometers west of Sydney. ... The Jamison Valley is a part of the Coxs River canyon system in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Governor Premier Const. ... Horizontal is an orientation relating to, or in parallel with the horizon, and thus perpendicular to the vertical. ... An object is in a vertical position when it is aligned in an up-down direction, perpendicular to the horizon. ...


The above mentioned Great Incline of the Mount Lowe Railway had multiple grades with cars that adjusted to the variations. The gentlest slope was 48%. The steepest was 62%. The x-percentage means that for every 100 feet of rail travel, the vertical gain was x-number of feet.


Shortest funicular in the world is one in Zagreb, Croatia. Track length is only 66 meters and height difference is 30 meters. Zagreb at night, from Sljeme Zagreb cathedral St. ...


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See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Funicular - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1055 words)
A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of transport in which cables attached to a tram-like vehicle on rails move it up and down a very steep slope.
The funicular was wrecked repeatedly by volcanic eruptions and finally abandoned after the eruption of 1944.
The world's steepest passenger railway is claimed as the Katoomba Scenic Railway, a funicular down the wall of the Jamison Valley near Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia, with maximum grade of 122% (52° from horizontal, 90° being vertical).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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