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Encyclopedia > Fungus
For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. For the music genre, see Fungi (music)
Fungi
Fossil range: Early Silurian - Recent

Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; black bread mold, a zygomycete; a chytrid; a Penicillium conidiophore.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta
Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]
Subkingdom/Phyla
Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota
Neocallimastigomycota
Glomeromycota
Zygomycota

Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota)
Calvin the Bogeyman book cover Calvin the Bogeyman (1977) is a critically acclaimed childrens graphic novel by British artist Raymond Briggs. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1220x1062, 354 KB) Compiled from public domain images and one creative commons image, using Photoshop, by myself. ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... Sarcoscypha is a genus of ascomycete fungus in the family Sarcoscyphaceae. ... Binomial name (Ehrenb. ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Conidiophore of Hyaloperonospora parasitica harboring several conidiospores Conidia on conidophores Conidia, or conidiospores, are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus; they are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Robert Whittaker (1920-1980) was an American vegetation ecologist, active in the 1950s through the 1970s. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... The opisthokonts (Greek opistho- rear, posterior + kontos pole i. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Monoblepharidales Blastocladiales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... Genera Allomyces E.J. Butler 1911 Blastocladia Reinsch 1877 Coelomomyces Keilin 1921 Blastocladiomycota is phylum of zoosporic Fungi[3]. ^ a b James, T.Y., (2006). ... Type species Neocallimastix (I.B. Heath 1983) Vavra & Joyon Genera Anaeromyces Caecomyces Cyllamyces Neocallimastix Orpinomyces Piromyces Wikispecies has information related to: Neocallimastigomycota Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum of anaerobic fungi, found mainly within the stomachs of ruminants, but with possible distributions elsewhere. ... Orders Archaeosporales Diversisporales Paraglomerales Glomerales The division (phylum) Glomeromycota is a taxon within the kingdom Fungi that includes those species that form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants. ... Orders Dimargaritales Endogonales Entomophthorales Harpellales Kickxellales Microsporidia Mucorales Zoopagales Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ... Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons. ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ...

Ascomycota
Basidiomycota

Fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. The fungi are heterotrophic organisms characterized by a chitinous cell wall, and in the majority of species, filamentous growth as multicellular hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction is via spores, often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi. Fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, yet the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under a branch of botany. Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament that, with other hyphae, forms the feeding thallus of a fungus called the mycelium. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast used in both baking and brewing. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...


Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They perform an essential role in all ecosystems in decomposing matter and are indispensable in nutrient cycling and exchange. Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...

Contents

Etymology and definition

The word fungus is derived from the Latin fungus meaning 'mushroom', used in Horace and Pliny, or 'stupid person'.[2] This in turn is derived from the Greek sphongos/σφογγος 'sponge'. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In the Oxford Latin Course book, Quintus is based on the famous poet, Horace. ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This...


Diversity

Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including deserts. Most fungi grow in terrestrial environments, but several species occur only in aquatic habitats. Fungi along with bacteria are the primary decomposers of organic matter in almost all terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. There are an estimated 1.5 million fungal species of which around 70,000 have been described. Most fungi grow as thread-like filaments called hyphae, which form a mycelium, while others grow as single cells. [3][4] A variety of terricolous fungi inhabit the biological soil crust of arid regions. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Decomposers (also called reducers) are organisms (often fungi or bacteria) that break down organic materials to gain nutrients and energy. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ...


Importance for human use

Sacharomyces cerevisiae cells in DIC microscopy.
Sacharomyces cerevisiae cells in DIC microscopy.

Human use of fungi for food preparation or preservation and other purposes is extensive and has a long history: yeasts are required for fermentation of beer, wine [5] and bread, some other fungal species are used in the production of soy sauce and tempeh. Mushroom farming and gathering is a large industry in many countries. Many fungi are producers of antibiotics, including β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin.[6] Widespread use of these antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy, and many others began in the early 20th Century and continues to play a major part in anti-bacterial chemotherapy. The study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi is known as ethnomycology. Image File history File links S_cerevisiae_under_DIC_microscopy. ... Image File history File links S_cerevisiae_under_DIC_microscopy. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics including penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi, most specifically psychoactive mushrooms such as Amanita muscaria and those containing psilocybin, and can be considered a branch of both mycology and anthropology. ...


Cultured foods

Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-cell fungus, is used in the baking of bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza and dumplings.[7] Several yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used in the production of alcoholic beverages through fermentation.[8] Mycelial fungi, such as the shoyu koji mold (Aspergillus oryzae), are used in the brewing of Shoyu (soy sauce) and preparation of tempeh.[9] Quorn is a high-protein product made from the mould, Fusarium venenatum, and is used in vegetarian cooking. Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Saccharomyces bayanus Saccharomyces boulardii Saccharomyces bulderi Saccharomyces cariocanus Saccharomyces cariocus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces chevalieri Saccharomyces dairenensis Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Saccharomyces martiniae Saccharomyces monacensis Saccharomyces norbensis Saccharomyces paradoxus Saccharomyces pastorianus Saccharomyces spencerorum Saccharomyces turicensis Saccharomyces unisporus Saccharomyces uvarum Saccharomyces zonatus Saccharomyces is a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce (UK) is a fermented sauce, made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt, commonly used in Asian cuisine, and in some Western cuisine dishes, especially Worcestershire sauce. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Quorn (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fusarium venenatum Fusarium venenatum is a fungus, more precisely a mold, from which a mycoprotein can be derived. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


Other human uses

Fungi are also used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like lactic acid, antibiotics and even to make stonewashed jeans.[10] Several fungal species are ingested for their psychedelic properties, both recreationally and religiously (see main article, Psilocybin mushrooms). For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics not including corduroy. ... Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Psychedelic mushrooms redirects here. ...


Edible and poisonous fungi

Asian mushrooms, clockwise from left, enokitake, buna-shimeji, bunapi-shimeji, king oyster mushroom and shiitake.
Asian mushrooms, clockwise from left, enokitake, buna-shimeji, bunapi-shimeji, king oyster mushroom and shiitake.
Black Périgord Truffle (Tuber melanosporum), cut in half.
Black Périgord Truffle (Tuber melanosporum), cut in half.

Some of the best known types of fungi are the edible and the poisonous mushrooms. Many species are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild. Agaricus bisporus, sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello musrooms when larger, are the most commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes. Many Asian fungi are commercially grown and have gained in popularity in the West. They are often available fresh in grocery stores and markets, including straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitakes (Lentinula edodes), and enokitake (Flammulina spp.). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 441 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 564 pixels, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 441 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 564 pixels, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Species Flammulina callistosporioides Flammulina elastica Flammulina fennae Flammulina ferrugineolutea Flammulina mediterranea Flammulina mexicana Flammulina ononidis Flammulina populicola Flammulina rossica Flammulina similis Flammulina stratosa Flammulina velutipes Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸)) are long and thin white mushrooms used in the Cuisine of Japan and China. ... Binomial name (De Cand. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 257 KB) Other versions Truffe01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 257 KB) Other versions Truffe01. ... For other uses, see Truffle. ... Download high resolution version (903x700, 76 KB) Blue Stilton cheese. ... Download high resolution version (903x700, 76 KB) Blue Stilton cheese. ... Stilton cheese is a cheese of England. ... Binomial name Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus, that is widespread in nature and can be isolated from soil, decaying organic substances and plant parts. ... It has been suggested that Mycophagy be merged into this article or section. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Binomial name (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms... Binomial name Volvariella volvacea (Bulliard ex Fries) Singer Volvariella volvacea (also known as straw mushroom or paddy straw mushroom; syn. ... Binomial name Volvariella volvacea (Bulliard ex Fries) Singer Volvariella volvacea (also known as straw mushroom or paddy straw mushroom; syn. ... Binomial name Pleurotus ostreatus Champ. ... Binomial name Pleurotus ostreatus Champ. ... Binomial name Lentinula edodes (Berk. ... Binomial name (Berk. ... Species Flammulina callistosporioides Flammulina elastica Flammulina fennae Flammulina ferrugineolutea Flammulina mediterranea Flammulina mexicana Flammulina ononidis Flammulina populicola Flammulina rossica Flammulina similis Flammulina stratosa Flammulina velutipes Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸)) are long and thin white mushrooms used in the Cuisine of Japan and China. ... Species Flammulina callistosporioides Flammulina elastica Flammulina fennae Flammulina ferrugineolutea Flammulina mediterranea Flammulina mexicana Flammulina ononidis Flammulina populicola Flammulina rossica Flammulina similis Flammulina stratosa Flammulina velutipes Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸)) are long and thin white mushrooms used in the Cuisine of Japan and China. ...


There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale. Milk mushrooms, morels, chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) (also known as king boletes) all demand a high price on the market. They are often used in gourmet dishes. Morphological characteristics of the caps of mushroom, such as those illustrated in the above chart, are essential for correct mushroom identification. ... Binomial name (L. ex Fr. ... Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ... Species Cantharellus is a genus with many delicious and popular edible mushrooms. ... Species Tuber aestivum Tuber brumale Tuber gibbosum Tuber himalayensis Tuber magnatum Tuber melanosporum Tuber mesentericum Tuber oregonense Tuber sinensis The true truffles are a group of several valuable and highly sought-after edible species of underground ascomycetes belonging to the fungal genus Tuber. ... Species Black chanterelle – also called black trumpet, horn of plenty, or trumpet of death – is the common name for the edible mushroom Craterellus cornucopioides. ... Binomial name Boletus edulis Bull. ...


For certain types of cheeses, it is also a common practice to inoculate milk curds with fungal spores to foment the growth of specific species of mold that impart a unique flavor and texture to the cheese. This accounts for the blue colour in cheeses such as Stilton or Roquefort which is created using Penicillium roqueforti spores.[11] Molds used in cheese production are usually non-toxic and are thus safe for human consumption; however, toxic fungal metabolites (e.g., aflatoxins, roquefortine C, patulin, or others) may accumulate due to fungal spoilage during cheese ripening or storage.[12] Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Cabrales bleu Cheese Blue cheese, known in French as bleu (blue), is a general classification of cows milk, sheeps milk, or goats milk cheeses that has had Penicillium cultures added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue or blue-green mold. ... Stilton cheese is a cheese of England. ... Country of origin  France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurised No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a pungent ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Binomial name Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus, that is widespread in nature and can be isolated from soil, decaying organic substances and plant parts. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, particularly Aspergillus and Penicillium. ...


Many mushroom species are toxic to humans, with toxicities ranging from slight digestive problems or allergic reactions as well as hallucinations to severe organ failures and death. Some of the most deadly mushrooms belong to the genera Inocybe, Cortinarius, and most infamously, Amanita, which includes the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the death cap (A. phalloides), the most common cause of deadly mushroom poisoning. [13] The false morel (Gyromitra esculenta) is considered a delicacy by some when cooked yet can be deadly when raw. Tricholoma equestre is one which was considered edible for centuries yet recently responsible for a series of serious poisonings in France. Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Inocybe is a large, complex genus of mushrooms. ... Cortinarius is a genus of mushrooms. ... Species 600, see List of Amanita species Synonyms Aspidella The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide. ... Binomial name Amanita virosa A Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa, , , and ) is a deadly toxic mushroom in the amanita genus, which contains some of the most toxic known mushrooms. ... Binomial name (Vaill. ... Binomial name Gyromitra esculenta The false morel or beefsteak mushroom (Gyromitra esculenta) is a mushroom of the lorchel (Helvellaceae) family that is edible by most people, but poisonous to some. ... Tricholoma equestre or Tricholoma flavovirens, also known as Man on horseback or Yellow knight is a formerly widely eaten but hazardous fungus of the Tricholoma genus that forms ectomycorrhiza with pine trees. ...


Fly agaric mushrooms (A. muscaria) also cause occasional poisonings, mostly as a result of ingestion for use as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic properties. Historically Fly agaric was used by Celtic Druids in Northern Europe and the Koryak people of north-eastern Siberia for religious or shamanic purposes.[14] It is difficult to identify a safe mushroom without proper training and knowledge, thus it is often advised to assume that a mushroom in the wild is poisonous and not to consume it. Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... This article is about the European people. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... See also: Koryakia Autonomous District Koryaks, a Mongoloid people of northeastern Siberia, inhabiting the coastlands of the Bering Sea to the south of the Anadyr basin and the country to the immediate north of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the southernmost limit of their range being Tigilsk. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Fungi in the biological control of pests

Some fungi capable of competing with or infecting other organisms are considered beneficial for human use. For example in agriculture, some fungi may be used to restrict or eliminate the populations of harmful organisms like pest insects, mites, weeds, nematodes and other fungi, such as those that affect the growth or even kill plants.[15] This has generated strong interest in the use and practical application of these fungi for the biological control of pests. Some of these fungi can be used as biopesticides, like the ones that kill insects (entomopathogenic fungi).[16] Specific examples of fungi that have been developed as bioinsecticides are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Hirsutella spp, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, and Verticillium lecanii.[17] [18] Endophytic fungi of grasses of the genus Neotyphodium, such as N. coenophialum produce alkaloids toxic to a range of different herbivores, thus protecting the grass plants from herbivory, but also causing poisoning of grazing animals, such as cattle and sheep. [19] Infection of grass cultivars of turf or forage grasses with isolates of the grass endophytes that produce only specific alkaloids to improve grass hardiness and resistance to herbivores such as insects, while being non-toxic to livestock, is being used in grass breeding programs.[20] Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Biological control of pests and diseases Overview A key belief of the organic gardener is that diversity furthers health. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that kills, or parasitizes and seriously disables, insects. ... Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests and diseases in agriculture that relies on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. ... Binomial name Beauveria bassiana (Bals. ... Binomial name Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and causes disease in various insects by acting as a parasite; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi. ... Verticillium lecanii This is a fungus. ... Neotyphodium species are fungal endophytes that are obligate, asexual, seed-borne symbionts, which live intercelluarly within cool-season grass plant tissues. ... Neotyphodium coenophialum is a systemic and seed-transmissible symbiont (endophyte) of Lolium arundinaceum (=Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue), a grass endemic to Eurasia and North Africa, but widely naturalized in North America, Australia and New Zealand / Aotearoa. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ...


Ecological role

Polypores growing on a tree in Borneo
Polypores growing on a tree in Borneo

Although often inconspicuous, fungi occur in every environment on Earth and play very important roles in most ecosystems. Along with bacteria, fungi are the major decomposers in most terrestrial (and some aquatic) ecosystems, and therefore play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles and in many food webs. As decomposers, they play an indispensable role in nutrient cycling, especially as saprotrophs and symbionts, degrading organic matter to inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter anabolic metabolic pathways in plants or other organisms.[21][22] ImageMetadata File history File links Fungi_in_Borneo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Fungi_in_Borneo. ... Polypores are a group of tough, leathery poroid mushrooms similar to boletes, but typically lacking a distinct stalk. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Decomposers (also called reducers) are organisms (often fungi or bacteria) that break down organic materials to gain nutrients and energy. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (bio-) and abiotic (geo-) compartments of an ecosystem. ... Figure 1. ... In ecology and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (bio-) and abiotic (geo-) compartments of an ecosystem. ... A Saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...


Fungi as symbionts

Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms.[23][24][25] These interactions can be mutualistic or antagonistic in nature, or in case of commensal fungi are of no apparent benefit or detriment to the host. [26][27][28] Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ...


In symbiosis with plants

Mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is one of the most well-known plant-fungus associations and is of significant importance for plant growth and persistence in many ecosystems; over 90% of all plant species engage in some kind of mycorrhizal relationship with fungi and are dependent upon this relationship for survival.[29][30][31] The mycorrhizal symbiosis is ancient, dating to at least 400 million years ago.[32] It often increases the plant's uptake of inorganic compounds, such as nitrate and phosphate from soils having low concentrations of these key plant nutrients.[21] In some mycorrhizal associations, the fungal partners may mediate plant-to-plant transfer of carbohydrates and other nutrients. Such mycorrhizal communities are called "common mycorrhizal networks". [33] A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... u fuck in ua ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in lichens as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by the fungus. [citation needed] As in mycorrhizas, the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates, while the fungus provides minerals and water. The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism. [citation needed] For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ...


In symbiosis with insects

Many insects also engage in mutualistic relationships with various types of fungi. Several groups of ants cultivate fungi in the order Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various species of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.[34] Termites on the African Savannah are also known to cultivate fungi.[35] Ant-fungus mutualism is a verifiable symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, where ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Species etc. ...


Fungi as pathogens and parasites

However, many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi. Serious fungal pathogens of many cultivated plants causing extensive damage and losses to agriculture and forestry include the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea,[36] tree pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi causing Dutch elm disease,[37] and Cryphonectria parasitica responsible for chestnut blight, [38] and plant-pathogenic fungi in the genera Fusarium, Ustilago, Alternaria, and Cochliobolus; [27] fungi with the potential to cause serious human diseases, especially in persons with immuno-deficiencies, are in the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptoccocus,[39][28][40] Histoplasma,[41] and Pneumocystis. [42] Several pathogenic fungi are also responsible for relatively minor human diseases, such as athlete’s foot and ringworm. Some fungi are predators of nematodes, which they capture using an array of devices such as constricting rings or adhesive nets.[43] Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Binomial name Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr Synonyms Magnaporthe grisea, also commonly know as rice blast fungus, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a disease affecting rice, and can also infect a number of other agriculturally important cereals including wheat, rye and barley, causing diseases called... Binomial name Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr Synonyms Pyricularia grisea Magnaporthe grisea, also commonly know as rice blast fungus, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a disease affecting rice, and can also infect a number of other agriculturally important cereals including wheat, rye and barley, causing... Branch death, or flagging, at multiple locations in the crown of a diseased elm. ... Branch death, or flagging, at multiple locations in the crown of a diseased elm. ... Branch death, or Flagging, at multiple locations in the crown of a diseased elm. ... Binomial name Cryphonectria parasitica The chestnut blight is a fungal disease, Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica). ... Binomial name Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr The chestnut blight is a fungal disease caused by the sac fungus (Ascomycota), Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica). ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... Species (Pers. ... Species Many, see text Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi. ... Species Cochliobolus carbonum Cochliobolus cymbopogonis Cochliobolus hawaiiensis Cochliobolus heterostrophus Cochliobolus lunatus Cochliobolus miyabeanus Cochliobolus oryzae Cochliobolus ravenelii Cochliobolus sativus Cochliobolus setariae Cochliobolus spicifer Cochliobolus stenospilus Cochliobolus victoriae The genus Cochliobolus includes 55 species [[1]], including the following plant pathgenic species: C. carbonum, C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus , C. sativus and C... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Species C. albicans C. dubliniensis C. glabrata C. guilliermondii C. kefyr C. krusei C. lusitaniae C. milleri C. oleophila C. parapsilosis C. tropicalis C. utilis Candida is a genus of yeasts. ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus that can live in both plants and animals. ... Species Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma is a genus of dimorphic fungi commonly found in bird and bat fecal material. ... Species Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly ) Pneumocystis murina Pneumocystis A Pneumonia that affects individuals whose immunological defenses (immune system) have been compromised, that is caused by a microorganism (Pneumocystis Carinii) and that attacks esp. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Athletes Foot is a fungal infection of the skin, usually between the toes, caused by parasitic fungi. ... This article is about the fungal infection. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ...


Nutrition and possible autotrophy in fungi

Growth of fungi as hyphae on or in solid substrates or single cells in aquatic environments is adapted to efficient extraction of nutrients from these environments, because these growth forms have high surface area to volume ratios. These adaptations in morphology are complemented by hydrolytic enzymes secreted into the environment for digestion of large organic molecules, such as polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and other organic substrates into smaller molecules. [44][45][46] These molecules are then absorbed as nutrients into the fungal cells. Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... In chemical reactions involving a solid material, the surface area to volume ratio is an important factor for the reactivity, that is, the rate at which the chemical reaction will proceed. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Cellulase is an enzyme complex which breaks down cellulose to beta-glucose. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Some common lipids. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Traditionally, the fungi are considered heterotrophs, organisms that rely solely on carbon fixed by other organisms for metabolism. Fungi have evolved a remarkable metabolic versatility that allows many of them to use a large variety of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds as nitrate, ammonia, acetate, or ethanol.[47] [48] Recent research raises the possibility that some fungi utilize the pigment melanin to extract energy from ionizing radiation, such as gamma radiation for "radiotrophic" growth. [49] It has been proposed that this process might bear some similarity to photosynthesis in plants, [49] but detailed biochemical data supporting the existence of this hypothetical pathway are presently lacking. Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Radiotrophic fungi are a recent discovery, first seen as black molds growing inside and around the defunct nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. ...


Morphology

Mold covering a decaying peach over a period of six days. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart.
Mold covering a decaying peach over a period of six days. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart.

Though fungi are part of the opisthokont clade, all phyla except for the chytrids have lost their posterior flagella.[50] Fungi are unusual among the eukaryotes in having a cell wall that, besides glucans (e.g., β-1,3-glucan) and other typical components, contains the biopolymer chitin.[51] Many fungi grow as thread-like filamentous macroscopic structures called hyphae, and an assemblage of intertwined and interconnected hyphae is called a mycelium. [3] Fungal mycelia can become visible macroscopically, for example, as concentric rings on various surfaces, such as damp walls, and on other substrates, such as spoilt food (see figure), and are commonly and generically called mould; fungal mycelia grown on solid agar media in laboratory petri dishes are usually referred to as colonies, with many species exhibiting characteristic macroscopic growth morphologies and colours, due to spores or pigmentation. Image File history File links DecayingPeachSmall. ... The opisthokonts (Greek opistho- rear, posterior + kontos pole i. ... Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Monoblepharidales Blastocladiales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. ... Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ...


Hyphae can be septate, i.e., divided into hyphal compartments separated by a septum, each compartment containing one or more nuclei or can be coenocytic, i.e., lacking hyphal compartmentalization. However, septa have pores, such as the doliporus in the basidiomycetes that allow cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes nuclei to pass through.[3] Coenocytic hyphae are essentially multinucleate supercells. [citation needed] In some cases, fungi have developed specialized structures for nutrient uptake from living hosts; examples include haustoria in plant-parasitic fungi of nearly all divisions, and arbuscules of several mycorrhizal fungi [52], which penetrate into the host cells for nutrient uptake by the fungus. Specialized fungal structures important in sexual reproduction are the apothecia, perithecia, and cleistothecia in the ascomycetes, and the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycetes, and a few ascomycetes, which can sometimes grow very large and are well known as mushrooms. Look up septum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... A coenocyte is a multinucleate cell. ... Multinucleate (also multinucleated) cells have more than one nucleus per cell, which is the result of nuclear division not being followed by cytokinesis. ... Haustorium, plural Haustoria, is the hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus that penetrates the hosts tissue, but stays outside the host cell membrane. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... Diagram of an apothecium showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci. ... Diagram of an apothecium showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci. ... In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ...


Reproduction

Fungi on a fence post near Orosí, Costa Rica.
Fungi on a fence post near Orosí, Costa Rica.

Reproduction of fungi is complex, reflecting the heterogeneity in lifestyles and genetic make up within this group of organisms. [3] Many fungi reproduce both sexually or asexually, depending on conditions in the environment. These conditions trigger genetically determined developmental programs leading to the expression of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures aid both reproduction and efficient dissemination of spores or spore-containing propagules. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (905x728, 107 KB) Near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (905x728, 107 KB) Near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Orosí seen from the South Orosí is a village in Costa Rica, about 30 km South East of the capital San José. It has a population of about 9000 and is one of the few colonial towns to survive Costa Ricas frequent earthquakes, with one of the oldest churches...


Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction via vegetative spores or through mycelial fragmentation is common in many fungal species and allows more rapid dispersal than sexual reproduction. In the case of the "Fungi imperfecti" or Deuteromycota, which lack a sexual cycle, it is the only means of propagation. Asexual spores, upon germination, may found a population that is clonal to the population from which the spore originated, and thus colonize new environments. It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ...


Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction with meiosis exists in all fungal phyla, except the Deuteromycota. It differs in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants. Many differences also exist between fungal groups and have been used to discriminate fungal clades and species based on morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies. Experimental crosses between fungal isolates can also be used to identify species based on biological species concepts. The major fungal clades have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for example, the spore-containing structures, asci and basidia, can be used in the identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, respectively. Many fungal species have elaborate vegetative incompatibility systems that allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating type, while others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself. Species of the former mating system are called heterothallic, and of the latter homothallic. [53] For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... An ascus (plural asci) is the spore-bearing container produced in the ascocarps of ascomycete fungi. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Mating type is the term applied to fungal hyphae that are found to have 2 or more distinct allele sites, distinguishing them as being either male, or female. It is necessary to have different mating types meet in order to have sexual reproduction. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Most fungi have both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. In all sexually reproducing fungi, compatible individuals combine by cell fusion of vegetative hyphae by anastomosis, required for the initiation of the sexual cycle. Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes go through a dikaryotic stage, in which the nuclei inherited from the two parents do not fuse immediately after cell fusion, but remain separate in the hyphal cells (see heterokaryosis). Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... // Anastomosis (plural anastomoses) refers to a form of network in which streams both branch out and reconnect. ... Dikaryon is from Greek, di meaning 2 and karyon meaning nut, referring to the cell nucleus. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Heterokaryosis (from the Greek heteros, meaning other and karyon, meaning kernel) is a term used in mycology meaning to have two or more genetically different nuclei within the same mycelium of a fungus. ...


In ascomycetes fungi, dikaryotic hyphae form asci (sing. ascus), in which karyogamy (nuclear fusion) occurs. These asci are embedded in an ascocarp, or fruiting body, of the fungus. Karyogamy in the asci is followed immediately by meiosis and the production of ascospores. The ascospores are disseminated and germinate and may form a new haploid mycelium. An ascus (plural asci) is the spore-bearing container produced in the ascocarps of ascomycete fungi. ... Karyogamy is the fusion of nuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy. ... Diagram of an apothecium showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci. ...


Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of the ascomycetes. Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium. However, the dikaryotic phase is more extensive in the basidiomycetes, in many cases also present in the vegetatively growing mycelium. A basidiocarp is formed in which club-like structures known as basidia generate haploid basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis.[54] The most commonly known basidiocarps are mushrooms, but they may also take many other forms (see Morphology section). Mushroom In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ... A basidiospore is a spore produced by mushrooms of Fungi division Basidiomycota. ...


In zygomycetes, haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a zygote, which develops into a zygospore. When the zygospore germinates, it quickly undergoes meiosis, generating new haploid hyphae, which in turn may form asexual sporangiospores. These sporangiospores are means of rapid dispersal of the fungus and germinate into new genetically identical haploid fungal colonies, able to mate and undergo another sexual cycle followed by the generation of new zygospores, thus completing the lifecycle. It has been suggested that Biparental zygote be merged into this article or section. ... A zygospore is a sexual part of a fungus, a chlamydospore that is created by the nuclear fusion of haploid hyphae of different mating types. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... Mature sporangium of a Mucor mold Moss sporangia (capsules) Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia A sporangium (pl. ...


Other sexual processes

Besides regular sexual reproduction with meiosis, some fungal species may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes. However, it is known to play a role in intraspecific hybridization [55] and is also likely required for hybridization between fungal species, which has been associated with major events in fungal evolution. [56] Subphyla/Classes Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes Lichinomycetes Arthoniomycetes Orbilomycetes Unplaced orders Lahmiales Medeolariales Triblidiales Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes Ascomycota is a Division/Phylum of Fungi, and subkingdom Dikarya, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi. ... Plasmogamy is a stage in the sexual reproduction of fungi. ...


Phylogeny and classification

The mushroom Oudemansiella nocturnum eats wood
The mushroom Oudemansiella nocturnum eats wood

For a long time taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the Plant Kingdom. This early classification was based mainly on similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plant are mainly sessile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat (like plants, fungi often grow in soil, in the case of mushrooms forming conspicuous fruiting bodies, which sometimes bear resemblance to plants such as mosses). Moreover, both groups possess a cell wall, which is absent in the Animal Kingdom. However, the fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged approximately one billion years ago.[57] Many studies have identified several distinct morphological, biochemical, and genetic features in the Fungi, clearly delineating this group from the other kingdoms. For these reasons, the fungi are placed in their own kingdom. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... This is an article about the plant. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... See Animal. ...


Physiological and morphological traits

Similar to animals and unlike most plants, fungi lack the capacity to synthesize organic carbon by chlorophyll-based photosynthesis; whereas plants store the reduced carbon as starch, fungi, like animals and some bacteria, use glycogen [58] for storage of carbohydrates. A major component of the cell wall in many fungal species is the nitrogen-containing carbohydrate, chitin,[59] also present in some animals, such as the insects and crustaceans, while the plant cell wall consists chiefly of the carbohydrate cellulose. The defining and unique characteristics of fungal cells include growth as hyphae, which are microscopic filaments of between 2-10 microns in diameter and up to several centimetres in length, and which combined form the fungal mycelium. Some fungi, such as yeasts, grow as single ovoid cells, similar to unicellular algae and the protists. The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all...


Unlike many plants, most fungi lack an efficient vascular system, such as xylem or phloem for long-distance transport of water and nutrients; as an example for convergent evolution, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs or mycelial cords,[60] resembling and functionally related to, but morphologically distinct from, plant roots. Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in plants, phloem being the other one. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Honey mushrooms, Armillaria Borealis (?) Honey fungus ( Armillaria sp. ... The fungal cords, found under the rotting log Armilaria cords Mycelial cords - a linear aggregations of the parallel oriented hyphae. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ...


Some characteristics shared between plants and fungi include the presence of vacuoles in the cell [61], and a similar pathway in the biosynthesis of terpenes using mevalonic acid and pyrophosphate as biochemical precursors; plants however use an additional terpene biosynthesis pathway in the chloroplasts that is apparently absent in fungi.[62] Ancestral traits shared among members of the fungi include chitinous cell walls and heterotrophy by absorption.[63] A further characteristic of the fungi that is absent from other eukaryotes, and shared only with some bacteria, is the biosynthesis of the amino acid, L-lysine, via the α-aminoadipate pathway. [64] Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... Mevalonic acid is a key organic compound in biochemistry. ... In chemistry, the anion, the salts, and the esters of pyrophosphoric acid are called pyrophosphates. ... A precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... In biology, chitin is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods, and in some other animals. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ...


Similar to plants, fungi produce a plethora of secondary metabolites functioning as defensive compounds or for niche adaptation; however, biochemical pathways for the synthesis of similar or even identical compounds often differ markedly between fungi and plants. [65][66] Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ...


Evolutionary history

Even though traditionally included in many botany curricula and textbooks, fungi are now thought to be more closely related to animals than to plants, and are placed with the animals in the monophyletic group of opisthokonts. [63]For much of the Paleozoic Era, the fungi appear to have been aquatic, and consisted of organisms similar to the extant Chytrids in having flagellum-bearing spores.[67] The first land fungi probably appeared in the Silurian, right after the first land plants appeared, even though their fossils are fragmentary. For some time after the Permian-Triassic extinction event, a fungal spike, detected as an extraordinary abundance of fungal spores in sediments formed shortly after this event, indicates that they were the dominant life form during this period—nearly 100% of the fossil record available from this period.[68] For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... The opisthokonts (Greek opistho- rear, posterior + kontos pole i. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ...


Analyses using molecular phylogenetics support a monophyletic origin of the Fungi.[69] The taxonomy of the Fungi is in a state of constant flux, especially due to recent research based on DNA comparisons. These current phylogenetic analyses often overturn classifications based on older and sometimes less discriminative methods based on morphological features and biological species concepts obtained from experimental matings.[70][71] Molecular phylogeny is the use of the structure of molecules to gain information on an organisms evolutionary relationships. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ...


There is no unique generally accepted system at the higher taxonomic levels and there are constant name changes at every level, from species upwards. However, efforts among fungal researchers are now underway to establish and encourage usage of a unified and more consistent nomenclature.[69] Fungal species can also have multiple scientific names depending on its life cycle and mode (sexual or asexual) of reproduction. Web sites such as Index Fungorum and ITIS define preferred up-to-date names (with cross-references to older synonyms), but do not always agree with each other. Nomenclature refers to a method of assigning (unique) names. ... Index Fungorum, an international project to index all formal names (scientific names) in the Kingdom Fungi. ... Please note that the ITIS system URL has changed (25 September 2006). ...


Cladogram

Unikonta  

Amoebozoa Supergroups Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Unikont is a eukaryotic cell with a single flagellum, at least ancestrally. ... Subgroups Mycetozoa(slime moulds) Archamoebae    Pelobiontida    Entamoebida Gymnamoebia Various others The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. ...


  Opisthokonta  
   
   

Animalia Subgroups Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Fungi Choanozoa Choanoflagellates Corallochytrids Mesomycetozoea Nucleariids The opisthokonts (Greek: (opisthō-) = rear, posterior + (kontos) = pole i. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented...



Choanozoa The opisthokonts are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animals and fungi, together with a few sorts of protists. ...



  Fungi  

Chytridiomycota Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Monoblepharidales Blastocladiales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ...



Blastocladiomycota Genera Allomyces E.J. Butler 1911 Blastocladia Reinsch 1877 Coelomomyces Keilin 1921 Blastocladiomycota is phylum of zoosporic Fungi[3]. ^ a b James, T.Y., (2006). ...



Neocallimastigomycota Type species Neocallimastix (I.B. Heath 1983) Vavra & Joyon Genera Anaeromyces Caecomyces Cyllamyces Neocallimastix Orpinomyces Piromyces Wikispecies has information related to: Neocallimastigomycota Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum of anaerobic fungi, found mainly within the stomachs of ruminants, but with possible distributions elsewhere. ...



Zygomycota Orders Dimargaritales Endogonales Entomophthorales Harpellales Kickxellales Microsporidia Mucorales Zoopagales Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ...



Glomeromycota Orders Archaeosporales Diversisporales Paraglomerales Glomerales The division (phylum) Glomeromycota is a taxon within the kingdom Fungi that includes those species that form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants. ...


  Dikarya  

Ascomycota Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores...



Basidiomycota Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ...






The taxonomic groups of fungi

The major divisions (phyla) of fungi have been classified based mainly on their sexual reproductive structures. Currently, seven fungal divisions are proposed:[69] In biological taxonomy, a phylum (Greek plural: phyla) is a taxon in the rank below kingdom and above class. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...

Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
Conidiophores of molds of the genus Aspergillus, an ascomycete, seen under microscope.
Conidiophores of molds of the genus Aspergillus, an ascomycete, seen under microscope.
  • The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are ubiquitous with a worldwide distribution; chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum. Consequently, some taxonomists had earlier classified them as protists on the basis of the flagellum. Molecular phylogenies, inferred from the rRNA-operon sequences representing the 18S, 28S, and 5.8S ribosomal subunits, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal fungal group divergent from the other fungal divisions, consisting of four major clades with some evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly. [67]
  • The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota). The blastocladiomycetes are fungi that are saprotrophs and parasites of all eukaryotic groups and undergo sporic meiosis unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, which mostly exhibit zygotic meiosis. [67]
  • The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms, living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments. They lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin. As the related chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.[69]
  • The Zygomycota contain the taxa, Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes, and reproduce sexually with meiospores called zygospores and asexually with sporangiospores. Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is a common species that belongs to this group; another is Pilobolus, which is capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air. Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. Molecular phylogenetic investigation has shown the Zygomycota to be a polyphyletic phylum with evidence of paraphyly within this taxonomic group. [72]
  • Members of the Glomeromycota are fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizae with higher plants. Only one species has been observed forming zygospores; all other species solely reproduce asexually. The symbiotic association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400 million years ago.[32]
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
  • The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota. These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus. This division includes morels, a few mushrooms and truffles, single-celled yeasts (e.g., of the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Candida), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts. Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. Many ascomycetes species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota. Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, several ascomyctes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g. Neurospora crassa).
  • Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust (fungus) and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains. Other important Basidiomyces include the maize pathogen,Ustilago maydis, human commensal species of the genus Malassezia, and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 398 KB) Picture taken by MS Turmel, University of Manitoba, Plant Science Dept. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 398 KB) Picture taken by MS Turmel, University of Manitoba, Plant Science Dept. ... An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Aspergillus. ... Image File history File links Aspergillus. ... Conidiophore of Hyaloperonospora parasitica harboring several conidiospores Conidia on conidophores Conidia, or conidiospores, are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus; they are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Monoblepharidales Blastocladiales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... A motile asexual spore utilizing a flagellum for locomotion. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Genera Allomyces E.J. Butler 1911 Blastocladia Reinsch 1877 Coelomomyces Keilin 1921 Blastocladiomycota is phylum of zoosporic Fungi[3]. ^ a b James, T.Y., (2006). ... Type species Neocallimastix (I.B. Heath 1983) Vavra & Joyon Genera Anaeromyces Caecomyces Cyllamyces Neocallimastix Orpinomyces Piromyces Wikispecies has information related to: Neocallimastigomycota Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum of anaerobic fungi, found mainly within the stomachs of ruminants, but with possible distributions elsewhere. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... A hydrogenosome is an organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi. ... Orders Dimargaritales Endogonales Entomophthorales Harpellales Kickxellales Microsporidia Mucorales Zoopagales Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... For other uses, see Spore (disambiguation). ... Mature sporangium of a Mucor mold Moss sporangia (capsules) Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia A sporangium (pl. ... Binomial name (Ehrenb. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pilobolus, the arts organism, germinated in the fertile soil of a Dartmouth College dance class in 1971. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Species See section. ... Species Rhizopus nigricans Rhizopus stolonifer Rhizopus arrhizus Rhizopus azygosporus Rhizopus microsporus Rhizopus oligosporus Rhizopus oryzae Rhizopus schipperae and others Schematic diagram of Rhizopus is a genus of molds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into molecular systematics. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... Orders Archaeosporales Diversisporales Paraglomerales Glomerales The division (phylum) Glomeromycota is a taxon within the kingdom Fungi that includes those species that form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants. ... An Arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (964x868, 248 KB) Summary diagram of an ascocarp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (964x868, 248 KB) Summary diagram of an ascocarp. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. ... An ascus (plural asci) is the spore-bearing container produced in the ascocarps of ascomycete fungi. ... Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Species Tuber melanosporum Tuber brumale Tuber aestivum Tuber uncinatum Tuber mesentericum Tuber magnatum Truffle describes a group of edible mycorrhizal (symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant) fungi (genus Tuber, class Ascomycetes, division Ascomycota). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Species Saccharomyces bayanus Saccharomyces boulardii Saccharomyces bulderi Saccharomyces cariocanus Saccharomyces cariocus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces chevalieri Saccharomyces dairenensis Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Saccharomyces martiniae Saccharomyces monacensis Saccharomyces norbensis Saccharomyces paradoxus Saccharomyces pastorianus Saccharomyces spencerorum Saccharomyces turicensis Saccharomyces unisporus Saccharomyces uvarum Saccharomyces zonatus Saccharomyces is a genus in the kingdom of fungi that includes... Species K. lactis K. marxianus Kluyveromyces is a genus of ascomycetous yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae. ... Species P. pastoris Synonyms Hansenula Pichia is a genus of teleomorphic yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae. ... Candida can have various meanings: Candida is a comedic play by George Bernard Shaw published in 1898 that satirizes socialist reformers in the Church of England. ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... In biology, fungi are placed into particular taxa based on reproductive similarities. ... Fungi are placed into particular taxa based on reproductive similarities. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... A basidiospore is a spore produced by mushrooms of Fungi division Basidiomycota. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Families Pucciniaceae Melampsoraceae Coleosporiaceae Cronartiaceae Phragmidiaceae Pucciniastraceae Rusts are fungi of the order Uredinales. ... The smuts are fungi, mostly Ustilaginomycetes (of the class Teliomycetae, subphylum Basidiomycota), that cause plant disease. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name (Persoon) Roussel Corn smut is a disease of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis. ... Species See text. ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus that can live in both plants and animals. ...

Phylogenetic relationships with other fungus-like organisms

Because of some similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (Oomycetes) were formerly classified in the kingdom Fungi. Unlike true fungi, however, the cell walls of these organisms contain cellulose and lack chitin. Slime molds are unikonts like fungi, but are grouped in the Amoebozoa. Water molds are diploid bikonts, grouped in the Chromalveolate kingdom. Neither water molds nor slime molds are closely related to the true fungi, and, therefore, taxonomists no longer group them in the kingdom Fungi. Nonetheless, studies of the oomycetes and myxomycetes are still often included in mycology textbooks and primary research literature. Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ... Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... Supergroups Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Unikont is a eukaryotic cell with a single flagellum, at least ancestrally. ... Subgroups Mycetozoa(slime moulds) Archamoebae    Pelobiontida    Entamoebida Gymnamoebia Various others The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. ... A Bikont is a eukaryotic cell with two flagella. ... Phyla Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Ciliophora Apicomplexa Dinoflagellata Chromalveolata is a eukaryote supergroup first proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith as a refinement of his kingdom Chromista, which was first proposed in 1981. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ...


It has been suggested that the nucleariids, currently grouped in the Choanozoa, may be a sister group to the eumycete clade, [citation needed] and as such could be included in an expanded fungal kingdom. The nucleariids are a small group of amoebae with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater. ... The opisthokonts are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animals and fungi, together with a few sorts of protists. ...


See also

A bioaerosol is a biological aerosol. ... Carnivorous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and digesting animals. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article lists the orders of the Fungi. ... MycoBank is an online database, documenting new mycological names and combinations, eventually combined with descriptions and illustrations. ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ... A wood-decay fungus is a variety of fungus which has the ability to digest wood, causing it to rot. ...

References

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  5. ^ Strains of wine yeast
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  11. ^ Questions & Answers - Mold on Cheese whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
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Further reading

  • Alexopoulos, C.J., Charles W. Mims, M. Blackwell et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken NJ, 2004) ISBN 0-471-52229-5
  • Arora, David. (1986). "Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi". 2nd ed. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0898151694
  • Deacon JW. (2005). "Fungal Biology" (4th ed). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 1-4051-3066-0.
  • Kaminstein D. (2002). Mushroom poisoning.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
TOENAIL FUNGUS, Cures for Finger and Toe Nail Fungus... (1009 words)
Toenails are more likely to be affected by fungus since it is attracted to a dark and damp environment which is more common on the foot than on the hand.
Some estimates are that over 10% of the North American population have fungus of the toenails, and it is one of the most common ailments that foot specialists attend to.
The fungus is sealed beneath the toe nails in a dark, moist, warm environment that it loves to grow in.
Fungus - MSN Encarta (1270 words)
Fungus, any member of a diverse group of organisms that—unlike plants and animals—obtain food by absorbing nutrients from an external source.
Other fungi are among the longest-lived organisms on Earth—some lichens, a living partnership of a fungus and an alga, are thought to be more than 4,500 years old.
Yeast, a small, single-celled fungus, reproduces by budding, in which a bump forms on the yeast cell, eventually partitioning from the cell and growing into a new yeast cell.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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