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Encyclopedia > Funeral

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A funeral is a ceremony marking a person's death. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember the dead, from the funeral itself, to various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in their honor. These customs vary widely between cultures, and between religious affiliations within cultures. In some cultures the dead are venerated; this is commonly called ancestor worship. The word funeral comes from the Latin funus, which had a variety of meanings, including the corpse and the funerary rites themselves. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Funeral rites are as old as the human race itself, as well as other hominids.[citation needed] For example, in the Shanidar cave in Iraq, Neanderthal skeletons have been discovered with a characteristic layer of pollen, which suggests that Neanderthals buried the dead with gifts of flowers. This has been interpreted as suggesting that Neanderthals believed in an afterlife, and in any case were aware of their own mortality and were capable of mourning. The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ...


Religious funerals

Buddhist funerals

Main article: Funeral (Buddhism)

In Buddhism, death marks the transition from this life to the next for the deceased. ...

Catholic funerals

Main article: Catholic Funeral

A Catholic Funeral refers to the funeral rites specifically in use in the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Hindu funerals

Main article: Antyesti

Antyesti or Hindu funeral rites, is an important sacrament of Hindu society. ...

Islamic funerals

Main article: Islamic funeral

A lithographic painting depicting a muslim funeral procession in India, circa 1888 Islamic funeral or funeral rites in Islam is about specific rites followed in Islam for burying the dead. ...

Jewish funerals

Main article: Jewish funeral

Link title #REDIRECT Bereavement in Judaism [email protected] ...

Sikh funerals

In Sikhism death is considered a natural process. An event that has absolute certainty and only happens as a direct result of God's Will or Hukam. To a Sikh, birth and death are closely associated, because they are both part of the cycle of human life of "coming and going" ( ਆਵਣੁ ਜਾਣਾ , Aana Jaana) which is seen as transient stage towards Liberation ( ਮੋਖੁ ਦੁਆਰੁ , Mokh Du-aar), complete unity with God. Sikhs thus believe in reincarnation. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


However, by contrast, the soul itself is not subject to the cycle of birth and death.[citation needed] Death is only the progression of the soul on its journey from God, through the created universe and back to God again. In life, a Sikh always tries to constantly remember death so that he or she may be sufficiently prayerful, detached and righteous to break the cycle of birth and death and return to God.


The public display of grief at the funeral or Antam Sanskar as it is called in the Sikh culture, such as wailing or crying out loud is discouraged and should be kept to a minimum. Cremation is the preferred method of disposal, although if this is not possible any other methods such as burial or submergence at sea are acceptable. Worship of the dead with gravestones, etc. is discouraged, because the body is considered to be only the shell and the person's soul is their real essence. Antam or Antim mean Final or Last Sanskar means ritual, rite, ceremony, service In Sikhism death is considered a natural process and Gods will or Hukam. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


On the day of the cremation, the body is taken to the Gurdwara or home where hymns (Shabads) from the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scriptures are recited by the congregation, which induce feeling of consolation and courage. Kirtan may also be performed by Ragis while the relatives of the deceased recite "Waheguru" sitting near the coffin. This service normally takes from 30 to 60 minutes. At the conclusion of the service, an Ardas is said before the coffin is taken to the cremation site. The Harimandir Sahib. ... Shabad: Word Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Eleusine coracana L. Finger millet, also known as African millet or ragi, is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in the arid areas of Africa and Asia. ... Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... Arda (Bulgarian: Арда, Greek: Αρδας Ardas) is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometres eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. ...


At the point of cremation, a few more Shabads may be sung and final speeches are made about the deceased person. Then the Kirtan Sohila, night time prayer is recited and finally Ardas called the "Antim Ardas" ("Final Prayer") is offered. The eldest son or a close relative generally starts the cremation process – light the fire or press the button for the burning to begin. This service usually lasts about 30 to 60 minutes. Shabad: Word Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Arda (Bulgarian: Арда, Greek: Αρδας Ardas) is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometres eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. ...


The ashes are later collected and disposed by immersing them in the nearest river. Sikhs do not erect monuments over the remains of the dead.[citation needed]


After the cremation ceremony, there may be another service at the Gurdwara, the Sikh place of worship, call the Sahaj Paath Bhog Ceremony but this is optional. The Harimandir Sahib. ... The Sahaj Paath is a reading of all the pages of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scriptures, which can be done at the readers schedule. ... Bhog (which in literal etymology means pleasure or delight) is the term used in the Sikh religion for the observances that are fulfilled along with the reading of the concluding part of the Guru Granth Sahib. ...

Main article: Antam Sanskar

Antam or Antim mean Final or Last Sanskar means ritual, rite, ceremony, service In Sikhism death is considered a natural process and Gods will or Hukam. ...

Funerals in Japan

Main article: Japanese funeral

This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...

Funerals in contemporary North America

Traditional funerals

A floral name tribute (spelling out the word "MUM") at a funeral in England.
A floral name tribute (spelling out the word "MUM") at a funeral in England.

Within the United States and Canada, in most cultural groups and regions, the funeral rituals can be divided into three parts: visitation, funeral, and the burial service. Download high resolution version (1500x1092, 481 KB) A name tribute (MUM) at a funeral in Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1092, 481 KB) A name tribute (MUM) at a funeral in Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Mom and Mommy redirect here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


Visitation

At the visitation (also called a "viewing" or "wake") the body of the deceased person (or decedent) is placed on display in the coffin (also called a casket). The viewing often takes place on one or two evenings before the funeral. The body is traditionally dressed in the decedent's best clothes, which may be slit up the back to facilitate dressing the body. In recent times there has been more variation in what the decedent is dressed in. The body will also be adorned with the usual jewelry, including a watch. The jewelry and watch will remain in the casket after burial, but it might be removed before cremation. The body may or may not be embalmed, depending upon such factors as the amount of time since the death has occurred, religious practices, or requirements of the place of burial. Viewing (museum display) Museum of Funeral Customs In funeral services, a viewing (sometimes called reviewal, funeral visitation or a wake in the United States and Canada) is the time that the family and friends come to see the deceased after they have been prepared by a funeral home. ... A wake is a ceremony associated with death. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ...


The only prescribed aspects[citation needed] of this gathering are that frequently the attendees sign a book kept by the deceased's survivors to record who attended and that the attendees are expected to view the deceased's body in the coffin. In addition, a family may choose to display photographs taken of the deceased person during his/her life (often, formal portraits with other family members and candid pictures to show "happy times"), prized possessions and other items representing his/her hobbies and/or accomplishments. A more recent trend is to create a DVD with pictures and video of the deceased, accompanied by music, and play this DVD continuously during the visitation. After the services, the DVD is given to the family. DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...


The viewing is either "open casket", in which the embalmed body of the deceased has been clothed and treated with cosmetics for display; or "closed casket", in which the coffin is closed. The coffin may be closed if the body was too badly damaged because of an accident or fire, deformed from illness or if someone in the group is emotionally unable to cope with viewing the corpse. During an open casket, if the deceased was of Roman Catholic faith, a large rosary made out of fresh flowers may be hung inside of the coffin.[citation needed] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


However, this step is foreign to Judaism; Jewish funerals are held soon after death, and the corpse is never displayed. As well, Jewish law[citation needed] forbids anyone to embalm the body of the deceased. Traditionally flowers (and music) are not sent to a grieving Jewish family as it is a reminder of the life that is now lost.(See also Jewish bereavement.) // May you be comforted with all the mourners of Zion and Jerusalem Death and dying Everything that Jews do regarding death is for one of two reasons: respect for the dead (kavod ha-met) or to console those left behind (nihum avelim). ...


The decedent's closest friends and relatives who are unable to attend frequently send flowers to the viewing, with the exception of a Jewish Funeral [1], where flowers would not be appropriate (and donations are given to a charity instead). The viewing typically takes place at a funeral home, which is equipped with gathering rooms where the viewing can be conducted, although the viewing may also take place at a church. It is also common practice in some of the states in the southeastern United States that the body is taken to the decedent’s home or that of a relative for viewing. The viewing may end with a prayer service; in the Catholic funeral, this may include a rosary.[citation needed] For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ...

A visitation is often held the evening before the day of the funeral. However, when the deceased person is elderly the visitation may be held immediately preceding the funeral. This allows elderly friends of the deceased a chance to view the body and attend the funeral in one trip, since it may be difficult for them to arrange travel. Image File history File links Stairway2heavensm. ... Image File history File links Stairway2heavensm. ...


A Traditional Fire Department funeral consists of two raised aerial ladders.[citation needed] The firefighter(s) travel under the aerials on their ride on the fire apparatus to the cemetery.


Funeral

A memorial service, often called a funeral and often officiated by clergy from the decedent's or bereaved's church or religion. A funeral may take place at either a funeral home or church. A funeral is usually held three to five days after the death of the deceased. Some people consider it important [citation needed] to conduct the funeral exactly three days after the death. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


The deceased is usually transported from the funeral home to a church in a hearse, a specialized vehicle designed to carry casketed remains. The deceased most often transported in a procession, with the hearse, funeral service vehicles, and private automobiles traveling in a procession to the church or other location where the services will be held. In a number of jurisdictions, special laws cover funeral processions - such as requiring other vehicles to give right-of-way to a funeral procession. Funeral service vehicles may be equipped with light bars and special flashers to increase their visibility on the roads. After the funeral service, if the deceased is to be buried the funeral procession will proceed to a cemetery if not already there. If the deceased is to be cremated the funeral procession may then proceed to the crematory. Funeral carriage, Museum of Funeral Customs For the extreme metal band, see Hearse (band) A hearse is a funeral vehicle, a conveyance for the coffin from e. ...


Funeral services include prayers; readings from the Bible or other sacred texts; hymns (sung either by the attendees or a hired vocalist); and words of comfort by the clergy. Frequently, a relative or close friend will be asked to give a eulogy, which details happy memories and accomplishments; often commenting on the deceased's flaws, especially at length, is considered impolite. Sometimes the delivering of the eulogy is done by the clergy. Clergy are often asked to deliver eulogies for people they have never met. For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tradition [citation needed] also allows the attendees of the memorial service to have one last opportunity to view the decedent's body and say good-bye; the immediate family (siblings (and their spouses); followed by the decedent's spouse, parents and children) are always the very last to view their loved one before the coffin is closed. This opportunity can take place immediately before the service begins, or at the very end of the service. Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


During funerals, bagpipes are sometimes played. Curiously, at a police officer's or firefighter's funeral, the pipes are usually Great Highland Bagpipes, not the Uillean pipes usually played by Irish musicians. In the United States, police officers and firefighters are often of Irish, but seldom of Scottish descent [citation needed]. This custom was quite obvious in the funerals of emergency workers killed in the September 11, 2001, [[World Trade Center attacks. A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... The Uilleann pipes are a unique form of bagpipes originating in Ireland. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


During the funeral and at the burial service, the casket may be covered with a large arrangement of flowers, called a casket spray. If the decedent served in a branch of the Armed forces, the casket may be covered with a national flag; however nothing should cover the national flag according to Title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1, Paragraph 8i. The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ...


Funeral customs vary from country to country. In the United States, any type of noise other than quiet whispering or mourning is considered disrespectful.


Note: In some religious denominations, for example, Roman Catholic and Anglican, eulogies are prohibited or discouraged during this service, in order to preserve respect for traditions. Also, for these religions, the coffin is traditionally closed at the end of the wake and is not re-opened for the funeral service. For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ...


Burial service

John Everett Millais - The Vale of Rest
John Everett Millais - The Vale of Rest

A burial service, conducted at the side of the grave, tomb, mausoleum or crematorium, at which the body of the decedent is buried or cremated at the conclusion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1011, 317 KB) John Everett Millais: The Vale of Rest / Das Tal der Stille / La Vallée de la Paix 1858 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1011, 317 KB) John Everett Millais: The Vale of Rest / Das Tal der Stille / La Vallée de la Paix 1858 Tate Gallery, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ancient unreadable gravestones mark the position of graves in the parish churchyard at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A grave is a place where the body of a dead animal, generally human, is buried, often after a funeral. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... St. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


Sometimes, the burial service will immediately follow the funeral, in which case a funeral procession travels from the site of the memorial service to the burial site. Other times, the burial service takes place at a later time, when the final resting place is ready. Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


If the decedent served in a branch of the Armed forces, military rites are often accorded at the burial service. Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... A bugler plays Taps during the funeral of Caspar W. Weinberger in Arlington National Cemetery Military rites are honors presented at a funeral for a member of a military or police force. ...


In many religious traditions, pallbearers, usually males who are close, but not immediate relatives (such as cousins, nephews or grandchildren) or friends of the decedent, will carry the casket from the chapel (of a funeral home or church) to the hearse, and from the hearse to the site of the burial service. The pallbearers often sit in a special reserved section during the memorial service. A pallbearer is one of several funeral paranymphs who bears the casket of a deceased person from a religious or memorial service or viewing either directly to a cemetery or mausoleum, or to and from the hearse which does so. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A pallbearer is one of several funeral paranymphs who bears the casket of a deceased person from a religious or memorial service or viewing either directly to a cemetery or mausoleum, or to and from the hearse which does so. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


According to most religions, coffins are kept closed during the burial ceremony. In Eastern Orthodox funerals, the coffins are reopened just before burial to allow loved ones to look at the deceased one last time and give their final farewells. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


The morticians will typically ensure that all jewelry, including wristwatch, that were displayed at the wake are in the casket before it is buried or entombed. It would be unseemly to have the decedent's heirs squabbling over a Rolex or an engagement ring. Custom requires that everything goes into the ground.


There is an exception, in the case of cremation. Such items tend to melt or suffer damage, so they are usually removed before the body goes into the furnace. Pacemakers are removed prior to creamation - if they were left in they could possibly explode and damage the crematorium. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


Luncheon

In many traditions, a meal or other gathering often follows the burial service. This gathering may be held at the decedent's church or another off-site location. Some funeral homes have large spaces set aside to provide funeral dinners. [citation needed] For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


For Irish descendants, An Irish Wake usually lasts 3 full days. On the day after the wake the funeral takes place. Family members and friends will ensure that there is always someone awake with the body, traditionally saying prayers.


Etiquette

Generally speaking, the number of people who are considered obliged to attend each of these three rituals by etiquette decreases at each step: It has been suggested that Office etiquette be merged into this article or section. ...

  • Distant relatives and acquaintances may be called upon to attend the visitation.
  • The decedent's closer relatives and local friends attend the funeral or memorial service, and subsequent burial (if it is held immediately after the memorial service).
  • If the burial is on the day of the funeral, only the decedent's closest relatives and friends attend the burial service (although if the burial service immediately follows the funeral, all attendees of the memorial service are asked to attend).

Traditionally etiquette dictated[citation needed] that the bereaved and other attendees at a funeral wear semi-formal clothing—such as a suit and tie for men or a dress for women. The most traditional and respectful color is solid black (with a matching solid black tie for men) preferably without any underlying pinstripes or patterns in the weave. But failing that charcoal gray or dark navy blue may be worn. Wearing short skirts, low-cut tops, t-shirts with advertising slogans or suggestive images, or, at Western funerals, a large amount of white (other than a button-down shirt or blouse, or a military uniform) is often seen as disrespectful.[citation needed] Women who are grieving the death of their husband or a close partner sometimes wear a veil to conceal the face, although the veil is not common now. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Suit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Private services

On occasion, the family of the deceased may wish to have only a very small service, with just the decedent's closest family members and friends attending. This type of ceremony means it is closed to the public. One may only go to the funeral if he or she was invited. In this case, a private funeral service is conducted. Reasons vary but often include the following:

  • The decedent was an infant (possibly, they may have been stillborn) or very aged, and therefore has few surviving family members or friends.
  • The decedent may be a crime victim or a convicted criminal who was serving a prison sentence. In this case, the service is made private either to avoid unwanted media coverage (especially with a crime victim); or to avoid unwanted intrusion (especially if the decedent was convicted of murder or sexual assault).
  • The family does not feel able to endure a traditional service (due to emotional shock) or simply wants a quiet, simple funeral with only the most important people of the decedent's life in attendance.
  • The family and/or the decedent, as more frequently preplanned, prefer simplicity and lower cost to that of traditional arrangements. The choice of cremation as an option to casketed burial is increasing and often includes disposition of the cremains at a time privately convenient to the decendent's family members.
  • The decedent is of a distinct celebrity status, and holding public ceremony would result in too many guests who are not acquainted with the decedent to participate. On the other hand, if a state funeral is offered and accepted by the decedent's immediate family, a public funeral would ensue. A recent example of this is the death of celebrity Steve Irwin, in which his family was offered a state funeral but refused. They held a private ceremony for Irwin on 9 September 2006.

In some cases (particularly the latter), the family may schedule a public memorial service at a later time. The expected result of pregnancy is the birth of a living child. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For the rugby league footballer of the same name, see Steve Irwin (rugby league). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Memorial services

The memorial service is a service given for the deceased without the body present. This may take place after an earth burial, donation of the body to an institution such as a school, cremation (sometimes the cremations are present), entombment, or burial at sea. Typically these services take place at the funeral home and may include prayers, poems, or songs to remember the deceased. Pictures of the deceased are usually placed at the altar where the body would normally be to pay respects by.


Other types of funerals

Download high resolution version (490x710, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (490x710, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ...

New Orleans Jazz Funeral

A unique funeral tradition in the United States occurs in New Orleans, Louisiana. The unique tradition arises from African spiritual practices, French martial musical traditions and uniquely African-American cultural influences. A typical jazz funeral begins with a march by the family, friends, and a jazz band from the home, funeral home or church to the cemetery. Throughout the march, the band plays very somber dirges. Once the final ceremony has taken place, the march proceeds from the cemetery to a gathering place, and the solemn music is replaced by loud, upbeat, raucous music and dancing where onlookers join in to celebrate the life of the deceased. This is the origin of the New Orleans dance known as the "second line" where celebrants do a dance-march, frequently while raising the hats and umbrellas brought along as protection from intense New Orleans weather and waving handkerchiefs above the head that are no longer being used to wipe away tears. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Jazz funeral is a unique American funeral tradition which occurs in New Orleans. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Look up Dirge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Second line is a traditional dance style that developed in New Orleans, Louisiana in the mid 1800s. ...


“Green” funeral

Those with concerns about the effects on the environment of traditional burial or cremation may choose to be buried in a fashion more suited to their beliefs. They may choose to be buried in a coffin made of cardboard or other easily-biodegradable materials. Further, they may choose their final resting place to be in a park or woodland, known as an eco-cemetery, and may have a tree planted over their grave as a contribution to the environment and a remembrance. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... An eco-cemetery also known as a green burial ground, or a natural burial preserve, is a cemetery where the body is returned to the earth to decompose and recycle naturally, is an environmentally sustainable alternative to existing funeral practices. ...


Internet visitation/funeral

A Funeral Home in North Syracuse, New York was the first funeral home to offer and broadcast a visitation and funeral "live" on the Internet. A Funeral Director at the Home said "It's not new technology, just a new application." The use of a web-camera allows relatives who could not otherwise attend services to do so from any computer. Family members and friends separated by distance, weather or circumstance can now become part of the support network by being connected electronically to the ceremonies. [citation needed]


Funerals in East Asia

In most East Asian, South Asian and many Southeast Asian cultures, the wearing of white is symbolic of death. In these societies, white or off-white robes are traditionally worn to symbolize that someone has died and can be seen worn among relatives of the deceased during a funeral ceremony. In Chinese culture, red is strictly forbidden as it is a traditionally symbolic color of happiness. Contemporary Western influence however has meant that dark-colored or black attire is now often also acceptable for mourners to wear (particularly for those outside the family). In such cases, mourners wearing dark colors at times may also wear a white or off-white armband or white robe. When a coffin is lowered into the ground the mourners will bow their heads and must not watch the coffin being lowered into the ground. Sometimes, some members of the procession are required to turn their backs and not look at the coffin as it is sealed, entering the carriage, removed from the carriage and entering the ground. They may also be required to wipe their faces with a white cloth. Paper money and commodities constructed out of paper and bamboo are often burnt for the deceased for use in the afterlife. East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ...


A traditional Chinese gift to the attendees upon entering is a white envelope, usually enclosing a small sum of money (in odd numbers, usually one dollar), a sweet and a handkerchief, each with symbolic meaning. Chinese custom also dictates that the said sum of money should not be brought home. The sweet should be consumed the day of and anything given during the funeral must not be brought home. The repetition of 3 is common where people at the funeral may brush their hair three times or spit three times before leaving the funeral to ward off bad luck. This custom is also found in other East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures.[citation needed]


Most Japanese funerals are conducted with Buddhist rites. Many feature a ritual that bestows a new name on the deceased; funerary names typically use obsolete or archaic kanji and words, to avoid the likelihood of the name being used in ordinary speech or writing. The new names are typically chosen by a Buddhist priest, after consulting the family of the deceased. Most Japanese are cremated. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


African funerals

The custom of burying the dead in the floor of dwelling-houses has been to some degree prevalent on the Gold Coast of Africa. The ceremony is purely animist, and apparently without any set ritual. The main exception is that the females of the family of the deceased and their friends may undergo mournful lamentations. In some instances they work their feelings up to an ostentatious, frenzy-like degree of sorrow. The revelry may be heightened by the use of alcohol, of which drummers, flute-players, bards, and singing men may partake. The funeral may last for as much as a week. Another custom, a kind of memorial, frequently takes place seven years after the person's death. These funerals and especially the memorials may be extremely expensive for the family in question. Cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry, may be offered in remembrance and then consumed in festivities.


Some funerals in Ghana are held with the deceased put in elaborate "fantasy coffins" colored and shaped after a certain object, such as a fish, crab, boat, and even an airplane.[citation needed]


Ancient funeral rites

The most simple and natural kind of funeral monuments, and therefore the most ancient and universal, consist in a mound of earth, or a heap of stones, raised over the body or ashes of the departed: of such monuments mention is made in the Book of Joshua, and in Homer and Virgil. The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...


The place of burial amongst the Jews was never particularly determined. Ancient Jews had burial-places upon the highways, in gardens, and upon mountains. In the Hebrew Bible (known as the Christian Old Testament), Abraham was buried with Sarah, his wife, in the cave in Machpelah, the field he bought from Ephron the Hittite; David, king of Israel, and the other kings after him (including Uzziah of Judah) "rested with [their] ancestors" in the burial field that pertained to the kings. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... The Enclosure of the Cave of the Patriarchs The Cave of the Patriarchs is a religious compound located in the ancient city of Hebron (which lies in the southwest part of the West Bank, in the heart of ancient Judea), and is generally considered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Uzziah of Judah (עוזיהו) (also known as Azariah), was the king of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, and one of Amaziahs sons, whom the people appointed to replace his father (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Chronicles 26:1). ...


The primitive Greeks were buried in places prepared for that purpose in their own houses; but later they established burial grounds in desert islands, and outside the walls of towns, by that means securing them from disturbance, and themselves from the liability of catching infection from those who had died of contagious disorders.


Funerals in ancient Rome

In ancient Rome, the eldest surviving male of the household, the pater familias, was summoned to the death-bed, where he attempted to catch and inhale the last breath of the decedent. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Funerals of the socially prominent were usually undertaken by professional undertakers called libitinarii. No direct description has been passed down of Roman funeral rites. These rites usually included a public procession to the tomb or pyre where the body was to be cremated. The most noteworthy thing about this procession was that the survivors bore masks bearing the images of the family's deceased ancestors. The right to carry the masks in public was eventually restricted to families prominent enough to have held curule magistracies. Mimes, dancers, and musicians hired by the undertakers, as well as professional female mourners, took part in these processions. Less well to do Romans could join benevolent funerary societies (collegia funeraticia) who undertook these rites on their behalf. For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Look up mime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


Nine days after the disposal of the body, by burial or cremation, a feast was given (cena novendialis) and a libation poured over the grave or the ashes. Since most Romans were cremated, the ashes were typically collected in an urn and placed in a niche in a collective tomb called a columbarium (literally, "dovecote"). During this nine day period, the house was considered to be tainted, funesta, and was hung with yew or cypress branches to warn by passers. At the end of the period, the house was swept in an attempt to purge it of the dead person's ghost. Maya funerary urn For the computing term, see Uniform Resource Name. ... A colombier (dovecote) in Jersey A dovecote or dovecot is a building intended to house pigeons or doves, which were an important food source in history. ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Cupressus sempervirens L. The Mediterranean Cypress Cupressus sempervirens is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southeast Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon and western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ...


Several Roman holidays commemorated a family's dead ancestors, including the Parentalia, held February 13 through 21, to honor the family's ancestors; and the Lemuria, held on May 9, 11, and 13, in which ghosts (larvæ) were feared to be active, and the pater familias sought to appease them with offerings of beans.[citation needed] Parentalia. ... In Roman religion, the Feast of the Lemures, called the Lemuralia or Lemuria, was a feast during which the ancient Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes. ... Larvae are the plural of larva, juvenile form of animals with indirect development. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ...


The Romans prohibited burning or burying in the city, both from a sacred and civil consideration, so that the priests might not be contaminated by touching a dead body, and so that houses would not be endangered by funeral fires.


Restrictions on the length, ostentation, expense of and behaviour during funerals and mourning were gradually restricted by a variety of law-givers. Often the pomp and length of rites could be politically or socially motivated to advertise or aggrandise a particular kin group in Roman society. This was seen as deleterious to society and conditions for grieving were set - for instance, under some laws, women were prohibited from loud wailing or lacerating their faces and limits were introduced for expenditure on tombs and burial clothes.


The Romans commonly built tombs for themselves during their lifetime. Hence these words frequently occur in ancient inscriptions, V.F. Vivus Facit, V.S.P. Vivus Sibi Posuit. The tombs of the rich were usually constructed of marble, the ground enclosed with walls, and planted round with trees. But common sepulchres were usually built below ground, and called hypogea. There were niches cut out of the walls, in which the urns were placed; these, from their resemblance to the niche of a pigeon-house, were called columbaria.


Funerals in Scotland

An old funeral rite from the Scottish Highlands is to bury the deceased with a wooden plate resting on his chest. In the plate were placed a small amount of earth and salt, to represent the future of the deceased. The earth hinted that the body would decay and become one with the earth, while the salt represented the soul, which does not decay. This rite was known as "earth laid upon a corpse".[citation needed] This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


Mutes and professional mourners

From about 1600 to 1914, there were two professions in Europe now almost totally forgotten. The mute is depicted in art quite frequently but in literature is probably best known from Dickens' "Oliver Twist". Oliver is working for Sowerberry's when this conversation takes place: "There's an expression of melancholy in his face, my dear ... which is very interesting. He would make a delightful mute, my love". The main purpose of a funeral mute was to stand around at funerals with a sad, pathetic face. The professional mourner, generally a woman, would shriek and wail (often while clawing her face and tearing at her clothing), to encourage others to weep. These people are mentioned[citation needed] in ancient Greek plays, and were employed throughout Europe, but the practice largely died out in the nineteenth century. They continue to exist in Africa and the Middle East.[citation needed] Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ...


The 2003 award-winning Philippine comedy Crying Ladies revolves around the lives of three women who are part-time professional mourners for the Chinese-Filipino community in Manila's Chinatown. According to the film, the Chinese use professional mourners to help expedite the entry of a deceased loved one's soul into heaven by giving the impression that he or she was a good and loving person, well-loved by many. A Chinese Filipino (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Hokkien: Huâ-hui; Cantonese: Wàhfèi; Tagalog/Filipino: Tsinoy (pronounced: //) derived from two words: Tsino (meaning Chinese) and Pinoy (the slang word for Filipino) is a person of Chinese ancestry but raised in the Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ...


Funerals for heroes

Viking chieftains were placed in ships after their death, together with tools and weapons.[citation needed] The ships were then set on a course out to sea and set ablaze. This is still re-enacted as part of festivals in the north of Europe, particularly at Up Helly-Aa and the Delamont Viking Festival. Military heroes such as Nelson, Wellington and Sir Winston Churchill had their coffins paraded through the city of London, placed on gun carriages. The guns were originally pulled by horses, but are now pulled by sailors. This is called a State Funeral. Up Helly Aa is any of a variety of fire festivals held in Shetland annually towards the end of winter. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Final disposition of the dead

Some cultures place the dead in tombs of various sorts, either individually, or in specially designated tracts of land that house tombs. Burial in a graveyard is one common form of tomb. In some places, burials are impractical because the ground water is too high; therefore tombs are placed above ground, as was the case in New Orleans, Louisiana. Elsewhere, a separate building for a tomb is usually reserved for the socially prominent and wealthy. Especially grand above-ground tombs are called mausoleums. Other buildings used as tombs include the crypts in churches; burial in these places is again usually a privilege given to the socially prominent dead. In more recent times, however, this has often been forbidden by hygiene laws. For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... NOLA redirects here. ... St. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ...


Burial was not always permanent. In some areas, burial grounds needed to be re-used because of limited space. In these areas, once the dead have decomposed to skeletons, the bones are removed; after their removal they can be placed in an ossuary. For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Ossuary in Hallstatt (see the article for details). ...


"Burial at sea" means the deliberate disposal of a corpse into the ocean, wrapped and tied with weights to make sure it sinks. It is a common practice in navies and sea-faring nations; in the Church of England, special forms of funeral service were added to the Book of Common Prayer to cover it. Science fiction writers have frequently analogized with "Burial in space". Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Naval redirects here. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Taurus Missile launch (time exposure) Space burial is a burial procedure in which a small sample of the cremated ashes of the deceased are placed in a capsule the size of a tube of lipstick and are launched using a rocket. ...

St. Joseph's Chapel Mausoleum at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Key West (rural Dubuque), Iowa. This mausoleum has traditional mausoleum crypts as well as columbarium niches for cremated remains.
St. Joseph's Chapel Mausoleum at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Key West (rural Dubuque), Iowa. This mausoleum has traditional mausoleum crypts as well as columbarium niches for cremated remains.

Cremation, also, is an old custom; it was the usual mode of disposing of a corpse in ancient Rome (along with graves covered with heaped mounds, also found in Greece, particularly at the Karameikos graveyard in Monastiraki). Vikings were occasionally cremated in their longships, and afterwards the location of the site was marked with standing stones. In recent years, despite the objections of some religious groups, cremation has become more and more widely used. Orthodox Judaism and the Eastern Orthodox Church forbid cremation, as do most Muslims. Orthodox Judaism forbids cremation according to Jewish law (Halakha) believing that the soul of a cremated person cannot find its final repose. The Roman Catholic Church forbade it for many years, but since 1963 the church has allowed it so long as it is not done to express disbelief in bodily resurrection. The church specifies that cremated remains are either buried or entombed. They do not allow cremated remains to be scattered or kept at home. Many Catholic cemeteries now have columbarium niches for cremated remains, or specific sections for those remains. Some denominations of Protestantism allow cremation, the more conservative denominations generally do not. Image File history File linksMetadata StJosephsChapelMausoleum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StJosephsChapelMausoleum. ... St. ... Mount Olivet Cemetery, Dubuque, Iowa. ... Key West, Iowa is a small unincorporated village located south of Dubuque, Iowa. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Dubuque Incorporated 1833 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Roy D. Buol  - City manager Michael C. Van Milligen Area  - City 71. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Columbarium niches built into the side of St. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... Standing stones, orthostats, liths or more commonly, megaliths because of their large and cumbersome size, are solitary stones set vertically in the ground. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Hindus consider the funeral as the final "samskar" or ritual of life.[citation needed] Cremation is generally mandatory for all Hindus, except for saints and children under the age of 5 years.[citation needed] Cremation is seen as the only way in which all the five elements of fire, water, earth, air and space would be satisfied by returning the body to these elements as after cremation the ashes are poured into the sacred river Ganges or into the sea. After death the body of the deceased is placed on the ground with the head of the deceased pointing towards south which is considered the direction of the dead. The body is anointed with sacred items such as sandalwood paste and holy ashes, tulsi (basil) leaves and water from the river Ganges. The eldest son would whisper "Om namah shivay" or "Om namo bhagavate vasudevaya" near the ear of the deceased.[citation needed] An oil lamp is lit besides the deceased and chapters from the holy Bhagavad Gita or Garud Purana are recited. Traditionally the body has to be cremated within 24 hours after death, as keeping the body longer is considered to lead to impurity and hinder the passage of the dead to afterlife. Hence before cremation as the body lies in state, minimal physical contact with the body is observed. “Ganga” redirects here. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


A priest is called in to lead the formal religious rituals, after which the body is taken to the cremation ground, where the eldest son normally lights the funeral pyre, this act is considered to be the most important duty of a son as it is believed that he leads his parents from this world into moksha. Immediately after the cremation, the family members of the deceased all have to take a purifying bath and observe a 12-day mourning period. This mourning period ends on the morning of the thirteenth day on which a Shraddh ceremony is conducted in which offerings are given to ancestors and other gods in order to grant liberation or moksha to the deceased. For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


Recently a new method of disposing of the body, called promession or an Ecological funeral, has been patented by a Swedish company.[citation needed] Its main purpose is to return the body to soil quickly while minimizing pollution and resource consumption. An ecological funeral, also known as promession, is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally-friendly way. ... An ecological funeral, also known as promession, is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally-friendly way. ...


Rarer forms of disposal of the dead include excarnation, where the corpse is exposed to the elements. This was done by some groups of Native Americans; it is still practiced by Zoroastrians in Bombay, where the Towers of Silence/Daxmas allow vultures and other carrion eating birds to dispose of the corpses. Zoroastrianism believes that fire is sacred and should not be defiled by cremating a human body. It is also practiced by some Tibetan Buddhists and is sometimes called Sky burial.[citation needed]Cannibalism is also practiced post-mortem in some countries. The practice has been linked to the spread of a prion disease called kuru.[citation needed]Mummification is the drying of bodies to preserve them. The most famous practitioners of mummification were ancient Egyptians: many nobles and high-ranked bureaucrats of the old Egyptian kingdom had their corpses embalmed and stored in luxurious sarcophagi inside their funeral mausoleum or, in the cases of some Pharaohs, a pyramid.[citation needed] In archaeology and anthropology the term excarnation refers to the burial practice adopted by some societies of removing the flesh of the dead, leaving only the bones. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... A late 19th century engraving of a Zoroastrian Tower of Silence in Mumbai. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... SACRED SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. ... Sky burial is a ritual practice common in Tibet that involves placing the body of the deceased in a high ground (mountain) and expose it ritually, especially to birds of prey. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. ... This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ...


Control by the decedent of the details of the funeral

In law in the United States, the deceased have little say in the manner in which their funerals can be conducted. The law generally holds[citation needed] that the funeral rituals are for the benefit of the survivors, rather than to express the personal whims and tastes of the deceased. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The decedent may, in most U.S. jurisdictions, provide instructions as to his funeral by means of a Last Will and Testament. These instructions can be given some legal effect if bequests are made contingent on the heirs carrying them out, with alternative gifts if they are not followed. This assumes, of course, that the decedent has enough of an estate to make the heirs pause before doing something that will invoke the alternate bequest. To be effective, the will must be easily available, and some notion of what it provides must be known to the decedent's survivors.[citation needed] In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ...


Some people[citation needed] dislike the clutter and display of flowers at funerals, and feel that there is an unseemly competition in the number and size of the floral arrangements sent. Many newspapers[citation needed] refuse to print an obituary that requests that flowers not be sent; to do so would be to offend the florists' industry. Many obituaries do, however, contain notices regarding "memorial gifts" to a charitable organization. It is usually understood in these situations that a gift to the charity made in memory of the decedent relieves the donor of the social duty of sending flowers. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ...


Anatomical gifts

Another way of avoiding some of the rituals and costs of a traditional funeral is for the decedent to donate some or all of her or his body to a medical school or similar institution for the purpose of instruction in anatomy, or for similar purposes. Students of medicine and osteopathy frequently study anatomy from donated cadavers; they are also useful in forensic research. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ...


Making an anatomical gift is a separate transaction from being an organ donor, in which any useful organs are removed from the unembalmed cadaver for medical transplant. Under a Uniform Act in force in most jurisdictions of the United States, being an organ donor is a simple process that can often be accomplished when a driver's license is renewed.[citation needed] There are some medical conditions, such as amputations, or various surgeries, that can make the cadaver unsuitable for these purposes. Conversely, the bodies of people who had certain medical conditions are useful for research into those conditions. All US medical schools rely on the generosity of "anatomical donors" for the teaching of anatomy. Typically the remains are cremated once the students have completed their anatomy classes, and many medical schools now hold a memorial service at that time as well.[citation needed] Organ donation is the removal of specific tissues of the human body from a person who has recently died, or from a living donor, for the purpose of transplanting them into other persons. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... In the US, a Uniform Act is an act proposed by the Uniform Law Commissioners, more formally known as the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, a body of lawyers and other professionals who work for the standardisation of U.S. state laws in the United States of... Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


See also

Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Celebrancy began thirty years ago in Australia and New Zealand. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Funeral Consumers Alliance is a nonprofit federation of organizations (memorial societies or funeral planning societies) in the United States and Canada dedicated to protecting a consumers right to choose a meaningful, dignified, affordable funeral. ... Undertaker and Mortician redirect here. ... Icelandic funerals. ... A living funeral is a gathering centered around someone who will soon die. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... A caisson bearing a coffin, with military escort. ... Museum of Funeral Customs Early embalming fluid The Museum of Funeral Customs is located at 144 Monument Ave. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Ban Grong Greng (Thai: ) is a rural village in the northwest portion of the Nakhon Pa Mak subdistrict of Bang Krathum District of Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. ...

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MySpace.com - Funeral - NO - Metal / Down-tempo - www.myspace.com/doomfuneral (1316 words)
FUNERAL had recently got back on its feet — emerging from a four-year hiatus after the passing of original bassist, Einar Frederiksen in 2002, and recording a new album, "From These Wounds" with a new lineup, featuring amongst others, MINAS TIRITH's Frode Forsmo on vocals.
Funeral were formed in 1991 out of the ashes of another band by drummer (then guitarist) Anders Eek and guitarist Thomas Angell.
Funeral are proud to be a part of the Tabu roster, having the likes of Enslaved, Lumsk, Susperia, Windir etc on their list.
Funeral directors (1977 words)
Funeral directors also prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule the opening and closing of a grave with a representative of the cemetery, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide transportation for the remains, mourners, and flowers between sites.
Funeral directors handle the paperwork involved with the person’s death, such as submitting papers to State authorities so that a formal death certificate may be issued and copies distributed to the heirs.
Employment of funeral directors is projected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2014, reflecting slow growth in the death care services industry, where funeral directors are employed.
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