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Encyclopedia > Fundamentalist Christianity
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Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the virgin birth of Christ, the doctrine of substitutionary atonement, the bodily resurrection of Jesus, and the imminent personal return of Jesus Christ. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... 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The term has become to some a pejorative term for historic Christian doctrine[1] while to others it has become a banner of pride.[2]

Contents

Early history

For a more detailed history of fundamentalism's confrontation with modernism within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, please see the main article, Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy.

The contemporary fundamentalist, or "evangelical" movement has its origins in the 18th century when the First Great Awakening was deeply influencing American religious life. In the same time period the Methodist movement was beginning to renew parts of British Christianity, although this was at first resisted by the majority of the Anglican established church. The Presbyterian Church (USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the southwester belly US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...


Much of this religious fervor was a reaction to Enlightenment thinking and the deistic writings of many of the western philosophical elites. The chief emphases of the fledgling Methodist movement as well as the Awakening were on individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality (often including temperance and family values) and abolitionism, a broadened role for lay people and women in worship, evangelism, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines, (that is, interdenominationally). The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Bible study may refer to: Biblical hermeneutics Grammatical-historical Higher criticism Bibliology Literature Christian eschatology Christian theology Biblical theology Systematic theology Categories: Bible ... Temperance may refer to: Temperance (virtue) Temperance movement Temperance (Tarot card) Temperance (band) See also Astrud Gilberto, for the album Temperance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about family values as a political concept. ... This article is about slavery. ... Look up Layman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... When used to refer to the bringing together of different faiths, Interdenominationalism is sometimes refered to as Universalism Interdenominational Churches built for the purpose of bringing together Christians of different denominations are often refered to as Union churchs. ...


Key figures included John Wesley, Anglican priest and originator of the Methodist movement; Jonathan Edwards, American Puritan preacher/theologian; George Whitefield, Anglican priest and chaplain to Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, founder of many revivalist chapels and promoter of associated causes; Robert Raikes, who established the first Sunday school to prevent children in the slums entering a life of crime; popular hymn writer Charles Wesley, and American Methodist bishop, Francis Asbury. Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... George Whitefield (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. ... Selina, Countess of Huntingdon For other people with the same given name, see Selina. ... Robert Raikes (1725-1811) was an English philanthropist. ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... Charles Wesley (18 December 1707 - 29 March 1788) was a leader of the Methodist movement, the younger brother of John Wesley. ... Francis Asbury (August 20, 1745 – March 31, 1816) was one of the first two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. ...


There was no single founder of fundamentalism. Americans Dwight L. Moody (1837 – 1899), Arthur Tappan Pierson and British preacher and father of dispensationalism John Nelson Darby (1800 – 1882), among others, propounded ideas and themes carried into fundamentalist Christianity. Dwight Lyman Moody (February 5, 1837 - December 22, 1899), also known as D.L. Moody, was an American evangelist and publisher who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now the Northfield Mount Hermon School), the Moody Bible Institute and Moody Publishers. ... Arthur Tappan Pierson (March 6, 1837 – June 3, 1911) was an American pastor and Christian writer. ... For other persons named John Darby, see John Darby (disambiguation). ...


The term fundamentalist, in the context of this article, derives from a series of (originally) twelve volumes entitled The Fundamentals: A Testimony To The Truth. Among this publication's 94 essays, 27 of them objected to higher criticism of the Bible, by far the largest number addressing any one topic. The essays were written by 64 British and American conservative Protestant theologians between 1910 and 1915. Using a $250,000 grant from Lyman Stewart, the head of the Union Oil Company of California, about three million sets of these books were distributed to English-speaking Protestant church workers throughout the world. The Fundamentals or The Fundamentals: A Testimony of Truth edited by Reuben Archer Torrey is a set of four volumes of essays published in 1917 by the Bible Institute of Los Angeles. ... Historical criticism or Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical studies it naturally investigates foremost the books of the Bible. ... One of the original founders and owners of the Union Oil Company of California (currently known as Unocal). ... The Unocal Corporation (NYSE: UCL), based in El Segundo, California, was founded in 1890 as the Union Oil Company of California. ...


Important early Christian fundamentalists included Baptist pastor William Bell Riley, the founder and president of the World Christian Fundamentals Association, who was instrumental in calling lawyer and three-time Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan to act as that organization's counsel in the famous Scopes Trial. Moody Bible Institute had mainstream appeal, through its presidents R.A. Torrey and James M. Gray. The views of theologian Cyrus I. Scofield represented fundamentalism's antagonism to figurative interpretation, especially as it was used by fundamentalism's liberal opponents to deny basic elements of the Christian faith, such as the virgin birth or the bodily resurrection of Christ, and it was through his Scofield Reference Bible that dispensationalism gradually gained strong adherence among fundamentalists. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... William Bell Riley (born March 22, 1861 in Greene County, Indiana, USA; died December 5, 1947 Minneapolis, Minnesota) was known as The Grand Old Man of Fundamentalism. ... World Christian Fundamentals Association, religious organization founded in 1919 by the Baptist minister William Bell Riley of the First Baptist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Scopes Trial (, often called the Scopes Monkey Trial) was an American legal case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, which forbade the teaching, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, of any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught... Moody Bible Institute (MBI) was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886. ... Reuben Archer Torrey (28 January 1856 – 26 October 1928), was an American evangelist, pastor, educator, and writer. ... James M. Gray, D. D. was a Christian minister, a professor of what was later to become Gordon Collage and a past president of Moody Bible Institute (1925-34). ... Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (1843-1921) was an American lawyer and Bible scholar. ... The Scofield Reference Bible is a widely circulated annotated study Bible edited and annotated by the American Bible student Cyrus I. Scofield. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A current...


The rise of dispensationalism is an important development distinct from the roots of fundamentalism. In particular, dispensationalism played no part in the Old-time religion, typified by the southern[specify] Methodist revivalism of Samuel Porter Jones, a predecessor of Bob Jones, Sr., founder of Bob Jones University, who later adopted dispensationalism. B. B. Warfield and J. Gresham Machen were key players in the fundamentalism-modernist controversy but wrote against dispensationalism from the standpoint of the Princeton theology, which many regard as the intellectual roots of the movement before it came under the influence of dispensationalism. Samuel Porter Jones (1847-1906) was one of the most celebrated revivalists of his day, at the close of the 19th century. ... Bob Jones Robert Reynolds Jones Sr. ... Bob Jones University (BJU) is a private, Protestant Fundamentalist, liberal arts university in Greenville, South Carolina. ... Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (1851 - 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ... Categories: Stub | 1881 births | 1937 deaths | American theologians | Christian fundamentalism | Presbyterianism | Reformed theologians ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


As the movement developed, premillennialism, dispensationalism, and separatism began to overwhelmingly characterize the most popular leaders, which also had an effect on the way that evangelicals as a whole were perceived by outside observers. Dispensationalism's literal approach to the Scriptures was increasingly seen as a main protection against the gradual degradation to theological modernism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about Premillennialism in Christian...


Original Distinctives

Theological

The first formulation of American fundamentalist beliefs can be traced to the Niagara Bible Conference (1878–1897) and, in 1910, to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church which distilled these into what became known as the "five fundamentals":[3] In 1883 a group of Christian bible scholars met for the first time at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, near Niagara Falls and established the principles of Christian fundamentalism. ...

  • Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • The virgin birth and the deity of Jesus (Isaiah 7:14)
  • The doctrine of substitutionary atonement by God's grace and through human faith (Hebrews 9)
  • The bodily resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 28)
  • The authenticity of Christ's miracles (or, alternatively, his pre-millennial second coming)[4]

In particular, fundamentalists reject the documentary hypothesis—the theory held by higher biblical criticism that the Pentateuch was composed and shaped by many people over the centuries.[citation needed] Fundamentalists assert that Moses was the primary author of the first five books of the Old Testament. Some fundamentalists[weasel words], on the other hand, may be willing to consider alternative authorship only where the Biblical text does not specify an author, though maintaining that books in which the author is identified were written by that person. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... Historical criticism or Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical studies it naturally investigates foremost the books of the Bible. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


The Christian fundamentalist movement evolved during the early-to-mid 1900s to become separatist in nature and more characteristically dispensational in its theology. “Separatists” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A current...


Fundamentalists also criticize evangelicals for a lack of concern for doctrinal purity and for a lack of discernment in ecumenical endeavors in working cooperatively with other Christians of differing doctrinal views, even though some fundamentalists had been accused by their critics for doing the same (esp. embracing doctrines such as dispensationalism, "King James Only"-ism, the rapture, Christian Reconstructionism, etc. that critics argue have no biblical basis).


Social

The fundamentalists emphasised the command to "be ye separate"[5] and adopted a conservative social outlook that avoided many items deemed to be sinful, worldy, or inappropriate or sinful for christians.


Whilst there is some variation in approach, most fundamentalists will share a majority of the following views:

  • rejection of popular music including rock and roll and contemporary Christian music - seen as worldly and associated with immorality
  • dancing is prohibited - seen as associated with immorality and immodesty
  • visiting the cinema or theatre is unacceptable - perception is that content is unchristian and lifestyles of performers are immoral
  • modest and traditional dress styles are required - women must not wear trousers, men must not have long hair or wear earrings
  • no drinking of alcohol or smoking tobacco - seen as worldly and associated with immorality
  • traditional gender roles - male headship, woman's role is to raise children - seen as the Biblical model
  • no sex outside of heterosexual marriage, opposition to homosexuality - seen as immoral and prohibited by the Bible
  • abortion is unacceptable - seen as murder (in some cases, all forms of birth control are opposed)

They tend also to support conservative American politics, with one notable exception - the general consensus opposes school vouchers, on the basis that such vouchers, if accepted by church-operated schools, would allow the government a "foothold" into the teachings and practices of the individual church and give it authority to dictate what could and could not be taught. For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term inspirational music) is a genre of popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate by which parents are given the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice, rather than the public school (UK state school) to which they were assigned. ...


Breakup

The original 20th century Fundamentalist Movement broke up along clearly defined lines within conservative Evangelical Protestantism as issues progressed. Many groupings, large and small, were produced by this schism. Neo-evangelicalism, Reformed and Lutheran Confessionalism, the Heritage movement, and Paleo-Orthodoxy have all developed distinct identities, but none of them acknowledge any more than an historical overlap with the Fundamentalist Movement, and the term is seldom used of them. The Neo-Evangelical movement was a response among traditionally orthodox Protestants to fundamentalist Christianitys separatism, beginning in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Thomas Oden Paleo-Orthodoxy is a Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ...


For example, American evangelist Billy Graham came from a fundamentalist background, but became parted company with the movement because of his choice, early in his ministry (1950s), to cooperate with other Christians.[6] He represents a movement that arose within fundamentalism, but has increasingly become distinct from it, known as Neo-evangelicalism or New Evangelicalism (a term coined by Harold J. Ockenga, the "Father of New Evangelicalism"). For other persons named Billy Graham, see Billy Graham (disambiguation). ... The Neo-Evangelical movement was a response among traditionally orthodox Protestants to fundamentalist Christianitys separatism, beginning in the 1920s and 1930s. ...


New fundamentalists

In recent years, the term fundamentalism has taken on a new meaning as exemplified by this quotation from Caplan:

In Western Christianity, where the expression was first mooted, fundamentalism has come to identify conservative evangelicals inside the mainline Protestant denominations, as well as the charismatic sects which comprise what is now the fastest-moving current within the Christian world. In the American setting, it no longer exemplifies the hill-billy element in rural or small-town Protestantism, as it did half a century ago. Today, it denotes an aggressive and confident religious movement which, in coalition with conservative political forces, seeks to combat what is regarded as the liberal takeover of the state, family and church since the days of Roosevelt's New Deal. (Caplan 1987: 1)

The "new" fundamentalists, who rarely self-identify as such, draw their identity from a missionary zeal to convert people to Christianity combined with socio-political activism to prevent influences deemed unchristian from entering society. They have both similarities and differences with the original fundamentalist movement.


They differ from the original fundamentalist movement in various areas, accepting modern bible translations and typically holding charismatic or pentecostal beliefs. They are less separatist both towards culture and other christians. For example, christian forms of popular music (contemporary christian music), dance (worship dance), drama, and cinema are all widely accepted. Whilst they strongly disagree with doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church for theological reasons[citation needed], in recent years there has been an increase in political cooperation between individuals in both groups on certain social issues of mutual concern, such as in opposing abortion.[citation needed] The charismatic movement begins with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians — specifically what are known as the biblical charisms or spiritual gifts: glossolalia (speaking in tongues), prophesying, supernatural healing — by those within mainstream Protestant and Roman Catholic churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term inspirational music) is a genre of popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... Worship dance is any kind of dance that is undertaken for the specific purpose of worshipping God, most commonly in the Christian faith although it is also known in other faiths and cultures such as those in Africa, Bali, and so on. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


However, the relationships between Fundamentalist Christians and others are still often strained due to historical/cultural perceptions and strongly divergent views on a number of theological issues.[citation needed]


The term fundamentalism has hence become less well defined. Many evangelical groups may be described as "fundamentalist" in the broad sense, but do not regard themselves as members of either fundamentalist movement. For example, many Evangelicals believe in the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy, a basic issue of difference in the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy a century ago. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy typified this and was signed in 1978 by nearly 300 conservative scholars, including James Boice, Norman Geisler, John Gerstner, Carl F. H. Henry (founder of Christianity Today), Kenneth Kantzer, Harold Lindsell, John Warwick Montgomery, Roger Nicole, J. I. Packer, Robert Preus, Earl Radmacher, Francis Schaeffer, R. C. Sproul, and John Wenham. Very few if any of these men fit the definition of or identify themselves as fundamentalists. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated in October of 1978 by approximately 300 evangelical scholars at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, held in Chicago. ... James Montgomery Boice Dr. James Montgomery Boice (July 7, 1938 - June 15, 2000) was a Reformed theologian and pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia from 1968 until his death. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... Carl F. H. Henry Carl Ferdinand Howard Henry (January 22, 1913 – December 7, 2003) was an American evangelical Christian theologian who served as the first editor-in-chief of the magazine Christianity Today, established to serve as a scholarly voice for evangelical Christianity and a challenge to the liberal Christian... Kenneth Kantzer (March 29, 1917 – June 20, 2002) was a Christian theologian most known for his roles as Dean of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and Editor of Christianity Today. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... J. I. Packer James Innell Packer (born July 22, 1926 in Gloucester, England) is a British-born Canadian Christian theologian in the Reformational Anglican tradition. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ...


Christian Right (USA)

Main article: Christian right Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian...


The past half-century has witnessed a surge of Christian fundamentalists toward politics. Some attribute this interest to the decisions by the United States Supreme Court in 1962 to prohibit state-sanctioned prayer in public schools in the case of Engel v. Vitale and in 1963 to prohibit mandatory Bible reading in public schools in the case of Abington School District v. Schempp. By the time Ronald Reagan ran for the presidency in 1980, self-described fundamentalists had become more likely to participate in politics than other Christians were.[7] Holding Government-directed, denominationally neutral and non-mandatory prayer in public schools violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. ... Holding The Court decided 8-1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp, and declared sanctioned organized Bible reading in public schools in the United States to be unconstitutional. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Credited with this phenomenon are Robert Grant (Christian leader), Jerry Falwell, and other well-known Fundamentalist clergy, who began urging Christians to become involved in politics in the 1970s. Beginning with Grant's American Christian Cause in 1974, Christian Voice throughout the 1970s and Falwell's Moral Majority in the 1980s, the Christian Right began to have major impact on American politics. By the late 1990s, the Christian Right was influencing elections and policy with groups like Christian Coalition and Family Research Council helping the Republican Party to gain control of the White House, both houses of Congress, and a more conservative Supreme Court by the mid-1990s. Dr. Robert Grant is often called the father of the modern Christian right in America. ... This article is about Jerry Falwell, Sr. ... Formerly known as Repent UK, Christian Voice is a Christian fundamentalist organisation based in the United Kingdom which strives, through the basis of prayer and public campaigning, for national repentance. It is led by Stephen Green (a former Chairman of the Conservative Family Campaign), with Lord Ashbourne as its patron. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... This article is about the organization presently operating in the United States. ... The Family Research Council (FRC) is a Christian conservative non-profit lobbying organization, formed in the United States by James Dobson in 1981 and incorporated 1983. ... GOP redirects here. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Fundamentalist church groupings

Original movement

The Independent Fundamental Churches of America (increasingly known only as IFCA International) is an association of independent Protestant churches located largely in the United States. ... Independent Baptist churches (also referred to as Independent Fundamental Baptist, or IFB) are Christian churches holding to generally Baptist beliefs. ...

Modern movement

The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ...

Not categorised

The Bible Presbyterian Church was formed in 1939-1940, predominantly through the efforts of conservative Presbyterian clergyman Carl McIntire. ... A non-denominational church (usually Christian) is a religious organization which does not necessarily align its mission and teachings to an established denomination. ... The Churches of Christ discussed in this article are not part of the United Church of Christ; the International Churches of Christ; the Disciples of Christ; the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or any other denomination within the Latter Day...

See also

Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... Bible believer (also Bible-believer, Bible-believing Christian, Bible-believing Church) is a self-description by conservative Christians to differentiate their teachings from those who see tradition as a source of authority. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all areas of life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      for Christians... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is on the political-religious concept of dominionism. ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning out of nothing. It is often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning creation out of nothing. Due to the nature of this, the term is often used in philosophical or creationistic arguments, as a number of... Historical criticism or Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical studies it naturally investigates foremost the books of the Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ Robbins, Dale A., "What is a Fundamentalist Christian?" Grass Valley, CA: Victorious Publications, 1995. Available online: http://www.victorious.org/chur21.htm
  2. ^ Horton, Ron, "BJU Statement of Christian Education" Greenville, SC: Bob Jones University. Available online: http://www.bju.edu/academics/edpurpose.html
  3. ^ Origin of "five fundamentals" documented at Presbyterian conference of 1910
  4. ^ (Matthew 8 - healing, Matthew 12 - deliverance, Luke 21 - second coming) Alternative interpretations of "five fundamentals" in online history by First Presbyterian Church of New York City
  5. ^ John Brock, A Pedagogical Discussion Related to Biblical and Durable Behavior in Contemporary Society, Maranatha Baptist Bible College. Article discusses these issues.
  6. ^ http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/marchweb-only/53.0.html
  7. ^ Zimmerman, Jonathan. "Why Our Fundamentalists Are Better Than Their Fundamentalists," The New Republic, 2001. Available online: http://www.beliefnet.com/story/94/story_9407_2.html Accessed 09-13-2007

Literature

  • Armstrong, Karen (2001). The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0–345–39169–1.
  • Beale, David O. (1986) In Pursuit of Purity: American Fundamentalism Since 1850. Greenville, SC: Bob Jones University (Unusual Publications). ISBN 0-89084-350-3.
  • Bebbington, David W. (1990). "Baptists and Fundamentalists in Inter-War Britain." In Keith Robbins, ed. Protestant Evangelicalism: Britain, Ireland, Germany and America c.1750-c.1950. Studies in Church History subsidia 7, 297–326. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0–631–17818-X.
  • Bebbington, David W. (1993). "Martyrs for the Truth: Fundamentalists in Britain." In Diana Wood, ed. Martyrs and Martyrologies, Studies in Church History Vol. 30, 417–451. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0–631–18868–1.
  • Barr, James (1977). Fundamentalism. London: SCM Press. ISBN 0–334–00503–5.
  • Caplan, Lionel (1987). Studies in Religious Fundamentalism. London: The MacMillan Press, ISBN 0–88706–518-X.
  • Carpenter, Joel A. (1999). Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0–19–512907–5.
  • Cole, Stewart Grant (1931) The History of Fundamentalism, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press ISBN 0–83–715683–1.
  • Elliott, David R. (1993). "Knowing No Borders: Canadian Contributions to Fundamentalism." In George A. Rawlyk and Mark A. Noll, eds. Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada and the United States. Grand Rapids: Baker. 349–374, ISBN 0–77–351214–4.
  • Dollar, George W. (1973). A History of Fundamentalism in America. Greenville: Bob Jones University Press.
  • Harris, Harriet A. (1998). Fundamentalism and Evangelicals. Oxford: Oxford University. ISBN 0–19–826960–9.
  • Hart, D. G. (1998). "The Tie that Divides: Presbyterian Ecumenism, Fundamentalism and the History of Twentieth-Century American Protestantism." Westminster Theological Journal 60, 85–107.
  • Longfield, Bradley J. (1991). The Presbyterian Controversy. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0–19–508674–0.
  • Marsden, George M. (1995). "Fundamentalism as an American Phenomenon." In D. G. Hart, ed. Reckoning with the Past, 303–321. Grand Rapids: Baker.
  • Marsden; George M. (1980). Fundamentalism and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0–19–502758–2.
  • Marsden, George M. (1991). Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0–8028–0539–6.
  • McCune, Rolland D. (1998). "The Formation of New Evangelicalism (Part One): Historical and Theological Antecedents." Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal, 3, 3–34.
  • McLachlan, Douglas R. (1993). Reclaiming Authentic Fundamentalism. Independence, Mo.: American Association of Christian Schools. ISBN 0-918407-02-8.
  • Noll, Mark (1992). A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada.. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 311–389. ISBN 0–8028–0651–1.
  • Packer, J.I., "Fundamentalism and the Word of God." Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8028-1147-7
  • Rennie, Ian S. (1994). "Fundamentalism and the Varieties of North Atlantic Evangelicalism." In Mark A. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George A. Rawlyk eds. Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles and Beyond, 1700–1990. New York: Oxford University Press. 333–364, ISBN 0–19–508362–8.
  • Russell, C. Allyn (1976). Voices of American Fundamentalism: Seven Biographical Studies (Subscription required). Philadelphia: Westminster Press, ISBN 0–664–20814–2.
  • Sandeen, Ernest Robert (1970) The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800–1930, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0–22–673467–6
  • Seat, Leroy (2007). Fed Up with Fundamentalism: A Historical, Theological, and Personal Appraisal of Christian Fundamentalism. Liberty, MO: 4-L Publications. ISBN 978-1-59526-859-4
  • Utzinger, J. Michael (2006) Yet Saints Their Watch Are Keeping: Fundamentalists, Modernists, and the Development of Evangelical Ecclesiology, 1887-1937, Macon: Mercer University Press, ISBN 0865549028
  • Ward, Keith (2004) What the Bible Really Teaches: A Challenge for Fundamentalists

Karen Armstrong (b. ... David W. Bebbington (Ph. ... James Barr (b. ... D.G. (Darryl) Hart is Director of Academic Projects and Faculty Development at the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. ... George Marsden George marsden is a none-popular man from bradford. ... Mark Noll, Professor of History at Wheaton College, Illinois, is the prolific progressive evangelical author of A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada (1994), America’s God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln (Oxford University Press) and co-author of the forthcoming Is the Reformation Over? An... The Reverend Professor (John Stephen) Keith Ward (born 22 August 1938) is a British cleric, philosopher, theologian, and scholar. ...

External links

  • Australian Homeschooling Legal Advisory Service Christian Fundamentalists and Homeschooling
  • A. C. Dixon, Chicago Liberals and the Fundamentals by Gerald L. Priest
  • Christian Fundamentalism and the Media (negative)
  • Earliest Written Version of The Five Essentials
  • Fundamentalism Profile
  • My Half-Year of Hell With Christian Fundamentalists Article in Spiegel Online.
  • Online version of "The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth"
  • The Grace Evangelical Society Website promoting the doctrine of Faith Alone.

  Results from FactBites:
 
On Leaving Fundamentalist Christianity (5229 words)
She is content with that explanation, not stopping to think that many non Christians that are never prayed for are helped, physically and emotionally, when put in the hands of capable professionals who use both science and experience to assist them.
Allowing a Christian to tell her that she needs to forgive her father as Jesus has forgiven her would be as evil as giving her a gun to kill herself.
Nowadays the victims are women whom the religion keeps as second-class citizens, children who are sexually assaulted by priests, pastors, and Christian leaders, and all victims of abuse--physical, sexual, or verbal--who are forced to forgive their victimizers and feel guilty for the crimes perpetrated on them.
Fundamentalist Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2110 words)
Important early Christian fundamentalists included Baptist pastor William Bell Riley, the founder and president of the World Christian Fundamentals Association, who was instrumental in calling lawyer and three-time Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan to act as that organization's counsel in the famous Scopes Trial.
Fundamentalists assert that Moses was the primary author of the first five books of the Old Testament.
Fundamentalists are often criticized by fellow Christians, for attaching spiritual significance to things which are indifferent in themselves, such as old-fashioned standards of clothing, hairstyles, and recreations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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