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Encyclopedia > Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ...


Combining the names of functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes generates a powerful systematic nomenclature for naming organic compounds. Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy...


The non-hydrogen atoms of functional groups are always associated with each other and with the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. When the group of atoms is associated with the rest of the molecule primarily by ionic forces, the group is referred to more properly as a polyatomic ion or complex ion. And all of these are called radicals, by a meaning of the term radical that predates the free radical. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or sometimes between atoms and other covalent bonds. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... complex In chemistry, a complex is a structure composed of a central metal atom or ion, generally a cation, surrounded by a number of negatively charged ions or neutral molecules possessing lone pairs. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


The first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon. General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... The Alpha carbon refers to the first carbon after the carbon that attaches to the functional group. ...


Functional groups are attached to the carbon backbone of organic molecules. They determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of molecules. Functional groups are far less stable than the carbon backbone and are likely to participate in chemical reactions.

Contents

Table of common functional groups

The following is a list of common functional groups. In the formulas, the symbols R and R' usually denotes an attached hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon side chain of any length, but may sometimes refer to any group of atoms. Below is an image of multiple functional groups found in organic chemistry. Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ...


Hydrocarbons and haloalkanes

Functional groups which vary based upon the number and order of π bonds impart different chemistry. Each listing below contains C-H bonds, but each one differs in type (and scope) of reactivity.

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Alkane Alkyl RH Alkyl alkyl- -ane methane
Methane
Alkene Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alkene alkenyl- -ene ethylene
Ethylene
(Ethene)
Alkyne Alkynyl RC≡CR' Alkyne alkynyl- -yne acetylene
Acetylene
(Ethyne)
Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5 Phenyl phenyl- -benzene Cumene
Cumene
(2-phenylpropane)
Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5
RBn
Benzyl benzyl- 1-(substituent)toluene Benzyl bromide
Benzyl bromide
(1-Bromotoluene)

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... Image File history File links Alkyl-(general)-skeletal. ... Image File history File links Methane-2D-stereo. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (947x849, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1207x285, 4 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x238, 11 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetylene ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the simplest alkyne hydrocarbon, consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 Picture where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic manner. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1126x688, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Phenyl group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x1100, 26 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Cumene ... Cumene is the trivial name for isopropylbenzene, an organic chemical compound that is an aromatic hydrocarbon. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Benzyl is the Organic chemistry term for the radical C6H5CH2-. It is obtained by removing a proton from benzene. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1265x771, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Benzyl-bromide-skeletal. ... Benzyl bromide, or α-bromotoluene, is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a bromomethyl group. ...

Groups containing halogens

Haloalkanes are a class of molecule which is defined by a carbon-halogen bond. This bond can be relatively weak (in the case of an iodoalkane) or quite stable (as in the case of a fluoroalkane). In general, with the exception of fluorinated compounds, haloalkanes readily undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions or elimination reactions. The substitution on the carbon, the acidity of an adjacent proton, the solvent conditions, etc. all can influence the outcome of the reactivity. The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ...

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
haloalkane halo RX Halide group halo- alkyl halide Chloroethane
Chloroethane
(Ethyl chloride)
fluoroalkane fluoro RF Fluoro group fluoro- alkyl fluoride Fluoromethane
Fluoromethane
(Methyl fluoride)
chloroalkane chloro RCl Chloro group chloro- alkyl chloride Chloromethane
Chloromethane
(Methyl chloride)
bromoalkane bromo RBr Bromo group bromo- alkyl bromide Bromomethane
Bromomethane
(Methyl bromide)
iodoalkane iodo RI Iodo group iodo- alkyl iodide Iodomethane
Iodomethane
(Methyl iodide)

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1146x569, 5 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Chloroethane-skeletal. ... Ethyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used in producing tetraethyl lead, a gasoline additive. ... Fluoroalkanes are organic molecules, specifically they are halogenoalkanes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1049 × 1100 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fluoromethane, also known as methyl fluoride, Freon 41 and HFC-41, is a toxic, liquefiable, and flammable gas at standard temperature and pressure. ... Chloroalkanes are organic molecules, specifically they are halogenoalkanes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , Flash point -46 °C Autoignition temperature 625 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Chloromethane, also called Methyl chloride, or simply R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound... Bromoalkanes are organic molecules, specifically they are halogenoalkanes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1035 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The chemical compound bromomethane is an organic halogen compound with formula CH3Br. ... Iodoalkanes are organic molecules, specifically they are halogenoalkanes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Iodomethane, commonly called methyl iodide, is a dense volatile liquid. ...

Groups containing oxygen

Compounds which contain C-O bonds each possess differing reactivity based upon the location and hybridization of the C-O bond, owing to the electron-withdrawing effect of sp2 hybridized oxygen and the donating effects of sp3 hybridized oxygen. four sp³ orbitals three sp² orbitals In chemistry, hybridisation or hybridization (see also spelling differences) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ...

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Acyl halide Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide haloformyl- -oyl halide Acetyl chloride
Acetyl chloride
(Ethanoyl chloride)
Alcohol Hydroxyl ROH Hydroxyl hydroxy- -ol methanol
Methanol
Ketone Carbonyl RCOR' Ketone keto-, oxo- -one Butanone
Methyl ethyl ketone
(Butanone)
Aldehyde Aldehyde RCHO Aldehyde aldo- -al acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
(Ethanal)
Carbonate Carbonate ester ROCOOR Carbonate alkyl carbonate
Carboxylate Carboxylate RCOO Carboxylate

Carboxylate Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is an organic compound containing a carbon atom which is double_bonded to an oxygen atom and singly bonded to a chlorine atom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (953x881, 6 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1433x1099, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Basic functional groups User:Bastique/Wikimedia Mosiac ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x929, 28 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Methanol ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (885x742, 10 KB) Description: Skeletal formula of a general ketone (R1C(=O)R2). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x770, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Butanone ... 2-Butanone is a manufactured organic chemical but it is also present in the environment from natural sources. ... An aldehyde. ... An aldehyde. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (787x742, 8 KB) Description: Skeletal formula of a general aldehyde group (RCHO). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (731x741, 7 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Acetaldehyde User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery Category: ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A carbonate ester is a functional group in organic chemistry consisting of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups. ... A carbonate ester is a functional group in organic chemistry consisting of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x551, 25 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group and have the general chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH, also written as R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x742, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Basic functional groups ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1952x760, 21 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Basic functional groups ...

carboxy- -oate Sodium acetate
Sodium acetate
(Sodium ethanoate)
Carboxylic acid Carboxyl RCOOH Carboxylic acid carboxy- -oic acid Acetic acid
Acetic acid
(Ethanoic acid)
Ether Ether ROR' Ether alkoxy- alkyl alkyl ether Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
(Ethoxyethane)
Ester Ester RCOOR' Ester alkyl alkanoate Ethyl butyrate
Ethyl butyrate
(Ethyl butanoate)
Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxy ROOH Hydroperoxy hydroperoxy- alkyl hydroperoxide Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Peroxide Peroxy ROOR Peroxy peroxy- alkyl peroxide
Di-tert-butyl peroxide

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x662, 22 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Sodium acetate ... Sodium acetate, (also rarely, sodium ethanoate) is the sodium salt of acetic acid. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... A carboxyl or carboxylic group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom doubly bonded to each other. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1053x884, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Acetic acid ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1744x877, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x318, 19 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Diethyl ether ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (969x744, 11 KB) Description: Skeletal formula of a general ester group (RCOOR). Author, date of creation: self made by Ben Mills at 19:45, 14 March 2006 (UTC). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1673x698, 4 KB) Summary Chemical structure of ethyl butyrate. ... Chemical structure of ethyl butyrate Ethyl butyrate, also known as ethyl butanoate is an ester with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2COO-CH2CH3, with one oxygen having a double bond. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x636, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x578, 35 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide ... Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) is an organic peroxide, a high explosive similar to acetone peroxide, and is quite dangerous to synthesize. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (903x809, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links DTBP.png‎ Chemical structure of di-tert-butyl peroxide created with ChemDraw. ... Chemical structure of di-tert-butyl peroxide Di-tert-butylperoxide or DTBP (CAS-no. ...

Groups containing nitrogen

Compounds which contain Nitrogen in this category may contain C-O bonds, such as in the case of amides. In chemistry, the term amide has several meanings. ...

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Amide Carboxamide RCONR2 Amide carboxamido- -amide acetamide
Acetamide
(Ethanamide)
Amines Primary amine RNH2 Primary amine amino- -amine methylamine
Methylamine
(Methanamine)
Secondary amine R2NH Secondary amine amino- -amine dimethylamine
Dimethylamine
Tertiary amine R3N Tertiary amine amino- -amine
Trimethylamine
4° ammonium ion R4N+ Quaternary ammonium cation ammonio- -ammonium choline
Choline
Imine Primary ketimine RC(=NH)R' Imine imino- -imine
Secondary ketimine RC(=NR)R' Imine imino- -imine
Primary aldimine RC(=NH)H Imine imino- -imine
Secondary aldimine RC(=NR')H Imine imino- -imine
Imide Imide RC(=O)NC(=O)R' Imide imido- -imide
Azide Azide RN3 Organoazide azido- alkyl azide
Phenyl azide
(Azidobenzene)
Azo compound Azo
(Diimide)
RN2R' Azo.pngl azo- -diazene Methyl orange
Methyl orange
(p-dimethylamino-azobenzenesulfonic acid)
Cyanates Cyanate ROCN Cyanate cyanato- alkyl cyanate
Isocyanide RNC Isocyanide isocyano- alkyl isocyanide
Isocyanates Isocyanate RNCO Isocyanate isocyanato- alkyl isocyanate Methyl isocyanate
Methyl isocyanate
Isothiocyanate RNCS Isothiocyanate isothiocyanato- alkyl isothiocyanate Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
Nitrate Nitrate RONO2 Nitrate nitrooxy-, nitroxy-

alkyl nitrate Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Carboxamides are drugs that can be used as anticonvulsants. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1120x1045, 14 KB) Description: Skeletal formula of a general tertiary amide group (RCONRR Author, date of creation: self made by Ben Mills at 20:00, 14 March 2006 (UTC). ... Image File history File links Acetamide_structure. ... acetamide Acetamide (or Acetic acid amide or Ацетамид) CH3CONH2, the amide of acetic acid, is a white crystalline solid in pure form. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (982x625, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x846, 22 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Methylamine ... Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (752x809, 7 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x714, 28 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Dimethylamine ... Safety (MSDS) data for dimethylamine General Synonyms: N-methyl-methanamine Molecular formula: C2H7N CAS No: 124-40-3 EINECS No: 204-697-4 EC index no: 612-001-00-9 Physical data Appearance: colourless gas with strong ammonia-like smell Melting point: -92 C Boiling point: 7. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (788x809, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Trimethylamine_chemical_structure. ... Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia-like odor in higher concentrations. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Image File history File links Quaternary-ammonium-cation. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x554, 10 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Choline User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x891, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (858x891, 10 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (787x890, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x891, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... In organic chemistry, imide is a functional group consisting of two carboxylic acid groups (or one dicarboxylic acid) bound to a primary amine or ammonia. ... In organic chemistry, imide is a functional group consisting of two carboxylic acid groups (or one dicarboxylic acid) bound to a primary amine or ammonia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 385 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 529 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Phenylazide is an organic compound with the formula C6H5N3. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (903x809, 7 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x393, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Methyl orange User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery ... Methyl Orange is a pH indicator frequently used in titrations. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1049x590, 10 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... An isocyanide (erroneously called isonitrile) is a functional group in organic synthesis containing carbon and nitrogen. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 295 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 405 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1110x590, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x493, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Methyl isocyanate ... Methyl isocyanates structure 3D model of the MIC molecule Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula C2H3NO, arranged as H3C-N=C=O. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. It was discovered in 1888 as an ester of isocyanic acid. ... Isothiocyanate is the chemical group -N=C=S, formed by substituting sulfur for oxygen in the isocyanate group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1049x590, 11 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x422, 21 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Allyl isothiocyanate ... Allyl isothiocyanate is the chemical compound responsible for the pungent taste of mustard, horseradish and wasabi. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 683 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Amyl nitrate
Amyl nitrate
(1-nitrooxypentane)
Nitrile Nitrile RCN Nitrile cyano-

alkanenitrile
alkyl cyanide Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 287 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 395 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Amyl nitrate is used medically to treat psyhcos, and is sometimes used postoperatively in urologic procedures to rapidly abort unwanted erections (especially in the cases of Nesbitt procedures and complex urethroplasty). ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1737x569, 5 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Functional group Nitrile ...

Benzonitrile
Benzonitrile
(Phenyl cyanide)
Nitrite Nitrosooxy RONO Nitrite nitrosooxy-

alkyl nitrite Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1155, 48 KB) Description: Chemical structure of w:Benzonitrile. ... Benzonitrile, also called cyanobenzene or phenyl cyanide, is an aromatic organic compound with chemical formula C6H5CN and molecular mass 103. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 322 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 443 pixel, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Amyl nitrite
Amyl nitrite
(3-methyl-1-nitrosooxybutane)
Nitro compound Nitro RNO2 Nitro nitro-  
Nitromethane
Nitroso compound Nitroso RNO Nitroso nitroso-   Nitrosobenzene
Nitrosobenzene
Pyridine derivative Pyridyl RC5H4N

4-pyridyl group
3-pyridyl group
2-pyridyl group
Image File history File links Amyl_nitrite. ... Amyl nitrite, also referred to as pentyl nitrite, is an alkyl nitrite that contains five carbons. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2). ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (NO2). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (779x814, 11 KB) Description: Structural formula of a general nitro group (RNO2). Author, date of creation: self made by Ben Mills at 19:54, 14 March 2006 (UTC). ... Image File history File links Nitromethane2. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 403 pixelsFull resolution (956 × 482 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1266x759, 15 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Nitrosobenzene User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery ... Nitrosobenzene is the organic compound C6H5NO. The compound can be viewed as hybrid of singlet O2 and azobenzene. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1171x688, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1126x750, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1125x750, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ...

4-pyridyl
(pyridin-4-yl)

3-pyridyl
(pyridin-3-yl)

2-pyridyl
(pyridin-2-yl)

-pyridine Nicotine
Nicotine

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x917, 42 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nicotine ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ...

Groups containing phosphorus and sulfur

Compounds which contain sulfur and phosphorus exhibit unique chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than nitrogen and oxygen, their lighter analogues on the periodic table.

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Phosphine Phosphino R3P A tertiary phosphine phosphino- -phosphane Methylpropylphosphane
Methylpropylphosphane
Phosphodiester Phosphate HOPO(OR)2 Phosphodiester phosphoric acid di(substituent) ester di(substituent) hydrogenphosphate DNA
Phosphonic acid Phosphono RP(=O)(OH)2 Phosphono group phosphono- substituent phosphonic acid Benzylphosphonic acid
Benzylphosphonic acid
Phosphate Phosphate ROP(=O)(OH)2 Phosphate group phospho- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Sulfide RSR' Sulfide group di(substituent) sulfide
Dimethyl sulfide
Sulfone Sulfonyl RSO2R' Sulfonyl group sulfonyl- di(substituent) sulfone Dimethyl sulfone
Dimethyl sulfone
(Methylsulfonylmethane)
Sulfonic acid Sulfo RSO3H Sulfonyl group sulfo- substituent sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid
Benzenesulfonic acid
Sulfoxide Sulfinyl RSOR' Sulfinyl group sulfinyl- di(substituent) sulfoxide Diphenyl sulfoxide
Diphenyl sulfoxide
Thiol Sulfhydryl RSH Sulfhydryl mercapto-, sulfanyl- -thiol Ethanethiol
Ethanethiol
(Ethyl mercaptan)
Thiocyanate Thiocyanate RSCN Thiocyanate thiocyanato- alkyl thiocyanate
Disulfide Disulfide RSSR' alkyl alkyl disulfide Cystamine
Cystamine
(2,2'-Dithiobis(ethylamine))

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Image File history File links Phosphine-general. ... Image File history File links Methylpropylphosphane-skeletal. ... Diagram of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides A phosphodiester bond is a group of strong covalent bonds between the phosphorus atom in a phosphate group and two other molecules over two ester bonds. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1298x892, 20 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Tautomers of H3PO3: phosphonic acid (left) phosphorous acid (right) The general structure of an organic phosphonic acid In inorganic chemistry, phosphonic acid is a phosphorus oxoacid with a formula of H3PO3, more commonly known as phosphorous acid. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x949, 20 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x615, 30 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Image File history File links Phosphate_Group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 29 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (988x482, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Dimethylsulfide. ... Dimethyl sulfide causes that distinctive smell from your St. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x701, 13 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Sulfonyl Sulfone ... Image File history File links Dimethylsulfone_Structure. ... Flash point 143 °C R/S statement R: S: 24/25 RTECS number PB2785000 Related compounds Related sulfones  ? Related compounds DMSO dimethyl sulfide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM, or dimethylsulfone) is... It has been suggested that Sulfonic acid/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (927x703, 16 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x855, 41 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x741, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Sulfoxide ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1188, 21 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Image File history File links Thiol-group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (861x379, 4 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethanethiol User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery ... Ethanethiol, also known as ethyl mercaptan, is an organic compound used as an odorant in propane. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x590, 11 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group ... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... In chemistry, a disulfide is an ion formed by sulfur atoms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with cysteamine. ...

See also

Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0-86542-684-8) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ...

External links

  • IUPAC Blue Book (organic nomenclature)
  • IUPAC ligand abbreviations (pdf)

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