FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fullerine
The Icosahedral Fullerene C540
"C60" and "C-60" redirect here. For the Canadian bill, see Bill C-60.

The fullerenes, discovered in 1985 by researchers at the University of Sussex and Rice University, are a family of carbon allotropes named after Richard Buckminster Fuller and are sometimes called buckyballs. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Cylindrical fullerenes are called Carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of a sheet of linked hexagonal rings, but they contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that prevent the sheet from being planar. Download high resolution version (665x725, 65 KB)Fullerene C540 brian0918™ 03:20, 4 May 2005 (UTC) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (665x725, 65 KB)Fullerene C540 brian0918™ 03:20, 4 May 2005 (UTC) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... An icosahedron noun (plural: -drons, -dra ) is a polyhedron having 20 faces, but usually a regular icosahedron is implied, which has equilateral triangles as faces. ... Bill C-60 is a bill before the Canadian House of Commons which is an amendment to the current Canadian Copyright Act. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is a leading research-led English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art, is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube . This is a list of the allotropes of carbon. ... Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller (July 12, 1895 - July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, inventor, and writer. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... 3D rendering of an ellipsoid In mathematics, an ellipsoid is a type of quadric that is a higher dimensional analogue of an ellipse. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ...

Contents

Prediction and discovery

Nanotechnology Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...

Topics

HistoryImplicationsApplicationsOrganizationsPopular cultureList of topics Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Nanotechnology reaches back to the late 19th century, when colloidal science first took root. ... Groups opposing the installation of nanotechnology laboratories in Grenoble, France, have spraypainted their opposition on a former fortress above the city Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into three areas: the risk to health and environment from nanoparticles and nanomaterials; the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology. ... This is a list of references and appearances of Nanotechnology in works of fiction. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the field of nanotechnology. ...

Subfields and related fields

Nanomedicine• Molecular self-assembly • Molecular electronicsScanning probe microscopyNanolithographyMolecular nanotechnology Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e. ... Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ... It has been suggested that Molecular engineering be merged into this article or section. ...

Nanomaterial

NanomaterialsFullereneCarbon nanotubesFullerene chemistryApplicationsPopular cultureTimelineCarbon allotropes • • NanoparticlesQuantum dotsColloidal goldColloidal silver Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes [1] [2] [3]. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. ... Carbon nanotubes have many potential applications, here is a short list of some of the most important: // clothes: waterproof tear-resistant cloth fibers combat jackets: MIT is working on combat jackets that use carbon nanotubes as ultrastrong fibers and to monitor the condition of the wearer. ... Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ... Timeline of carbon nanotubes: Inside a carbon nanotube 1952 Radushkevich and Lukyanovich publish a paper in the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry showing hollow graphitic carbon fibers that are 50 nanometers in diameter. ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube . This is a list of the allotropes of carbon. ... It has been suggested that nanopowder be merged into this article or section. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Colloidal gold is a suspension (or colloid) of sub-micrometre-sized particles of gold in a fluid, usually water. ... Colloidal silver is a colloid of silver particles in water. ...

See Also
This box: view  talk  edit

In molecular beam experiments, discrete peaks were observed corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms. In 1985, Harold Kroto (then of the University of Sussex, now of Florida State University), James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley, from Rice University, discovered C60, and shortly after came to discover the fullerenes. Kroto, Curl, and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of this class of compounds. C60 and other fullerenes were later noticed occurring outside of a laboratory environment (e.g. in normal candle soot). By 1991, it was relatively easy to produce grams of fullerene powder using the techniques of Donald Huffman and Wolfgang Krätschmer. Fullerene purification remains a challenge to chemists and determines fullerene prices to a large extent. So-called endohedral fullerenes have ions or small molecules incorporated inside the cage atoms. Fullerene is an unusual reactant in many organic reactions such as the Bingel reaction discovered in 1993. Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... Harold Kroto Sir Harold Walter Kroto, FRS (born 7 October 1939) is an English chemist and one of the winners of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is a leading research-led English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... The Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[4] is a public research university located in Tallahassee, the capital city of Florida. ... Sean OBrien may refer to: Sean OBrien (writer) Sean OBrien (politician), member of the South Dakota State House of Representatives This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art, is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... A close-up image of a candle showing the wick and the various regions of the flame. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fullerene purification is the art of obtaining a fullerene compound free of contamination. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions between organic compounds. ... Bingel reaction of fullerene with a malonate ester and a) sodium hydride or DBU in toluene at room temperature 45% yield The Bingel reaction in organic chemistry is a fullerene cyclopropanation reaction to a methanofullerene first discovered by C. Bingel in 1993 with the bromo derivative of diethyl malonate in...


The existence of the C60 was predicted in 1970 by Eiji Osawa of Toyohashi University of Technology. He noticed that the structure of a corannurene molecule was a subset of a soccer ball, and made the hypothesis that the full ball could exist too. His idea made it to Japanese magazines but did not reach Europe nor America because of the language barrier.


Naming

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, a noted architect who popularized the geodesic dome. Since buckminsterfullerenes have a similar shape to that sort of dome, the name was thought to be appropriate. As the discovery of the fullerene family came after buckminsterfullerene, the name was shortened to illustrate that the latter is a type of the former. Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller (July 12, 1895 - July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, inventor, and writer. ... A geodesic dome is an almost spherical structure based on a network of struts arranged on great circles (geodesics) lying approximately on the surface of a sphere. ...


Types of fullerenes

Buckminsterfullerene C60

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ...

Buckminsterfullerene

Buckminsterfullerene (IUPAC name (C60-Ih)[5,6]fullerene) is the smallest fullerene in which no two pentagons share an edge (which can be destabilizing — see pentalene). It is also the most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can often be found in soot. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Pentalene has the chemical formula C8H6. ...


The structure of C60 is a truncated T=3 icosahedron, which resembles a soccer ball of the type made of hexagons and pentagons, with a carbon atom at the corners of each hexagon and a bond along each edge. A colored model Net (polyhedron) The truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid. ... A football is a ball used to play one of the different sports known as football. ...


The C60 molecule has two bond lengths. The 6:6 ring bonds (between two hexagons) can be considered "double bonds" and are shorter than the 6:5 bonds (between a hexagon and a pentagon). Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Carbon nanotubes

This animation of a rotating Carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure.
Main article: Carbon nanotube

Nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. These tubes of carbon are usually only a few nanometres wide, but they can range from less than a micrometre to several millimetres in length. They often have closed ends, but can be open-ended as well. There are also cases in which the tube reduces in diameter before closing off. Their unique molecular structure results in unique macroscopic properties, including high tensile strength, high electrical conductivity, high ductility, high resistance to heat, and relative chemical inactivity as it is round with no exposed atoms that can be easily displaced, such as in Benzene. Image File history File links Kohlenstoffnanoroehre_Animation. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ...


Boron buckyball

A new type of buckyball utilizing boron atoms instead of the usual carbon has been predicted and described by researchers at Rice University. The B-80 structure is predicted to be more stable than the C-60 buckyball. [1] One reason for this given by the researchers is that the B-80 is actually more like the original geodesic dome structure popularized by Buckminster Fuller which utilizes triangles rather than hexagons. General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ...


Mathematics behind fullerenes

In mathematical terms, the structure of a fullerene is a trivalent convex polyhedron with pentagonal and hexagonal faces. In graph theory, the term fullerene refers to any 3-regular, planar graph with all faces of size 5 or 6 (including the external face). It follows from Euler's polyhedron formula, |V|-|E|+|F| = 2, (where |V|, |E|, |F| indicate the number of vertices, edges, and faces), that there are exactly 12 pentagons in a fullerene. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A pictorial representation of a graph In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. ... In graph theory, a regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbors, i. ... In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be drawn so that no edges intersect (or that can be embedded) in the plane. ... It has been suggested that Vertex/Face/Edge relation in a convex polyhedron be merged into this article or section. ...


The smallest fullerene is the dodecahedron--the unique C20. There are no fullerenes with 22 vertices. The number of fullerenes C2n grows with increasing n = 12,13,14..., roughly in proportion to n9. For instance, there are 1812 non-isomorphic fullerenes C60. Note that only one form of C60, the buckminsterfullerene alias truncated icosahedron, has no pair of adjacent pentagons (the smallest such fullerene). To further illustrate the growth, there are 214,127,713 non-isomorphic fullerenes C200, 15,655,672 of which have no adjacent pentagons. A dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve regular pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ... A colored model Net (polyhedron) The truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid. ...


Properties

For the past decade, the chemical and physical properties of fullerenes have been a hot topic in the field of research and development, and are likely to continue to be for a long time. Popular Science has published articles about the possible uses of fullerenes in armor.[citation needed] In April 2003, fullerenes were under study for potential medicinal use: binding specific antibiotics to the structure to target resistant bacteria and even target certain cancer cells such as melanoma. The October 2005 issue of Chemistry and Biology contains an article describing the use of fullerenes as light-activated antimicrobial agents.[2] This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ...


In the field of nanotechnology, heat resistance and superconductivity are some of the more heavily studied properties. Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...


A common method used to produce fullerenes is to send a large current between two nearby graphite electrodes in an inert atmosphere. The resulting carbon plasma arc between the electrodes cools into sooty residue from which many fullerenes can be isolated. General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ...


There are many calculations that have been done using ab-initio Quantum Methods applied to fullerenes. By DFT and TDDFT methods one can obtain IR, Raman and UV spectra. Results of such calculations can be compared with experimental results. DFT can have at least four meanings: Discrete Fourier transform Density Functional Theory Design For Test The UKs Department for Transport This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up ir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Aromaticity

Researchers have been able to increase the reactivity of fullerenes by attaching active groups to their surfaces. Buckminsterfullerene does not exhibit "superaromaticity": that is, the electrons in the hexagonal rings do not delocalize over the whole molecule. Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond. ...


A spherical fullerene of n carbon atoms has n pi-bonding electrons. These should try to delocalize over the whole molecule. The quantum mechanics of such an arrangement should be like one shell only of the well-known quantum mechanical structure of a single atom, with a stable filled shell for n = 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 72, 98, 128, etc, i.e. twice a perfect square; but this series does not include 60. As a result, C60 in water tends to pick up two more electrons and become an anion. The nC60 described below may be the result of C60's trying to form a metallic bonding type loose combination. Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing a Pi-bond at the bottom right of the picture In chemistry, pi bonds (Ï€ bonds) are bonds with a single nodal plane containing the line segment between the two atoms. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... Metallic bonding is intramolecular bonding within metals. ...


Chemistry

Main article: Fullerene chemistry

Fullerenes are stable, but not totally unreactive. The sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, which are at their energy minimum in planar graphite, must be bent to form the closed sphere or tube, which produces angle strain. The characteristic reaction of fullerenes is electrophilic addition at 6,6-double bonds, which reduces angle strain by changing sp2-hybridized carbons into sp3-hybridized ones.[1] The change in hybridized orbitals causes the bond angles to decrease from about 120 degrees in the sp2 orbitals to about 109.5 degrees in the sp3 orbitals. This decrease in bond angles allows for the bonds to bend less when closing the sphere or tube, and thus, the molecule becomes more stable. Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes [1] [2] [3]. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. ... The presence of angle strain in a molecule indicates that in a specific chemical conformation there exists a bond angle that deviates from the bond angle required to archieve maximum bond strength. ... In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds. ...


Other atoms can be trapped inside fullerenes to form inclusion compounds known as endohedral fullerenes. An unusual example is the egg shaped fullerene Tb3N@C84, which violates the isolated pentagon rule [3] Recent evidence for a meteor impact at the end of the Permian period was found by analysing noble gases so preserved.[4] Metallofullerene-based inoculates using the rhonditic steel process are beginning production as one of the first commercially-viable uses of buckyballs. In host-guest chemistry an inclusion compound is a complex in which one chemical compound the host forms a cavity which molecules of a second compound the guest are located. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Neon, like all noble gases, has a full valence (outermost) electron shell. ...


Solubility

The C60 fullerene in crystalline form

Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in many solvents. Common solvents for the fullerenes include aromatics such as toluene and carbon disulfide. Solutions of pure Buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple color. Solutions of C70 are a reddish brown. The higher fullerenes C76 to C84 have a variety of colors. C76 has two optical forms, while other higher fullerenes have several structural isomers. Fullerenes are the only known allotrope of carbon that can be dissolved in common solvents at room temperature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (614x601, 336 KB) Beschreibung: C60 Buckminister Fulleren, kristallin aus der Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck Fotograf: Gschnaller Jochen Source: German Wikipedia, original upload Dez 2004 by Moebius1 (selfmade) File links The following pages link to this file: Fullerene ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (614x601, 336 KB) Beschreibung: C60 Buckminister Fulleren, kristallin aus der Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck Fotograf: Gschnaller Jochen Source: German Wikipedia, original upload Dez 2004 by Moebius1 (selfmade) File links The following pages link to this file: Fullerene ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... Allotropy (Gr. ...


Some fullerene structures are not soluble because they have a small bandgap between the ground and excited states. These include the small fullerenes C36 and C50. The C72 structure is also in this class, but the endohedral version with a trapped lanthanide-group atom is soluble due to the interaction of the metal atom and the electronic states of the fullerene. Researchers had originally been puzzled by C72 being absent in fullerene plasma-generated soot extract, but found in endohedral samples. Small band gap fullerenes are highly reactive and bind to other fullerenes or to soot particles.


Solvents that are able to dissolve a fullerene extract mixture (C60 / C70) are listed below in order from highest solubility. The value in parentheses is the approximate saturated concentration.

  1. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (20 mg/ml)
  2. carbon disulfide (12 mg/ml)
  3. toluene (3.2 mg/ml)
  4. benzene (1.8 mg/ml)
  5. chloroform (0.5 mg/ml)
  6. carbon tetrachloride (0.4 mg/ml)
  7. cyclohexane (0.054 mg/ml)
  8. n-hexane (0.046 mg/ml)
  9. tetrahydrofuran (0.037 mg/ml)
  10. acetonitrile (0.02 mg/ml)
  11. methanol (0.0009 mg/ml)

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is an organic compound used as a solvent, and is one of the best known solvents used to dissolve fullerenes. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... For the song Chloroform by Spoon, see A Series of Sneaks Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point non flammable RTECS number FG4900000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN. Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ...

Quantum mechanics

In 1999, researchers from the University of Vienna demonstrated that the wave-particle duality applied to macro-molecules such as fullerene[5]. One of the co-authors of this reasearch, Julian Voss-Andreae become an artist and has since created several sculptures symbolizing wave-particle duality in Buckminsterfullerenes. In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ... Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ...


Science writer Marcus Chown made a reference on the CBC radio show "Quirks And Quarks" in May 2006 that there is a scientist working on having buckyballs follow the quantum behavior of atoms of appearing to be in 2 places at once. The work is continuing on this phenomenon.[6].


Safety issues

See also: Nanotoxicology

Although C60 has been thought in theory to be relatively inert, a presentation given to the American Chemical Society in March 2004 and described in an article in New Scientist on April 3, 2004, suggests the molecule is injurious to organisms. An experiment by Eva Oberdörster at Southern Methodist University, which introduced fullerenes into water at concentrations of 0.5 parts per million, found that largemouth bass suffered a 17-fold increase in cellular damage in the brain tissue after 48 hours. The damage was of the type lipid peroxidation, which is known to impair the functioning of cell membranes. There were also inflammatory changes in the liver and activation of genes related to the making of repair enzymes. These results have been published in "Environmental Health Perspectives" in July 2004. Research on ultrafine particles has laid the foundation for the emerging field of nanotoxicology, with the goal of studying the biokinetics of engineered nanomaterials and their potential for causing adverse effects. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow Southern Methodist University (also known as SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas, (an enclave of Dallas). ... Binomial name Micropterus salmoides The Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a species of fish. ... Lipid peroxidation refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids. ... // The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ...


Pristine C60 can be suspended in water at low concentrations as large clusters often termed nC60. These clusters are spherical clumps of C60 between 250-350 nm in diameter. Thus, nC60 represents a different chemical entity than solutions of C60 in which the fullerenes exist as individual molecules. Recently, results presented at the ACS meeting in Anaheim, CA suggest that nC60 is moderately toxic to water fleas and juvenile largemouth bass at concentrations in water of around 800 ppb. The first study of its kind on marine life, these preliminary results quickly spread across the scientific community. However, the overwhelming evidence of the essential non-toxicity of C60 (not nC60) in previously peer-reviewed articles of C60 and many of its derivatives indicates that these compounds are likely to have little (if any) toxicity, especially at the very low concentration at which it is≈ used (~1-10 µM).[citation needed]


A study published in December 2005 in Biophysical Journal raises a red flag regarding the safety of C60 when dissolved in water. It reports the results of a detailed computer simulation that finds C60 binds to the spirals in DNA molecules in an aqueous environment, causing the DNA to deform, potentially interfering with its biological functions and possibly causing long-term negative side effects in people and other living organisms.[7] The Biophysical Journal is published by the Biophysical Society. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


Popular culture

Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. In fact, fullerenes appeared in fiction well before science started to take serious interest in them. Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, (literally: the culture of the people) consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...

  • In New Scientist there used to be a weekly column called Daedalus written by David Jones, which contained humorous descriptions of unlikely technologies. In 1966 the columnist included a description of the C60 and other forms of graphite. This was meant as pure entertainment.
  • Also in the New Scientist magazine, a free book was enclosed entitled, "100 Things to Do Before You Die", one of which was to kick a buckyball.
  • The buckyball is the state molecule of Texas [8]

New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...

See also

Buckypaper is a thin sheet made from an aggregate of carbon nanotubes. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Dodecahedrane is a chemical compound that (with a methyl substituent) was first synthesised by Leo Paquette in 1982 primarily for the aesthetically pleasing symmetry of the dodecahedral framework. In this molecule each vertex is a carbon atom that bonds to three neigbouring carbon atoms. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... A geodesic dome is an almost spherical structure based on a network of struts arranged on great circles (geodesics) lying approximately on the surface of a sphere. ... It has been suggested that Quasam be merged into this article or section. ... A polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a geometric object with flat faces and straight edges. ... Prismane C8 is a metastable carbon isomer of the formula C8. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Making atomic carbon :C: - The source of light is the electrical arcing between two carbon rods. ...

Further reading

  • Aldersey-Williams, Hugh (1995). The Most Beautiful Molecule: The Discovery of the Buckyball. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-19333-X. 

Animation of a rotating Fullerene C540 structure. ... The Lake Palanskoye in northern Kamchatka was formed when a large landslide disrupted the drainage pattern, forming a natural dam. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a bitmap image format that is widely used on the World Wide Web, both for still images and for animations. ...

References

  1. ^ Bucky's brother -- The boron buckyball makes its debut Jade Boyd April 2007 eurekalert.orgLink
  2. ^ Tegos, G.; T. Demidova, D. Arcila-Lopez, H. Lee, T. Wharton, H. Gali, M. Hamblin (October 2005). "Cationic Fullerenes Are Effective and Selective Antimicrobial Photosensitizers". Chemistry & Biology 12 (10): 1127-1135. 
  3. ^ egg shaped fullerene: Link.
  4. ^ Becker, Luann; Robert J. Poreda,2 Andrew G. Hunt, Theodore E. Bunch, Michael Rampino (2007-02-23). "Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes". Science 291 (5508): 1530-3. DOI:10.1126/science.1057243. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. 
  5. ^ Arndt, M.; O. Nairz, J. Voss-Andreae, C. Keller, G. van der Zouw, A. Zeilinger (14 October 1999). "Wave-particle duality of C60". Nature 401: 680-682. 
  6. ^ The radio show can be heard at: http://www.cbc.ca/quirks/archives/05-06/jun17.html
  7. ^ Cooper, Vivian; David Salisburry (2005). "Vanderbilt chemical engineers question safety of certain nanomaterials".
  8. ^ State molecule of Texas: Link

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Anton Zeilinger Anton Zeilinger (born on 20 May 1945 in Ried im Innkreis, Austria) is a professor of physics at the University of Vienna, previously Innsbruck. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Press Releases-Dec. 2004-Matias (442 words)
Nathan Matias of Mount Joy created the hypertext sphere, Philadelphia Fullerine, as an extension of his senior English honors project, which is a traditional narrative nonfiction on the same topic.
Philadelphia Fullerine’s geodesic framework is constructed of galvanized steel rods riveted together onto 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal connectors.
Matias refers to Philadelphia Fullerine as a hypertext, a work meant to be read or experienced nonlinearly." "By presenting this work as a hypertext sphere," he said, "I hope to encourage people to read history holistically -- to explore the history and connections for themselves, in whatever order or manner they enjoy."
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m