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The Icosahedral Fullerene C540
The Icosahedral Fullerene C540
"C60" and "C-60" redirect here. For other uses, see C60 (disambiguation).

The Fullerenes, discovered in 1985 by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley at the University of Sussex and Rice University, are a family of carbon allotropes named after Richard Buckminster Fuller and are sometimes called buckyballs. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Cylindrical fullerenes are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of a sheet of linked hexagonal rings, but they contain also pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that prevent the sheet from being planar. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. ... Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas: the risk of environmental damage from nanoparticles and nanomaterials the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced nanotechnology) societal risks health risks Nanoethics concerns the ethical and social issues associated with developments in nanotechnology, a science which encompass several... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology. ... This is a list of references and appearances of Nanotechnology in works of fiction. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the field of nanotechnology. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e. ... Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ... Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Nanotube membranes are films composed of open-ended nanotubes that are oriented perpendicularly to the surface of the film like the cells of a honeycomb. ... Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes [1] [2] [3]. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. ... Carbon nanotubes have many potential applications, here is a short list of some of the most important: // clothes: waterproof tear-resistant cloth fibers combat jackets: MIT is working on combat jackets that use carbon nanotubes as ultrastrong fibers and to monitor the condition of the wearer. ... Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ... Timeline of carbon nanotubes: Inside a carbon nanotube 1952 Radushkevich and Lukyanovich publish a paper in the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry showing hollow graphitic carbon fibers that are 50 nanometers in diameter. ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube or buckytube. ... It has been suggested that nanopowder be merged into this article or section. ... A quantum dot is a semiconductor nanostructure that confines the motion of conduction band electrons, valence band holes, or excitons (bound pairs of conduction band electrons and valence band holes) in all three spatial directions. ... Colloidal gold is a suspension (or colloid) of sub-micrometre-sized particles of gold in a fluid, usually water. ... --210. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mechanochemistry. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... K. Eric Drexler in 2001. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ... Download high resolution version (665x725, 65 KB)Fullerene C540 brian0918™ 03:20, 4 May 2005 (UTC) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (665x725, 65 KB)Fullerene C540 brian0918™ 03:20, 4 May 2005 (UTC) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... [Etymology: 16th century: from Greek eikosaedron, from eikosi twenty + -edron -hedron], icosahedral adjective An icosahedron noun (plural: -drons, -dra ) is any polyhedron having 20 faces, but usually a regular icosahedron is implied, which has equilateral triangles as faces. ... C60 could mean: C60 the carbon molecule, also known as Buckyballs. ... This article is about the year. ... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Harold Kroto Sir Harold Walter Kroto, FRS (born 7 October 1939) is an English chemist and one of the winners of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube or buckytube. ... Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller (July 12, 1895 - July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, inventor, and writer. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sphere (disambiguation). ... 3D rendering of an ellipsoid In mathematics, an ellipsoid is a type of quadric that is a higher dimensional analogue of an ellipse. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Prediction and discovery

In molecular beam experiments, discrete peaks were observed corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms. In 1985, Harold Kroto (then of the University of Sussex, now of Florida State University), James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley, from Rice University, discovered C60, and shortly thereafter came to discover the fullerenes. Kroto, Curl, and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of this class of compounds. C60 and other fullerenes were later noticed occurring outside the laboratory (e.g., in normal candle soot). By 1991, it was relatively easy to produce gram-sized samples of fullerene powder using the techniques of Donald Huffman and Wolfgang Krätschmer. Fullerene purification remains a challenge to chemists and to a large extent determines fullerene prices. So-called endohedral fullerenes have ions or small molecules incorporated inside the cage atoms. Fullerene is an unusual reactant in many organic reactions such as the Bingel reaction discovered in 1993. Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... Harold Kroto Sir Harold Walter Kroto, FRS (born 7 October 1939) is an English chemist and one of the winners of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[7] is a public research university located in Tallahassee. ... James R. Heath is an American chemist and a professor at the Department of Chemistry, Caltech. ... Sean OBrien may refer to: Sean OBrien (writer) Sean OBrien (politician), member of the South Dakota State House of Representatives This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Fullerene purification is the art of obtaining a fullerene compound free of contamination. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ... Bingel reaction of fullerene with a malonate ester and a) sodium hydride or DBU in toluene at room temperature 45% yield The Bingel reaction in organic chemistry is a fullerene cyclopropanation reaction to a methanofullerene first discovered by C. Bingel in 1993 with the bromo derivative of diethyl malonate in...


The existence of C60 was predicted in 1970 by Eiji Osawa of Toyohashi University of Technology. He noticed that the structure of a corannulene molecule was a subset of a soccer-ball shape, and he made the hypothesis that a full ball shape could also exist. His idea was reported in Japanese magazines, but did not reach Europe or America. Corannulene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C20H10 . ...


Naming

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, a noted architect who popularized the geodesic dome. Since buckminsterfullerenes have a similar shape to that sort of dome, the name was thought to be appropriate. As the discovery of the fullerene family came after buckminsterfullerene, the name was shortened to illustrate that the latter is a type of the former. Richard Buckminster Bucky Fuller (July 12, 1895 - July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, inventor, and writer. ... Spaceship Earth in Epcot Center at Walt Disney World is perhaps one of the most famous examples of a large scale geodesic sphere. ...


For illustrations of geodesic dome structures, see Montreal Biosphere, Eden Project, Missouri Botanical Gardens, Science World at TELUS World of Science, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory, Gold Dome, Tacoma Dome, and Spaceship Earth (Disney). The Biosphère, a large geodesic dome. ... The Eden Project Inside the tropical Biome The Eden Project is a large-scale environmental complex in Cornwall. ... Categories: US geography stubs | Botanical gardens | Missouri landmarks | Saint Louis, Missouri ... Science World At night For other uses, see Science World (disambiguation) TELUS World of Science, Vancouver is a science centre run by a non-profit organization in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory (Mitchell Park Domes or The Domes) is a conservatory located at Mitchell Park in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Gold Dome This geodesic dome (known as the Gold Dome), is a major landmark in Oklahoma City, United States. ... The Tacoma Dome (constructed by Tacoma Dome Associates, led by McGranahan Messenger Architects a design build enity) is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, Washington, USA. Completed in 1983 for $44 millon and opened on April 21, the arena seats 17,100 for basketball. ... For the phrase, see Spaceship Earth. ...


Types of fullerenes

Buckminsterfullerene C60
Buckminsterfullerene C60

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ...

Buckminsterfullerene

Buckminsterfullerene (IUPAC name (C60-Ih)[5,6]fullerene) is the smallest fullerene molecule in which no two pentagons share an edge (which can be destabilizing; see pentalene). It is also the most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can often be found in soot. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Pentalene has the chemical formula C8H6. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the...


The structure of C60 is a truncated (T = 3) icosahedron, which resembles a soccer ball of the type made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom at the vertices of each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge. The truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid. ... A football is used to play one of the different sports known as football or Rugby. ...


The van der Waals diameter of a C60 molecule is about 1 nanometer (nm). The nucleus to nucleus diameter of a C60 molecule is about 0.7 nm. The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...


The C60 molecule has two bond lengths. The 6:6 ring bonds (between two hexagons) can be considered "double bonds" and are shorter than the 6:5 bonds (between a hexagon and a pentagon). Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Carbon nanotubes

This animation of a rotating Carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure.
This animation of a rotating Carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure.
Main article: Carbon nanotube

Nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. These tubes of carbon are usually only a few nanometres wide, but they can range from less than a micrometer to several millimeters in length. They often have closed ends, but can be open-ended as well. There are also cases in which the tube reduces in diameter before closing off. Their unique molecular structure results in extraordinary macroscopic properties, including high tensile strength, high electrical conductivity, high ductility, high resistance to heat, and relative chemical inactivity (as it is cylindrical and 'planar' — that is, it has no 'exposed' atoms that can be easily displaced). One proposed use of carbon nanotubes is in paper batteries , developed in 2007 by researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Image File history File links Kohlenstoffnanoroehre_Animation. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ...


Boron buckyball

A new type of buckyball utilizing boron atoms instead of the usual carbon has been predicted and described by researchers at Rice University. The B-80 structure is predicted to be more stable than the C-60 buckyball. [1] One reason for this given by the researchers is that the B-80 is actually more like the original geodesic dome structure popularized by Buckminster Fuller which utilizes triangles rather than hexagons. General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ...


Mathematics behind fullerenes

In mathematical terms, the structure of a fullerene is a trivalent convex polyhedron with pentagonal and hexagonal faces. In graph theory, the term fullerene refers to any 3-regular, planar graph with all faces of size 5 or 6 (including the external face). It follows from Euler's polyhedron formula, |V|-|E|+|F| = 2, (where |V|, |E|, |F| indicate the number of vertices, edges, and faces), that there are exactly 12 pentagons in a fullerene and |V|/2-10 hexagons. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, valence, also known as valency or valency number, is a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. ... For the game magazine, see Polyhedron (magazine). ... A drawing of a graph. ... In graph theory, a regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbors, i. ... In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be drawn so that no edges intersect (or that can be embedded) in the plane. ... In algebraic topology, the Euler characteristic is a topological invariant, a number that describes one aspect of a topological spaces shape or structure. ...


The smallest fullerene is the dodecahedron--the unique C20, dodecahedrane. There are no fullerenes with 22 vertices. The number of fullerenes C2n grows with increasing n = 12,13,14..., roughly in proportion to n9. For instance, there are 1812 non-isomorphic fullerenes C60. Note that only one form of C60, the buckminsterfullerene alias truncated icosahedron, has no pair of adjacent pentagons (the smallest such fullerene). To further illustrate the growth, there are 214,127,713 non-isomorphic fullerenes C200, 15,655,672 of which have no adjacent pentagons. A dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve regular pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ... Dodecahedrane is a chemical compound that (with a methyl substituent) was first synthesised by Leo Paquette in 1982 primarily for the aesthetically pleasing symmetry of the dodecahedral framework. In this molecule each vertex is a carbon atom that bonds to three neigbouring carbon atoms. ... The truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid. ...


Properties

For the past decade, the chemical and physical properties of fullerenes have been a hot topic in the field of research and development, and are likely to continue to be for a long time. Popular Science has published articles about the possible uses of fullerenes in armor.[citation needed] In April 2003, fullerenes were under study for potential medicinal use: binding specific antibiotics to the structure to target resistant bacteria and even target certain cancer cells such as melanoma. The October 2005 issue of Chemistry and Biology contains an article describing the use of fullerenes as light-activated antimicrobial agents.[2] This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ...


In the field of nanotechnology, heat resistance and superconductivity are some of the more heavily studied properties. Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...


A common method used to produce fullerenes is to send a large current between two nearby graphite electrodes in an inert atmosphere. The resulting carbon plasma arc between the electrodes cools into sooty residue from which many fullerenes can be isolated. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ...


There are many calculations that have been done using ab-initio Quantum Methods applied to fullerenes. By DFT and TDDFT methods one can obtain IR, Raman and UV spectra. Results of such calculations can be compared with experimental results. DFT can have at least four meanings: Discrete Fourier transform Density Functional Theory Design For Test The UKs Department for Transport This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up ir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Aromaticity

Researchers have been able to increase the reactivity of fullerenes by attaching active groups to their surfaces. Buckminsterfullerene does not exhibit "superaromaticity": that is, the electrons in the hexagonal rings do not delocalize over the whole molecule. Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond. ...


A spherical fullerene of n carbon atoms has n pi-bonding electrons. These should try to delocalize over the whole molecule. The quantum mechanics of such an arrangement should be like one shell only of the well-known quantum mechanical structure of a single atom, with a stable filled shell for n = 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 72, 98, 128, etc, i.e. twice a perfect square; but this series does not include 60. As a result, C60 in water tends to pick up two more electrons and become an anion. The nC60 described below may be the result of C60's trying to form a metallic bonding type loose combination. Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing a Pi-bond at the bottom right of the picture. ... The term perfect square is used in mathematics in two meanings: an integer which is the square of some other integer, i. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... Metallic bonding is intramolecular bonding within metals. ...


Chemistry

Main article: Fullerene chemistry

Fullerenes are stable, but not totally nonreactive. The sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, which are at their energy minimum in planar graphite, must be bent to form the closed sphere or tube, which produces angle strain. The characteristic reaction of fullerenes is electrophilic addition at 6,6-double bonds, which reduces angle strain by changing sp2-hybridized carbons into sp3-hybridized ones.[1] The change in hybridized orbitals causes the bond angles to decrease from about 120 degrees in the sp2 orbitals to about 109.5 degrees in the sp3 orbitals. This decrease in bond angles allows for the bonds to bend less when closing the sphere or tube, and thus, the molecule becomes more stable. Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes [1] [2] [3]. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. ... The presence of angle strain in a molecule indicates that in a specific chemical conformation there exists a bond angle that deviates from the bond angle required to archieve maximum bond strength. ... In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds. ...


Other atoms can be trapped inside fullerenes to form inclusion compounds known as endohedral fullerenes. An unusual example is the egg shaped fullerene Tb3N@C84, which violates the isolated pentagon rule [3] Recent evidence for a meteor impact at the end of the Permian period was found by analysing noble gases so preserved.[4] Metallofullerene-based inoculates using the rhonditic steel process are beginning production as one of the first commercially-viable uses of buckyballs. In host-guest chemistry an inclusion compound is a complex in which one chemical compound the host forms a cavity which molecules of a second compound the guest are located. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


Solubility

The C60 fullerene in crystalline form
The C60 fullerene in crystalline form

Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in many solvents. Common solvents for the fullerenes include aromatics such as toluene and carbon disulfide. Solutions of pure Buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple color. Solutions of C70 are a reddish brown. The higher fullerenes C76 to C84 have a variety of colors. C76 has two optical forms, while other higher fullerenes have several structural isomers. Fullerenes are the only known allotrope of carbon that can be dissolved in common solvents at room temperature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (614x601, 336 KB) Beschreibung: C60 Buckminister Fulleren, kristallin aus der Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck Fotograf: Gschnaller Jochen Source: German Wikipedia, original upload Dez 2004 by Moebius1 (selfmade) File links The following pages link to this file: Fullerene ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (614x601, 336 KB) Beschreibung: C60 Buckminister Fulleren, kristallin aus der Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck Fotograf: Gschnaller Jochen Source: German Wikipedia, original upload Dez 2004 by Moebius1 (selfmade) File links The following pages link to this file: Fullerene ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... Allotropy (Gr. ...


Some fullerene structures are not soluble because they have a small bandgap between the ground and excited states. These include the small fullerenes C28[5], C36 and C50. The C72 structure is also in this class, but the endohedral version with a trapped lanthanide-group atom is soluble due to the interaction of the metal atom and the electronic states of the fullerene. Researchers had originally been puzzled by C72 being absent in fullerene plasma-generated soot extract, but found in endohedral samples. Small band gap fullerenes are highly reactive and bind to other fullerenes or to soot particles.


Solvents that are able to dissolve a fullerene extract mixture (C60 / C70) are listed below in order from highest solubility. The value in parentheses is the approximate saturated concentration.

  1. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (20 mg/ml)
  2. carbon disulfide (12 mg/ml)
  3. toluene (3.2 mg/ml)
  4. benzene (1.8 mg/ml)
  5. chloroform (0.5 mg/ml)
  6. carbon tetrachloride (0.4 mg/ml)
  7. cyclohexane (0.054 mg/ml)
  8. n-hexane (0.046 mg/ml)
  9. tetrahydrofuran (0.037 mg/ml)
  10. acetonitrile (0.02 mg/ml)
  11. methanol (0.0009 mg/ml)

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is an organic compound used as a solvent, and is one of the best known solvents used to dissolve fullerenes. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN. Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ...

Quantum mechanics

In 1999, researchers from the University of Vienna demonstrated that the wave-particle duality applied to molecules such as fullerene[6]. One of the co-authors of this research, Julian Voss-Andreae became an artist and has since created several sculptures symbolizing wave-particle duality in Buckminsterfullerenes. In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ... Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ...


Science writer Marcus Chown made a reference on the CBC radio show "Quirks And Quarks" in May 2006 that there is a scientist working on having buckyballs follow the quantum behavior of atoms of appearing to be in two places at once. The work is continuing on this phenomenon.[7].


Safety

Mori T et al. 2006. Toxicology, 225; pp. 48-54. studied in vitro genotoxicity and mutagenicity, and LD50 values in rodents for C60 and C70 mixtures. No evidence was found of any genotoxic or mutagenic potential and the rats tolerated 2g/kg oral dosing with no adverse effects.


In addition, many other studies have shown fullerenes to be non-toxic. A comprehensive and recent review of work on fullerene toxicity is available in "Toxicity Studies of Fullerenes and Derivatives," a chapter from the book "Bio-applications of Nanoparticles" (Chan ed., Landes Bioscience, 2007). In this work, the authors review the work on fullerene toxicity beginning in the early 1990's to present, and conclude that the evidence gathered since the discovery of fullerenes overwhelmingly points to C60 being non-toxic.


Popular culture

Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. In fact, fullerenes appeared in fiction well before science started to take serious interest in them. Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...

  • It is the topic of a science fiction book named Decipher written by Stel Pavlou
  • In New Scientist there used to be a weekly column called Daedalus written by David Jones, which contained humorous descriptions of unlikely technologies. In 1966 the columnist included a description of the C60 and other forms of graphite. This was meant as pure entertainment.
  • Also in the New Scientist magazine, a free book was enclosed entitled, "100 Things to Do Before You Die", one of which was to kick a buckyball.
  • The buckyball is the state molecule of Texas [8]

New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...

See also

Buckypaper is a thin sheet made from an aggregate of carbon nanotubes. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Computer models of several stable NanoBud structures In nanotechnology, carbon NanoBuds are a newly discovered material combining two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. ... Dodecahedrane is a chemical compound that (with a methyl substituent) was first synthesised by Leo Paquette in 1982 primarily for the aesthetically pleasing symmetry of the dodecahedral framework. In this molecule each vertex is a carbon atom that bonds to three neigbouring carbon atoms. ... Endohedral Fullerenes are fullerenes that have incorporated in their inner sphere atoms, ions or clusters. ... Spaceship Earth in Epcot Center at Walt Disney World is perhaps one of the most famous examples of a large scale geodesic sphere. ... It has been suggested that Quasam be merged into this article or section. ... For the game magazine, see Polyhedron (magazine). ... Prismane C8 is a metastable carbon isomer of the formula C8. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Making atomic carbon :C: - The source of light is the electrical arcing between two carbon rods. ... The truncated rhombic triacontahedron is a convex polyhedron constructed from the rhombic triacontahedron by truncating the twelve vertices where five faces meet at their acute corners. ... Metallofullerenes are spherical molecular structures made of carbon and metal. ...

Further reading

  • Aldersey-Williams, Hugh (1995). The Most Beautiful Molecule: The Discovery of the Buckyball. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-19333-X. 

References

  1. ^ Bucky's brother -- The boron buckyball makes its debut Jade Boyd April 2007 eurekalert.orgLink
  2. ^ Tegos, G.; T. Demidova, D. Arcila-Lopez, H. Lee, T. Wharton, H. Gali, M. Hamblin (October 2005). "Cationic Fullerenes Are Effective and Selective Antimicrobial Photosensitizers". Chemistry & Biology 12 (10): 1127-1135. 
  3. ^ egg shaped fullerene: Link.
  4. ^ Becker, Luann; Robert J. Poreda,2 Andrew G. Hunt, Theodore E. Bunch, Michael Rampino (2007-02-23). "Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes". Science 291 (5508): 1530-3. doi:10.1126/science.1057243. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. 
  5. ^ Ab initio theoretical predictions of C28, C28H4, C28F4, (Ti at C28)H4, and M at C28 (M = Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ge, Zr, and Sn), Guo, Ting; Smalley, Richard E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E., 1993.
  6. ^ Arndt, M.; O. Nairz, J. Voss-Andreae, C. Keller, G. van der Zouw, A. Zeilinger (14 October 1999). "Wave-particle duality of C60". Nature 401: 680-682. 
  7. ^ The radio show can be heard at: http://www.cbc.ca/quirks/archives/05-06/jun17.html
  8. ^ State molecule of Texas: Link

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anton Zeilinger Anton Zeilinger (born on 20 May 1945 in Ried im Innkreis, Austria) is a professor of physics at the University of Vienna, previously University of Innsbruck. ...

External links

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Fullerenes and Fullerene HPLC column supplier (156 words)
Established in 1991, SES Research opened its doors as one of the first Commercial Manufacturers of Carbon Fullerenes to supply the Research communities worldwide.
Over the past decade, SES Research product line has expanded to include the whole family of Carbon Fullerenes, Nano-tubes, Specialty Equipment and HPLC columns.
As a world supplier of fullerene products, SES has become a one stop shop for a “World of Fullerenes in your hands”.
Cross Group Fullerene Research (2157 words)
The noble gases are put in by heating the fullerenes in the presence of the gas at high temperatures and pressures or by shooting them in as ions or metastable atoms.
The fullerene is extracted in CS About 85% of the fullerene is soluble, and about 0.1% of the molecules contain a noble gas atom.
On one side is an oven which produces a continuous beam of fullerene.
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