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Encyclopedia > Full moon
Composite image of the Moon as taken by the Galileo spacecraft on 7 December 1992. The color is 'enhanced' in the sense that the CCD camera is sensitive to near infrared wavelengths of light beyond human vision.

## Contents

Although it takes only 27.322 days on average for the Moon to complete one orbit around the Earth (the sidereal month), as a result of the Earth's orbital motion around the Sun it requires about two additional days for the Earth, Moon, and Sun to acquire the same relative geometry. So on average the number of days between two similar phases (e.g. between one full moon and the next full moon) is about 29.531 days. This period is referred to as a lunation, lunar month, or synodic month. The actual number of days in a lunation can vary from about 29.272 to 29.833 because the velocities of the Moon and of the Earth are not constant in their elliptic orbits, and because of gravitational interactions with other bodies in the solar system. [1][2] Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In Egyptian mythology, Month is an alternate spelling for Menthu. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ... In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive similar syzygies (new moons or full moons). ... In Egyptian mythology, Month is an alternate spelling for Menthu. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...

The date and time of a specific full moon (assuming a circular orbit) can be calculated from the equation[4]:

D = 20.362954 + 29.5305888531 × N + 102.19 × 10-12 × N 2

where D is the number of days since 1 January 2000 00:00:00 UTC, and N is an integer number of full moons, starting with 0 for the first full moon of the year 2000. The true time of a full moon may differ from this approximation by up to about 14.5 hours as a result of the noncircularity of the Moon's orbit.[citation needed] The age and apparent size of the full moon vary in a cycle of just under 14 synodic months, which has been referred to as a full moon cycle. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The full moon cycle is a cycle of about 14 lunations over which full moons vary in apparent size and age (time since new moon). ...

Full moons are generally a poor time to conduct astronomical observations, since the bright reflected sunlight from the Moon overwhelms the dimmer light from stars. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...

## Eclipses

Main article: Lunar eclipse

A full moon is the only time when a lunar eclipse is possible. At this time, it is possible under certain circumstances for the Moon to move through the shadow cast by the Earth. However, because of an approximately 5° tilt of the orbital plane of the Moon with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth (the ecliptic), the Moon usually passes to the north or south of Earth's shadow during a full moon. Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earths shadow. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earths shadow. ... The orbit of the Moon around the Earth is completed in approximately 27. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ...

## Folklore

Many neopagans hold a monthly ritual called an Esbat at each full moon, while some people practicing traditional Chinese religions prepare their ritual offerings to their ancestors and deities on every full and new moon. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Wiccans and many other Pagans celebrate the esbats, which are the full moons. ...

## Calendars

The Hindu, Thai, Hebrew, Islamic, Tibetan, Neopagan, Celtic, and the traditional Chinese calendars are all based on the phases of the Moon. None of these calendars, however, begin their months with the full moon. In the Chinese, Jewish, Thai and some Hindu calendars, the full moon always occurs in the middle of a month. [6] [7] A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: â€Ž) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: Ø§Ù„ØªÙ‚ÙˆÙŠÙ… Ø§Ù„Ù‡Ø¬Ø±ÙŠ; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: ØªÙ‚ÙˆÛŒÙ… Ù‡Ø¬Ø±ÙŠ Ù‚Ù…Ø±ÛŒ â€Ž taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: â€Ž) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In the Gregorian calendar, the date of Easter is the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon which occurs after the ecclesiastical vernal equinox. In this context, the date of the full moon (together with the date of the vernal equinox) is calculated not according to actual astronomical phenomena, but according to a calendrical approximation of these phenomena. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...

In the Chinese calendar, the Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the full moon of the eighth month, whereas the Lantern Festival falls on the first full moon of the year. Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ... Year 2007 Taiwan Lantern Festival in Chiayi, Taiwan The Lantern Festival (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or (Yuanxiao Festival), also known as the Shang Yuan Festival (ä¸Šå…ƒèŠ‚), is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunar year in the Chinese calendar. ...

## Full moon names

It is traditional to assign special names to each full moon of the year, although the rule for determining which name will be assigned has changed over time (see article at blue moon). An ancient method of assigning names is based upon seasons and quarters of the year. For instance, the Egg Moon (the Full Moon before Easter) would be the first moon after March 21st, and the Lenten Moon would be the last moon on or before March 21st. Modern practice, however, is to assign the traditional names based on the Gregorian calendar month in which the full moon falls. This method frequently results in the same name as the older method would, and is far more convenient to use. The term blue moon has at least four related meanings. ... Topics in Christianity Movements Â· Denominations Ecumenism Â· Preaching Â· Prayer Music Â· Liturgy Â· Calendar Symbols Â· Art Â· Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul Â· Church Fathers Constantine Â· Athanasius Â· Augustine Anselm Â· Aquinas Â· Palamas Â· Wycliffe Tyndale Â· Luther Â· Calvin Â· Wesley Arius Â· Marcion of Sinope Pope Â· Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Easter, the Sunday of... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...

The following table gives the traditional English names for each month's full moon, the names given by Native Americans in the northern and eastern United States, other common names, and Hindu names.[8] Note that purnima or pornima is Hindi for full moon, which has also become the Malay word for full moon purnama. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...

Full Moon Names
Month English Names Native American Names Other Names Used Hindu Names
January Old Moon Wolf Moon Moon After Yule, Ice Moon Paush Purnima
February Wolf Moon Snow Moon Hunger Moon, Storm Moon Magh Purnima
March Lenten Moon Worm Moon Crow Moon, Crust Moon, Sugar Moon, Sap Moon, Chaste Moon Holi
April Egg Moon Pink Moon Sprouting Grass Moon, Fish Moon, Seed Moon, Waking Moon Hanuman Jayanti
May Milk Moon Flower Moon Corn Planting Moon, Corn Moon, Hare's Moon Buddha Purnima
June Flower Moon Strawberry Moon Rose Moon, Hot Moon, Planting Moon Wat Purnima
July Hay Moon Buck Moon Thunder Moon, Mead Moon Guru Purnima
August Grain Moon Sturgeon Moon Red Moon, Green Corn Moon, Lightning Moon, Dog Moon Narali Purnima, Raksha bandhan
October Harvest Moon Hunter's Moon Travel Moon, Dying Grass Moon, Blood Moon Kojagiri or Sharad Pornima
November Hunter's Moon Beaver Moon Frost Moon, Snow Moon Kartik Pornima
December Oak Moon Cold Moon Frost Moon, Long Night's Moon, Moon Before Yule Margashirsha Pornima

Yule is the winter solstice celebration of the Scandinavian Norse mythology and Germanic pagans. ... Celebration of Holi Holi (Hindi: à¤¹à¥‹à¤²à¥€) or Phagwah (Bhojpuri) is a popular, Hindu spring festival, observed in North India and Nepal, also called the Festival of Colours. ... Hanuman (Sanskrit: ; nominative singular ), known also as Anjaneya, is one of the most important personalities in the Indian epic, the Ramayana. ... Media:Example. ... A Guru (Sanskrit: ), is a teacher in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, as well as in many new religious movements. ... Raksha bandhan or Rakhi is a Hindu festival to signify and extend the brother-sister relationship. ... For other uses, see Harvest Moon. ... In Hinduism, Bhadra is a goddess of the hunt and one of Shivas servants. ... For other uses, see Harvest Moon. ... Kojagiri Pormina is a holiday that falls on the Full moon of the Hindu lunar month of Ashwin (roughly in October). ... Sharadchandra Govindrao Pawar (born December 12, 1940) is president of the Nationalist Congress Party which he formed in 1999 in India. ... Yule is the winter solstice celebration of the Scandinavian Norse mythology and Germanic pagans. ... Agrahayana (Hindi: à¤…à¤—à¤¹à¤¨ agahan) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ...

## The blue moon

Main article: Blue moon

The origin of the folkloric term "blue moon" is complicated, because its meaning has changed over time. Modern practice is to name a full moon a blue moon if it is the second of two full moons to occur in the same calendar month. The original meaning of blue moon was the third full moon in a season when there were four full moons in that season. The term blue moon has at least four related meanings. ... The term blue moon has at least four related meanings. ...

## Effects of Full Moon

The full moon has been linked to crime, suicide, mental illness, disasters, accidents, birthrates, fertility, and werewolves, among other things. Some people even buy and sell stocks according to phases of the moon, a method probably as successful as many others. Numerous studies have tried to find lunar effects. So far, the studies have failed to establish much of interest. Lunar effects that have been found have little or nothing to do with human behavior, e.g., the discovery of a slight effect of the moon on global temperature,* which in turn might have an effect on the growth of plants. Of course, there have been single studies here and there that have found correlations between various phases of the moon and this or that phenomenon, but nothing significant has been replicated sufficiently to warrant claiming a probable causal relationship.

Ivan Kelly, James Rotton and Roger Culver (1996) examined over 100 studies on lunar effects and concluded that the studies have failed to show a reliable and significant correlation (i.e., one not likely due to chance) between the full moon, or any other phase of the moon.

If so many studies have failed to prove a significant correlation between the full moon and anything, why do so many people believe in these lunar myths? Kelly, Rotton, and Culver suspect four factors: media effects, folklore and tradition, misconceptions, and cognitive biases. A fifth factor should be considered, as well: communal reinforcement.

Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The near side of the Moon is the lunar hemisphere that is permanently turned towards the Earth, and as such the side which is always seen. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... The orbit of the Moon around the Earth is completed in approximately 27. ...

## References

1. ^ Roger W. Sinnott (1993). "How Long Is a Lunar Month?". Sky & Telescope: 76-77.
2. ^ Variation in number of days between full moons.
3. ^ Calendar showing phases of the moon for February 2018, moon-phases.net
4. ^ Jean Meeus (1991). "47. Phases of the Moon", Astronomical Algorithms (1st ed.). ISBN 0-943396-35-2.
5. ^ "Full Moon Effect On Behavior Minimal, Studies Say", National Geographic Society, February 6, 2004.
6. ^ Blackburn, Bonnie; Leofranc Holford Strevens (1999). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-214231-3.
7. ^ Reingold, Edward M.; Nachum Dershowitz (2001). Calendrical Calculations - the millennium edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77752-6.
8. ^ Full Moon Names and Their Meanings. The Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved on March 16, 2006.

Jean Meeus (born 1928) is a Belgian astronomer specializing in celestial mechanics. ... Farmers Almanac is a reference book used by farmers to determine astronomical positions. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Full Moon Names and Their Meanings (900 words) Full Moon names date back to Native Americans, of what is now the northern and eastern United States. To the settlers, it was also known as the Lenten Moon, and was considered to be the last full Moon of winter. • Full Harvest Moon - September This is the full Moon that occurs closest to the autumn equinox.
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