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Encyclopedia > Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar
Fulgencio Batista

In office
10 October 1940 – 10 October 1944
Vice President Gustavo Cuervo Rubio
Preceded by Federico Laredo Brú
Succeeded by Ramón Grau

In office
10 March 1952 – 1 January 1959
Preceded by Carlos Prío Socarrás
Succeeded by Anselmo Alliegro y Milá

Born 16 January 1901
Banes, Cuba
Died 6 August 1973
Guadalmina, Spain[1]
Nationality Flag of Cuba Cuban
Political party United Action Party, Progressive Action Party
Spouse 1st Elisa Godinez-Gómez
2nd Marta Fernandez Miranda de Batista
Children Mirta Caridad Batista Godinez
Elisa Aleida Batista Godinez
Fulgencio Rubén Batista Godinez
Jorge Batista Fernández
Roberto Francisco Batista Fernández

General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (pronounced [fulˈxensjo βaˈtista i salˈdiβar]; January 16, 1901August 6, 1973) was a Cuban military officer, dictator and politician. The President of Cuba is the Head of State of Cuba. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Federico Laredo Brú served as President of Cuba from 1936 to 1940, though during his tenure, true power was concentrated in the hands of Army Chief of Staff Fulgencio Batista. ... Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín (1882-1969) was a Cuban revolutionary leader who led a successful student-labor uprising against the unpopular regime of Gerardo Machado in 1933. ... The President of Cuba is the Head of State of Cuba. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 - April 5, 1977) was President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held [1]. // Youth Prio was born in Bahía... Anselmo Alliegro Mila (1899 - 1961) was the Acting President of Cuba for one day (January 1 - January 2, 1959) after the departure of General Fulgencio Batista from the country. ... Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES) is an English unitary local government authority that was created on April 1, 1996 following the abolition of Avon County Council, and is an administrative county in its own right. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Batista was the de facto military leader of Cuba from 1933 to 1940 and the de jure President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944 after having won an election. After staging a successful coup in 1952, Batista ran unopposed in an election in 1954, and ruled the nation until handing over power on the last day of 1958 due to an opposition insurgency that was part of Fidel Castro's guerrilla movement, and was a significant event in the Cuban Revolution. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Cuba is the Head of State of Cuba. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...

Contents

Youth and the Revolution of 1933

Fulgencio was born in Banes, Holguín Province, in 1901 to Belisario Batista Palermo[2] and Carmela Zaldívar González, Cubans who fought for independence from Spain. His mother named him Rubén and gave him her last name, Zaldívar. His father did not want to register him as a Batista. In the registration records of the Banes courthouse he was legally Rubén Zaldívar until 1939, when, as Fulgencio Batista, he became a presidential candidate, but it was discovered that this name did not exist. It's alleged that a judge was paid off 15,000 Cuban pesos (about 15,000 U.S. dollars at the time) to fix the discrepancy.[3] Banes is a municipality and city in the Holguín Province of Cuba. ... Holguín is one of the provinces of Cuba, the second most populous after Ciudad de la Habana. ...


Of very humble origins, Batista began working from an early age. A self-educated man, he attended nightschool and is said to have been a voracious reader. Batista was considered socially a mulatto (mixed African and European blood), although other sources state that he was in fact a mestizo, having European (Sicilian) and native American Taino blood, most of which lived in remote areas of Oriente province. He bought a ticket to Havana and joined the army in 1921.[4] Sergeant Batista was the union leader of Cuba's soldiers, and the leader of the 1933 "Sergeants' Revolt" that replaced the provisional government of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada, at the request of the coalition that had recently ousted President Gerardo Machado. It is generally conceded that U.S. Special Envoy Sumner Welles approved of this since it was a fait accompli. Céspedes was a well-respected civil engineer and the most successful minister in the Machado government but lacked a political coalition that could sustain him. Initially a presidency composed of five members, one each from the anti-Machado coalition, was created, but within days the representative for the students and professors of the University of Havana, Ramón Grau, was made president and Batista became the Army Chief of Staff, with the rank of colonel, and effectively controlled the presidency [5]. The majority of the commissioned officer corps was "forcefully retired"; some speculate that they were executed.[6] Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... Statistics Capital: Santiago de Cuba Area: 6,170km² Inhabitants: 1,016,600 Population Density: 164. ... Carlos Manuel de Cespedes y Quesada (August 12, 1871 in New York City, New York - March 28, 1939, in Vedado, Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban writer, politician, diplomat, and President of Cuba. ... Gerardo Machado, Time, 1933 Gerardo Machado (y Morales) (28 September 1871, Camajani – 29 March 1939, Miami Beach, Florida) was a Cuban general of Cuban War of Independence and the 5th president of Cuba. ... Sumner Welles (October 14, 1892 – 1961) was Under Secretary of State in US 1937-1943 during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in Havana, Cuba. ... Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín (1882-1969) was a Cuban revolutionary leader who led a successful student-labor uprising against the unpopular regime of Gerardo Machado in 1933. ...


During this period, Batista violently suppressed a number of attempts to defeat his control. This included the quashing of an uprising in the ancient Atarés fort (Havana) by Blas Hernández, a rural guerrilla who had fought Machado. Many of those who surrendered were executed. Another attempt was the attack on the Hotel Nacional in which former army officers of the Cuban Olympic rifle team (including one Enrique Ros, father of US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen) put up stiff resistance until being defeated. There were many other often minor and almost unrecorded attempted revolts against Batista that were bloodily suppressed. These minor revolts included one in Guamá, a place in the Sierra Maestra, south of Guisa, where the followers of an anti-Batista guerrilla leader known as Gamboa (apparently a member, or former member, of the Antonio Guiteras anti-Machado guerrillas) were defeated and dispersed. This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Musicians at the Hotel Nacional, Havana. ... Enrique Ros is the author of Revolucion de 1933 en Cuba and other books. ... Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (also known as Ileana Ros; born July 15, 1952) is a Republican United States Representative for Floridas 18th congressional district (map), having held that office since 1989. ... Sierra Maestra is a mountain range that runs westward across the south of the old Oriente Province from what is now Guantánamo Province to Niquero [1] in southeast Cuba, rising abruptly from the coast. ... Antonio Guiteras Holmes (born 22 November 1906 in Philadelphia – died 8 May 1935) was a leading politician in Cuba during the 1930s. ...


Grau was president for just over 100 days before Batista forced him to resign in January 1934. He was replaced by Carlos Mendieta y Montefur and within five days the U.S. recognised Cuba's new government, which lasted 11 months. Succeeding governments were led by José Barnet y Vinajeras (5 months) and Miguel Mariano Gómez (7 months) before Federico Laredo Brú managed to rule from December 1936 to October 1940. Carlos Mendieta y Montefur (1873-1960) was a Cuban politician. ... José Agripino Barnet y Vinagres (1864 - 1945) was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba from December 11 1935 to May 20 1936. ... Miguel Mariano Gómez y Arias (October 6, 1889 - October 26, 1950), was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba for seven months in 1936. ... Dr. Federico Laredo Brú served as President of Cuba from 1936 to 1940, though during his tenure, true power was concentrated in the hands of Army Chief of Staff Fulgencio Batista. ...


Batista was well liked by American interests, who had feared Grau's socialistic reforms and saw him as a stabilizing force with respect for American interests. It was in this time period that Batista formed a renowned friendship and business relationship with gangster Meyer Lansky that lasted over three decades. Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983) was an American gangster who, with Charles Lucky Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate in the United States. ...


Through Lansky, the Mafia knew they had a friend in Cuba. Gangster Lucky Luciano, after being deported to Italy in 1946, went to Havana with a false passport. A summit at Havana's Hotel Nacional, with mobsters such as Frank Costello, Vito Genovese, Santo Trafficante, Jr., Moe Dalitz, and others, confirmed Luciano's authority over the U.S. mob and coincided with Frank Sinatra's singing debut in Havana. It was here that Lansky gave permission to kill Bugsy Siegel for skimming construction money from the Flamingo hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, USA, near Las Vegas. This article is about the criminal society. ... Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Frank Costello, born Francesco Castiglia, or Castilla (January 26, 1891 - February 18, 1973) was an American gangster who rose to the top of Americas underworld, controlled a vast gambling empire across the United States and had political influence like no other La Cosa Nostra boss. ... Vito Don Brandon Genovese (November 27, 1897 – February 14, 1969) was a mafioso who rose to power in America during the Castellammarese War to later become leader of the Genovese crime family. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Joyous (talk) 19:37, July 18, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Benjamin Bugsy Siegel (Bairush HaLevi Bar Mordechai Dov HaLevi) (February 28, 1906 – June 20, 1947) was an American gangster, who was behind large-scale development of Las Vegas. ... The Flamingo Las Vegas is a hotel casino located on the famed Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is owned and operated by Harrahs Entertainment. ... The south end of The Strip; approximately one third of the entire Strip is represented here. ... Looking west toward Paradise Road and the Las Vegas Strip in the CDP of Paradise, Nevada Paradise is a census-designated place located in Clark County, Nevada. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...


Many of Batista's enemies faced the same fate as the ambitious Siegel. One of his most bitter opponents, Antonio Guiteras (founder of the student group Joven Cuba) was gunned down by government forces in 1935 while waiting for a boat in Matanzas province. Others just seemed to disappear into thin air. Antonio Guiteras Holmes (born 22 November 1906 in Philadelphia – died 8 May 1935) was a leading politician in Cuba during the 1930s. ... Matanzas is the capital of the Cuban Province Matanzas. ...


Term as President (1940-44)

Batista's chance to sit in the president's chair came in 1940. Supported by a coalition of political parties, which included the old Cuban Communist Party, he defeated his rival Grau in the first presidential election under the new Cuban constitution.


During his presidency, trade relations with the U.S. increased, and a series of war taxes was imposed on the Cuban population. Following Grau's election in 1944, Cuba experienced its first peaceful transfer of power in two decades.


Term as a Senator and the 1952 Elections

While living luxuriously in Daytona Beach, Florida, Batista ran for and won a seat in the Cuban Senate in 1948. Four years later, he ran for president, but a poll published in the December 1951 issue of the popular magazine "Bohemia" showed him in last place. Not expected to win, Batista staged a coup. Daytona redirects here. ...


The 1952 election was a three way race. Roberto Agramonte of the Ortodoxos party led in all the polls, followed by Dr. Carlos Hevia of the Auténtico party, and running a distant third was Batista, who was seeking a return to office. Both front runners, Agramonte and Hevia in their own camps, had decided to name Col. Ramón Barquín, who was then serving as the Cuban military attache in Washington, D.C. from 1850 until 1956,[7] to head the Cuban Armed Forces after the elections. Barquín was a top officer who commanded the respect of the professional army and had promised to eliminate corruption in the ranks. Batista feared that Barquín would oust him and his followers, and when it became apparent that Batista had little chance of winning, he staged a coup on March 10, 1952 and held power with the backing of a nationalist section of the army as a “provisional president” for the next two years. Justo Carrillo told Barquín in Washington in March 1952 that the inner circles knew that Batista had aimed the coup at him; they immediately began to conspire to oust Batista and reestablish the democracy and civilian government in what was later dubbed La Conspiración de los Puros de 1956 (Agrupación Montecristi). Roberto Agramonte (born Roberto Daniel Agramonte y Pichardo in 1904 - 1995) was a philosopher and Cuban politician. ... Carlos Hevia (1900 1964) was a Cuban politician. ... A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Second Coup

The Coup and the Constitution of 1940

On March 10, 1952, almost twenty years after the Revolt of the Sergeants, Batista took over the government once more, this time against elected Cuban president Carlos Prío Socarrás. The coup took place three months before the upcoming elections that he was sure to lose. Fidel Castro, at the time a young attorney, also ran in that election for a different position. On March 27 Batista's government was formally recognised by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 - April 5, 1977) was President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held [1]. // Youth Prio was born in Bahía... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...

Shortly after this recognition, Batista declared that, although he was completely loyal to Cuba's constitution of 1940, constitutional guarantees would have to be temporarily suspended, as well as the right to strike. In April, writes Hugh Thomas in The Cuban Revolution, "Batista proclaimed a new constitutional code of 275 articles, claiming that the 'democratic and progressive essence' of the 1940 Constitution was preserved in the new law."


The gambling sector

Batista opened the way for large-scale gambling in Havana. He announced that his government would match, dollar for dollar, any hotel investment over $1 million, which would include a casino license. Havana became the "Latin Las Vegas," a playground of choice for many gamblers. All opposition was swiftly and violently crushed, and many began to fear the new government.[citation needed]


In 1956, in midst of the revolutionary upheaval, the 21-story, 440-room Hotel Riviera was built in Havana at a cost of $14 million. It was known as mobster Meyer Lansky's dream and crowning achievement.[citation needed] The hotel opened on December 10, with a floor show headlined by Ginger Rogers. Lansky's official title was "kitchen director," but he controlled every aspect of the hotel. Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983) was an American gangster who, with Charles Lucky Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate in the United States. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ginger Rogers (Virginia Katherine McMath, July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress and singer. ...

Political unrest and the revolution of 1959

Just over a year after Batista's second coup, a small group of revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago on July 26, 1953. The rebellion was easily crushed. Many who led the revolt died, and Fidel Castro was jailed, along with others involved. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba, some 540 miles (869 km) east south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Due to growing popular opposition and unrest, manifested by the Cuban people with increasing acts of civil disobedience, and in order to appease the growing concerns in Washington, DC, Batista held an election in 1954 in which he was the only legal candidate. Without opposition, he obviously won, becoming president of Cuba in 1954, prompting yet more waves of civil unrest.


The distinguished Colonel Cosme de la Torriente, a surviving veteran of the Cuban War of Independence, emerged in late 1955 to offer compromise. A series of meetings led by de la Torriente became known as "El Diálogo Cívico" (the civic dialogue). Writes Hugh Thomas: "This Diálogo Cívico represented what turned out to be the last hope for Cuban middle-class democracy, but Batista was far too strong and entrenched in his position to make any concessions."


On May 15, 1955, Batista unexpectedly released Fidel Castro and the remaining survivors of the Moncada attack, hoping to dissuade some of his critics. Within weeks it was rumoured that Batista's military police were out to kill Castro, prompting him to flee to Mexico and plan for revolution. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Havana Post, expressing the attitude of the U.S. business community after a survey of the four years of Batista's second reign, alluded to the disappearance of gangsterism and said: 'All in all, the Batista regime has much to commend it." Hugh Thomas disagrees with that commentary. "In a way," Thomas writes, "Batista's golpe formalized gangsterism: the machine gun in the big car became the symbol not only of settling scores but of an approaching change of government."


By late 1955, student riots and anti-Batista demonstrations had become frequent. These were dealt with in the violent manner his military police had come to represent. Students attempting to march from the University of Havana were stopped and beaten by the police, and student leader José A. Echeverría had to be hospitalized. Another popular student leader was killed on December 10, leading to a funeral that became a gigantic political protest with a 5-minute nationwide work stoppage. The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in Havana, Cuba. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Instead of loosening his grip, Batista suspended constitutional guarantees and established tighter censorship of the media. His military police would patrol the streets and pick up anyone suspected of insurrection. By the end of 1955 they had grown more prone to violent acts of brutality and torture, with no fear of legal repercussions.


In March 1956, Batista refused to consider a proposal calling for elections by the end of the year. He was confident that he could defeat any revolutionary attempt from the many factions who opposed him.


In April 1956, Batista had given the orders for Barquín to become General and Chief of the Army.[7] But it was too late. Even after Barquín was informed, he decided to move forward with the coup to rescue the morale of the armed forces and the Cuban people. On April 6, 1956, a coup by hundreds of career officers led by Colonel Barquín (then Vice Chair of the Inter-American Defense Board in Washington, DC and Cuban Military Attache of Sea, Air and Land to the United States[7]) was frustrated by Lieutenant Ríos Morejón, who betrayed the plan. The failed coup attempt broke the backbone of the Cuban armed forces when Batista tried in vain to negotiate the denial of the so-called conspiracy. The officers were sentenced to the maximum terms allowed by Cuban martial law. Barquín was sentenced to solitary confinement for 8 years on the Isle of Pines. [7] La Conspiración de los Puros resulted in the imprisonment of the top commanders of the armed forces and the closing of the military academies. Barquín was the founder of La Escuela Superior de Guerra (Cuba's war college) and past director of La Escuela de Cadetes (Cuba's military academy). Without Barquín's officers the army could not sustain a fight against Fidel Castro, who landed in western Cuba just eight months after the coup attempt. [7][8] is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Inter-American Defense Board is a military War College maintained by the Organization of American States whose purpose is to educate and promote the common military defense of the Western Hemisphere. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The name Isle of Pines can refer to more than one thing: The former name for the Isle of Youth, Cuba The Isle of Pines, an island off New Caledonia The Isle of Pines (1668) is a book by Henry Neville. ...


Batista continued to rule without concerns, even after the landing of the Granma in December of 1956 (which brought the Castro brothers back to Cuba along with Che Guevara marking the start of the armed conflict). Granma is the yacht that was used to transport the fighters of the Cuban Revolution to Cuba in 1956. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ...


Due to its continued opposition to Batista, the University of Havana was temporarily closed on November 30, 1956. (It would not reopen until early 1959, after a revolutionary victory.) Echeverría was killed by police after a radio broadcast on March 13, 1957. The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in Havana, Cuba. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Another election in 1958 placed Andrés Rivero Agüero in the president's chair, but losing the support of the U.S. government meant his days in power were numbered. Andrés Rivero Agüero (1905-1997) was the last person to be elected President of Cuba in a multiparty election. ...


On January 1, 1959, after formally resigning his position in Cuba's government and going through what historian Hugh Thomas describes as "a charade of handing over power" to his representatives, remaining family and closest associates boarded a plane at 3 a.m. at Camp Colombia and flew to Ciudad Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 in Windsor), is a British historian. ... ...


Throughout the night various flights out of Camp Colombia took Batista's friends and high officials to Miami, New York, New Orleans and Jacksonville. Batista's brother Francisco "Panchín" Batista, governor of Havana, left several hours later, and Meyer Lansky was also flown out that night. There was no provision made for the thousands of other Cubans who had worked with Batista's regime. This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article is about the state. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ...


Aftermath

Batista later moved to Madeira, then Estoril, outside Lisbon, Portugal, where he lived and wrote books the rest of his life. He was also the Chairman of a Spanish Life Insurance company which invested in property and mortgages on the Spanish Riviera. He died of a heart attack on August 6, 1973 at Guadalmina, near Marbella, Spain.[9] For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Estoril Beach Estoril is a civil parish of the Portuguese municipality of Cascais. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... For the automobile, see SEAT Marbella. ...


He was married to Elisa Godinez-Gómez (1905-?) on July 10, 1926 and they had three children, Mirta Caridad (April 1927), Elisa Aleida (1933), and Fulgencio Rubén Batista Godinez (1933-2007 [10]). He later married Marta Fernandez Miranda de Batista (1920-2006) and they had Jorge and Roberto Francisco Batista Fernández. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marta Fernandez Miranda de Batista, Batista's widow, died on October 2, 2006.[11] Roberto Batista, her son, says that she died at her West Palm Beach home. [12] She had suffered from Alzheimer's disease[12] and had a heart attack on September 8, 2006.[citation needed] Batista was buried with her husband in San Isidro Cemetery in Madrid after a mass in West Palm Beach. is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... West Palm Beach is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Raoul G. Cantero, III, born in Spain, naturalized in the US, a graduate of Harvard Law School, a Justice on the Florida Supreme Court, is the grandson of Fulgencio Batista. Raoul G. Cantero, III (b. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


See also

Cuba Portal 

Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...

Books written by Batista

  • 1939: Estoy con el Pueblo [I am With the People]. Havana.
  • 1960: Repuesta. Manuel León Sánchez S.C.L., Mexico City.
  • 1961: Piedras y leyes [Stones and Laws]. Mexico City.
  • 1962: Cuba Betrayed. Vantage Press, New York ASIN B0007DEH9A
  • 1962: To Rule is to Foresee ASIN B0007IYHK4
  • 1964: The Growth and Decline of the Cuban Republic. (Blas M. Rocafort trans.) Devin-Adair Company, New York. ISBN 0-8159-5614-2
  • unfinished autobiography and archive in the University of Miami’s Cuban Heritage Collection [1]

The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ...

Bibliography on Batista

  • Argote-Freyre, Frank. Fulgencio Batista: Volume 1, From Revolutionary to Strongman. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, New Jersey. ISBN 0-8135-3701-0. 2006.
  • Chester, Edmund A. A Sergeant Named Batista. Holt. ASIN B0007DPO1U. 1954.
  • Gellman, Irwin F. Roosevelt and Batista: Good neighbor diplomacy in Cuba, 1933-1945. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. ISBN 0-8263-0284-X. 1973.
  • Valdés Sánchez, Servando Fulgencio Batista: El poder de las armas (1933-1940) Editora Historia, SBN 597048051. 1998

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History of the era

  • Carrillo, Justo 1985 Cuba 1933: Estudiantes, Yanquis y Soldados. University of Miami Iberian Studies Institute ISBN 0-935501-00-2 Transaction Publishers (January 1994) ISBN 1-56000-690-0
  • Fernández, Julio César 1940 Yo acuso a Batista. Construyendo a Cuba. Havana
  • Kapcia A. 2002. The Siege of the Hotel Nacional, Cuba, 1933: A Reassessment. Journal of Latin American Studies, 34, 283-309.
  • Phillips, R Hart 1935 Cuban side show. Cuban Press, Havana 2nd edition. ASIN B000860P60
  • Phillips, R Hart. 1959 Cuba, Island of Paradox. McDowell Obolensky, New York, NY ASIN B0007E0OAU
  • Phillips, R Hart. 1960 Cuba Island of Paradise 1960 Astor-Honor Inc, ISBN 0-8392-5012-6
  • Phillips, Ruby Hart 1961 The Tragic Island: How Communism Came to Cuba. Englewood Cliffs, NJ
  • Phillips, R Hart. 1962 The Cuban dilemma McDowell Obolensky, New York, NY Library of Congress number 6218787
  • Smith, Earl T. 1962 (1991 edition) The Fourth Floor. Selous Foundation Press, Washington DC. ISBN 0-944273-06-8
  • Hugh Thomas Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom (Paperback) Da Capo Press; Updated edition (April, 1998) ISBN 0-306-80827-7
  • Welles, Sumner 1944 The time for decision Harper & brothers ASIN B0006AQB0M
  • Argote-Freyre, Frank Fulgencio Bastista: From Revolutionary to Strongman, Rutgers University Press (April 2006) ISBN 0-8135-3701-0
  • Otero, Juan Joaquin (1954). Libro De Cuba, Una Enciclopedia Ilustrada Que Abarca Las Artes, Las Letras, Las Ciencias, La Economia, La Politica, La Historia, La Docencia, Y ElProgreso General De La Nacion Cubana - Edicion Conmemorative del Cincuentenario de la Republica de Cuba, 1902-1952.  (Spanish)

The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 in Windsor), is a British historian. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ...

References

  1. ^ Batista y Zaldívar, Fulgencio by Aimee Estill, Historical Text Archive.
  2. ^ "Mambí Army" Data Base
  3. ^ His given name was Rubén Zaldivar (Spanish)
  4. ^ La piel de la memoria by René Dayre Abella.
  5. ^ Argote-Freyre, Frank. Fulgencio Batista: Volume 1, From Revolutionary to Strongman. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, New Jersey. ISBN 0-8135-3701-0. 2006
  6. ^ Argote-Freyre, Frank. Fulgencio Batista: Volume 1, From Revolutionary to Strongman. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, New Jersey. ISBN 0-8135-3701-0. 2006
  7. ^ a b c d e Sullivan, Patricia. "Ramón M. Barquín, 93; Led Failed '56 Coup in Cuba", Washington Post, 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 
  8. ^ DePalma, Anthony. "Ramón Barquín, Cuban Colonel, Dies at 93", New York Times, 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 
  9. ^ "Batista Dies in Spain at 72", New York Times, August 7, 1973. 
  10. ^ Son of former Cuban leader dies
  11. ^ O'Meilia, Tim. "Widow of Cuban dictator Batista dies in WPB", Palm Beach Post, 2006-10-04. Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 
  12. ^ a b "Widow of Cuban strongman Batista dies", United Press International, 2006-10-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 
Preceded by
Federico Laredo
President of Cuba
1940 – 1944
Succeeded by
Ramón Grau
Preceded by
Carlos Prío
President of Cuba
1952 – 1959
Succeeded by
Anselmo Alliegro
... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palm Beach Post is a major daily newspaper in Florida, serving mainly Palm Beach, Martin, and St. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Dr. Federico Laredo Brú served as President of Cuba from 1936 to 1940, though during his tenure, true power was concentrated in the hands of Army Chief of Staff Fulgencio Batista. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Cuba. ... Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín was a Cuban revolutionary leader who led a successful student-labor uprising against the unpopular regime of Gerardo Machado in 1933. ... Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 - April 5, 1977) was President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Cuba. ... Anselmo Alliegro was the Acting President of Cuba for one day (January 1 - January 2, 1959) after the departure of General Fulgencio Batista from the country. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Cuba. ... Tomás Estrada Palma (1835 - 1908) was a Cuban political figure, [[1]]. He served as the first president of Cuba between 1902 and 1906. ... José Miguel Gómez was a general in the Cuban War of Independence who went on to become an important politician. ... Mario García Menocal, c. ... Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso (February 21, 1861 in Havana, Cuba - April 11, 1934) was a Cuban lawyer, poet and political figure. ... Gerardo Machado, Time, 1933 Gerardo Machado (y Morales) (28 September 1871, Camajani – 29 March 1939, Miami Beach, Florida) was a Cuban general of Cuban War of Independence and the 5th president of Cuba. ... Carlos Manuel de Cespedes y Quesada (August 12, 1871 in New York City, New York - March 28, 1939, in Vedado, Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban writer, politician, diplomat, and President of Cuba. ... José M. Irisari, Porfirio Franca, Guillermo Portela, Ramon Grau, and Sergio Carbó “The Pentarchy” with Fulgencio Batista taken in 1933 Pentarchy of 1933 (also known as the Executive Commission of the Provisional Government of Cuba) was a coalition that ruled Cuba from September 5 to September 10, 1933 after Gerardo... Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín (1882-1969) was a Cuban revolutionary leader who led a successful student-labor uprising against the unpopular regime of Gerardo Machado in 1933. ... Carlos Hevia (1900 1964) was a Cuban politician. ... Manuel Márquez Sterling (born Carlos Manuel Agustin Márquez Sterling y Loret de Mola on August 28, 1872 in Lima, Peru - December 9, 1934 in Washington, DC) was a Cuban diplomat and President of Cuba for a few hours on January 18, 1934. ... Carlos Mendieta y Montefur (1873-1960) was a Cuban politician and Provisional President of Cuba. ... José Agripino Barnet y Vinagres (1864 - 1945) was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba from December 11 1935 to May 20 1936. ... Miguel Mariano Gómez y Arias (October 6, 1889 - October 26, 1950), was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba for seven months in 1936. ... Dr. Federico Laredo Brú served as President of Cuba from 1936 to 1940, though during his tenure, true power was concentrated in the hands of Army Chief of Staff Fulgencio Batista. ... Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín (1882-1969) was a Cuban revolutionary leader who led a successful student-labor uprising against the unpopular regime of Gerardo Machado in 1933. ... Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 - April 5, 1977) was President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held [1]. // Youth Prio was born in Bahía... Anselmo Alliegro Mila (1899 - 1961) was the Acting President of Cuba for one day (January 1 - January 2, 1959) after the departure of General Fulgencio Batista from the country. ... Carlos Manuel Piedra held the presidency of Cuba for a single day (January 2, 1959) during the transition of power between Fulgencio Batista and revolutionary leader Fidel Castro. ... Manuel Urrutia Lleó (1901 - 1981) was a Cuban political figure. ... Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado (April 17, 1919-June 23, 1983) was a Cuban political figure, and served as president of Cuba from July 17, 1959 until December 2, 1976, afterwhich Fidel Castro became president. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... This article is about the Cuban politician. ... Dr. Andrés Domingo y Morales del Castillo (September 4,1892 in Santiago de Cuba -1979) was a Cuban jurist, Senator (1944-1952), politician, government minister and interim President of Cuba. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Cuba from 1940 to the present. ... Carlos Saladrigas Zayas (born Carlos Eduardo Ramon Saladrigas y Zayas on October 13, 1900 in Havana, Cuba - 1957) was a Cuban politician and diplomat. ... Ramón Zaydín y Márquez Sterling (1895-1968) was a Cuban politician and Prime Minister of Cuba. ... Anselmo Alliegro Mila (1899 - 1961) was the Acting President of Cuba for one day (January 1 - January 2, 1959) after the departure of General Fulgencio Batista from the country. ... Félix Lancís Sánchez (November 20, 1900 - 1976 in Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban politician and Prime Minister of Cuba. ... Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 - April 5, 1977) was President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held [1]. // Youth Prio was born in Bahía... Manuel Antonio de Varona y Loredo (November 25, 1908 in Cuba - October 29, 1992 in Miami, Florida, USA) was a Cuban lawyer and politician. ... Félix Lancís Sánchez (November 20, 1900 - 1976 in Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban politician and Prime Minister of Cuba. ... Óscar B. Gans y López Martínez (1903-1965) was a Cuban attorney and politician. ... Dr. Jorge García Montes y Hernandez (April 23, 1896 in New York City, New York - 1982) was a Cuban lawyer and politician. ... Andrés Rivero Agüero (1905-1997) was the last person to be elected President of Cuba in a multiparty election. ... Emilio Núñez Portuondo (September 13, 1898 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA - August 19, 1978 in Panama) was a Cuban politician, lawyer, and diplomat. ... Gonzalo Güell y Morales de los Ríos (1895 - 1985) was Foreign Minister of Cuba from 1956 to 1959 and Prime Minister of Cuba from March 12, 1958 to January 1, 1959. ... José Miró Cardona in a Time Magazine cover. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
LA NUEVA CUBA (6373 words)
Batista's decision to release Castro and other political prisoners was made on the premise that the restoration of constitutional processes constituted a return to normality and that his political opponents would consequently take the opportunity to oppose him within the constitutional parameters.
Batista took some of the guests with him and his wife (their children had already secretly left the country) as there were planes held in reserve (with pilots) on the estate, which had a special runway.
Batista's Final Exile Taking initial refuge in the neighboring Dominican Republic, Batista attempted to organise an invasion of Cuba (this project is not to be confused with the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961) but when the scheme fell through in August 1959, Batista and his family departed for Portugal.
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