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Encyclopedia > Fugue

In music, a fugue (IPA: [fjuːg]) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as "voices", irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental.[1] In the Middle Ages, the term was widely used to denote any works in canonic style; by the Renaissance, it had come to denote specifically imitative works.[2] Since the 17th Century[3] the term fugue has described what is commonly regarded as the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. A fugue opens with one main theme, the subject, which then sounds successively in each voice in imitation; when each voice has entered, the exposition is complete; usually this is followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from previously heard material; further "entries" of the subject then are heard in related keys. Episodes and entries are usually alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned the opening key, or tonic, which is often followed by closing material, the coda.[4] [1] In this sense, fugue is a style of composition, rather than fixed structure. Though there are certain established practices, in writing the exposition for example,[5] composers approach the style with varying degrees of freedom and individuality. // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to show pronounciation in English. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... A musical composition is a piece of original music designed for repeated performance (as opposed to strictly improvisational music, in which each performance is unique). ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Tonic may mean: A concept from musical harmony and musical theory: see Tonic (music); A carbonated beverage flavoured with quinine, used in cocktails: see Tonic water. ... Look up coda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The form evolved during the 17th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias.[6] Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dietrich Buxtehude (1637–1707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706) contributed greatly to the development of the fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).[6] With the decline of sophisticated contrapuntal styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's popularity as a compositional style waned, eventually giving way to Sonata form.[7] Nevertheless, composers from the 1750s to the present day continue to write and study fugue for various purposes; they appear in the works of Mozart (e.g. Kyrie Eleison of the Requiem in D minor)[7] and Beethoven (e.g. the finale of the Missa Solemnis),[7] and many composers such as Anton Reicha (1770–1836) and Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975) wrote cycles of fugues.[8] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A ricercar (or ricercare; the terms are interchangeable) is a type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition. ... A capriccio or caprice is a piece of music, usually fairly free in form and of a lively character. ... Canzona (also canzone) is a poetic form, and a type of musical composition. ... The fantasia (also English fantasy, German fantasie, French fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Diderik Hansen Buxtehude (ca. ... Johann Pachelbel (IPA: []) (baptized September 1, 1653 – March 3, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... Anton Reichas monument at Père Lachaise, Paris Anton (or Antonin or Antoine) Reicha (or Rejcha) (February 26, 1770 – May 28, 1836) was a Czech-born naturalized French composer, a flautist in his youth, and an influential theorist. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ...


The English term fugue originates in the 16th century and is derived from either the French or Italian fuga, which in turn comes from Latin, also fuga, which is itself related to both fugere (‘to flee’) and fugare, (‘to chase’).[9] The adjectival form is fugal.[10] Variants include fughetta (literally, 'a small fugue') and fugato (a passage in fugal style within another work that is not a fugue).[1]

Contents

Musical outline

A fugue begins with what is known as the exposition and is characteristically written according to certain predefined rules; in later portions the composer has somewhat more freedom, though a logical key structure is usually followed, and further "entries" of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time. The various entries are usually separated by episodes.


What follows is a chart displaying a fairly typical fugal outline, and a detailed explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure, with examples.

Example of Key/Entry Structure, in a Three Voice Baroque Fugue
Exposition 1st Middle-Entry 2nd Middle-Entry Final Entries in Tonic
Tonic Dom. T (D-redundant entry) Relative Maj/Min Dom. of Rel. Subdom. T T
Sop. Subj. CS1 C
O
D
E
T
T
A
CS2 A E
P
I
S
O
D
E
CS1 CS2 E
P
I
S
O
D
E
S E
P
I
S
O
D
E
CS1 Free Counterpoint C
O
D
A
Alto Ans. CS1 CS2 S CS1 CS2 S CS1
Bass S CS1 CS2 A CS1 CS2 S

The Exposition

A fugue begins with the exposition of its subject sounding in one of the voices alone in the tonic key.[11] After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters with the the subject transposed to the dominant, which is known as the answer. Sometimes the answer is the tonic or subdominant (see J.S.Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, and the opening fugato of the Partita No 2 in C minor, BWV 826); to avoid disturbing the sense of key, it may also have to be altered slightly. When the answer is an exact transposition of the subject to the dominant, it is classified as a real answer; if it has to be altered in any way it is a tonal answer. [11] The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is the name of two different pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach for the organ: BWV 538 and BWV 565. ... The Partitas for keyboard (BWV 825–830) refer to a set of six suites written by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach for harpsichord and are the last of Bachs 18 suites for keyboard, the others being the 6 English Suites (BWV 806-811) and the 6 French Suites...

Example of a tonal answer in J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 16 in G minor, BWV 861, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. ( Listen ) The first note of the subject, D, (in red) is a prominent dominant note, demanding that the first note of the answer (in blue) sounds as the tonic, G, rather than A.
Example of a tonal answer in J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 16 in G minor, BWV 861, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. ( Image:Loudspeaker.png Listen )
The first note of the subject, D, (in red) is a prominent dominant note, demanding that the first note of the answer (in blue) sounds as the tonic, G, rather than A.

A tonal answer is usually called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note very close to the beginning of the subject.[11] To prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are also employed for the same reason and tend to occur in specific circumstances: a) when the subject begins with the following scale tones: 5-4-5 or 5-4-3; and b) when subjects themselves modulate to the dominant, in which case, the answer begins in the subdominant, and subsequently modulates to the tonic.[12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixel Image in higher resolution (866 × 197 pixel, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a tonal answer in a fugal exposition. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixel Image in higher resolution (866 × 197 pixel, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a tonal answer in a fugal exposition. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ...


While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was previously heard continues with new material. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject; if this accompanying material is only heard once, it is simply referred to as free counterpoint. Each voice then responds with its own subject or answer in turn, and further countersubjects or free counterpoint may be heard.


When a tonal answer is used, it is customary for the exposition to alternate subjects (S) with answers (A), however, in some fugues this order is occasionally varied: e.g. see the SAAS arrangement of Fugue no.1 in C major, BWV 846, from the Well-Tempered Clavier Book 1 by J.S. Bach. A brief codetta is often heard connecting the various statements of the subject and answer. This allows the music to either a) return to the tonic, following an answer in the dominant, or b) to modulate to the dominant to enable a statement of the answer. Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


The first answer must occur as soon after the initial statement of the subject as possible, therefore the first codetta is often extremely short, and in many cases is not even needed. In the above example this is the case: the subject finishes on the quarter note or crotchet b-flat of the third beat of the second bar which harmonizes the opening G of the answer. The second and later codettas maybe considerably longer, and often serve to a) develop the material heard so far in the subject/answer and countersubject and possibly introduce ideas heard in the second countersubject or free counterpoint that follows b) delay, and therefore heighten the impact of the reentry of the subject in another voice as well as modulating back to the tonic.[13] In music, a quarter note (American) or crotchet (Commonwealth) is played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note. ...


The exposition usually concludes when all voices have given a statement of the subject or answer. In many fugues, however, there is often one more entry of the subject, with all the voices sounding simultaneously, this is known as redundant entry.[11] Furthermore, in some fugues the entry of one of the voices may be reserved until later, for example in the pedals of an Organ Fugue (see J.S. Bach's Fugue in C major for Organ, BWV 547).


The Countersubject(s)

The interval of a fifth inverts to a fourth (dissonant) and therefore cannot be employed in invertible counterpoint, without preparation and resolution.
The interval of a fifth inverts to a fourth (dissonant) and therefore cannot be employed in invertible counterpoint, without preparation and resolution.

The distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding correctly above or below the subject, and must be conceived, therefore, in invertible or double counterpoint.[11][14] In tonal music invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, whilst acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. For example, when the note "G" sounds in one voice above the note "C" in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered consonant and entirely acceptable. When this interval is inverted ("C" in the upper voice above "G" in the lower), it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, and requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if is to be used.[15] Likewise, the use of a 4-3 suspension is somewhat ineffectual in invertible counterpoint; in inversion it becomes 5-6, and since both the fifth and sixth are considered consonant intervals, is not a suspension at all, whereas the 7-6 suspension may be used successfully as it inverts to 2-3. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ... The adjective tonal can refer to: tonality in music a tonal language the opposite of Nagual, in the specific context of Carlos Castaneda, the tonal is what makes the world. ...


When writing invertible countersubjects in a fugue, composers therefore usually restrict themselves to the intervals of the third, which inverts to a sixth, and octaves, which invert to the unison, in addition the careful use of the 7-6 suspension. In music, see the following intervals: Major third Minor third The mediant, and the chord built on the mediant, is often called simply the third, as it is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, see the intervals: Major sixth Minor sixth The submediant, and the chord built on the submediant, is often simply called the sixth as it is the sixth scale degree. ... For the numerical computation software, see GNU Octave. ... For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ...


The Episode

Further entries of the subject follow this initial exposition, either immediately (as for example in Fugue no.1 in C major, BWV 846, WTC Bk 1), but more frequently, separated by episodes.[11] Episodic material is always modulatory and is usually based upon some element heard in the exposition.[11][4] Each episode has primarily the function of modulating for the next entry of the subject in a new key,[11] and may also provide release from the strictness of form employed in the exposition, and middle-entries.[16] Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


The Middle-Entries

Further entries of the subject, or middle entries, occur at various intervals throughout the fugue, must state the subject or answer at least once in its entirety, and may also be heard in combination with the countersubject(s) from in the exposition, new countersubjects, free counterpoint or any of these in combination. It is uncommon for the subject to enter alone in a single voice in the middle-entries just as it is in the exposition; rather it is usually heard with at least one of the countersubjects and/or other free contrapuntal accompaniments. Middle-entries tend to occur in keys other than the tonic - as shown in the typical structure above, these are often closely related keys such as the relative, dominant and subdominant, but key structure of fugues varies greatly. In the fugues of J.S. Bach (see for example fugue no.2 in C Minor, BWV 847, from J.S. Bach's Well-tempered Clavier Book 2, quoted below) the first middle-entry very commonly occurs in the relative major or minor of the work's overall key, and is followed by an entry the dominant of the relative major or minor when the fugue's subject requires a tonal answer. For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


Some fugues may also have one or more counter-expositions, similar to the opening exposition, but the subject is altered in some way:[17] often by inversion although the term is sometimes used synonymously with middle-entry and may also describe the exposition of completely new subjects, as in a double fugue for example. In any of the entries within a fugue the subject may be altered, by inversion, retrograde (a less common form where the entire subject is heard back-to-front) and diminution (the reduction of the subject's rhythmic values by a factor of x) or augmentation (the increase of the subject's rhythmic values by a factor of x).[11] InVersion are a heavy metal band from Essex who came together with the aim to blend the melody of old school metal with the aggression and rhythm of more modern bands. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... Diminution, from Italian diminuimento, is a musical term used to mean different things in the context of melodies and intervals or chords. ... In music and music theory augmentation is the lengthening or widening of rhythms, melodies, intervals, chords. ...


Example and Analysis

The excerpt below, bars 7 - 12 of J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 illustrates the application of most of the characteristics described above. The fugue is for keyboard and in three voices, with regular countersubjects.[4][18] This excerpt opens at last entry of the exposition: the subject is sounding in the bass, the first countersubject in the treble, the second countersubject in the middle-voice. Following this an episode modulates from the tonic to the relative major by means of sequence, in the form of an accompanied canon at the 4th.[19] Arrival in E-flat major is marked by a quasi perfect cadence across the barline, from the last quarter note beat of the first bar to the first beat of the second bar in the second system, and the first middle entry. Here Bach has altered countersubject 2 to accommodate the change of mode.[20] Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ...

Visual Analysis of J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1(bars 7-12)( Listen )
Visual Analysis of J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1(bars 7-12)( Image:Loudspeaker.png Listen )

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 990 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Analysis by Matt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 990 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Analysis by Matt. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Image File history File links Loudspeaker. ...

False entries

At any point in the fugue there may be false entries of the subject, which include the start of the subject but are not completed. False entries are often abbreviated to the head of the subject, and anticipate the "true" entry of the subject, heightening the impact of the subject proper. [21]

Example of a false answer in J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. This passage is bars 6/7, at the end of the codetta before the first entry of the third voice, the bass, in the exposition. The false entry occurs in the alto, and consists of the head of the subject only, marked in red. It anticipates the true entry of the subject, marked in blue, by one quarter-note.
Example of a false answer in J.S. Bach's Fugue no. 2 in C minor, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. This passage is bars 6/7, at the end of the codetta before the first entry of the third voice, the bass, in the exposition. The false entry occurs in the alto, and consists of the head of the subject only, marked in red. It anticipates the true entry of the subject, marked in blue, by one quarter-note.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 201 pixel Image in higher resolution (980 × 246 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a so-called false-entry in J.S. Bachs Fugue no. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 201 pixel Image in higher resolution (980 × 246 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a so-called false-entry in J.S. Bachs Fugue no. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... In music, a quarter note (American) or crotchet (Commonwealth) is played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note. ...

Stretto

Sometimes counter-expositions or the middle entries take place in stretto, whereby one voice responds with the subject/answer before the first voice has completed its entry of the subject/answer, usually increasing the intensity of the music.[22]

Example of stretto fugue in a quotation from Fugue in C major by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer who died in 1746. The subject, including an eigth note rest, is seen in the soprano voice, starting on beat 1 bar 1 and ending on beat 1 bar 3, which is where the answer would usually be expected to begin. As this is a stretto the answer already takes place in the tenor voice, on the third quarter note of the first bar, therefore coming in "early".
Example of stretto fugue in a quotation from Fugue in C major by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer who died in 1746. The subject, including an eigth note rest, is seen in the soprano voice, starting on beat 1 bar 1 and ending on beat 1 bar 3, which is where the answer would usually be expected to begin. As this is a stretto the answer already takes place in the tenor voice, on the third quarter note of the first bar, therefore coming in "early".

Only one entry of the subject must be heard in its completion in a stretto. However, a stretto in which the subject/answer is heard in completion in all voices is known as stretto maestrale or grand stretto.[23]. Strettos may also occur by inversion, augmentation and diminution. A fugue in which the opening exposition takes place in stretto form is known as a close fugue or stretto fugue (see for example, the Gratias agimus tibi and Dona nobis pacem choruses from Bach's Mass in B minor).[24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 227 pixelsFull resolution (1433 × 407 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) Musical quotation from Fugue in C major by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (died 1746). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 227 pixelsFull resolution (1433 × 407 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) Musical quotation from Fugue in C major by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (died 1746). ... Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (some authorities use the spelling Johann Kasper Ferdinand Fischer) (died 1746) was a German Baroque composer. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... The Mass in B Minor (BWV 232) is a work of music by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...

Final entries and Coda

The closing section of a fugue often includes one or two counter-expositions, and possibly a stretto, in the tonic; sometimes over a tonic or dominant pedal note. Any material that follows the final entry of the subject is considered to be the final coda and is normally cadential.[4] Tonic may mean: A concept from musical harmony and musical theory: see Tonic (music); A carbonated beverage flavoured with quinine, used in cocktails: see Tonic water. ... In tonal music, a pedal point (also pedal tone, organ point, or just pedal) is a sustained tone, typically in the bass, during which at least one foreign, i. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ...


Types of Fugue

Double (triple, quadruple) fugue

A double fugue has two subjects that are often developed simultaneously, similarly it follows that a triple fugue has three subjects.[25][26] It is not widely agreed whether a double fugue can be defined as; a) a fugue in which the second subject is presented simultaneously with the subject in the exposition (e.g. as in Kyrie Eleison of Mozart's Requiem in D minor) or; b) a fugue in which the second subject has its own exposition at some later point, and the two subjects are not combined till later (see for example, fugue no. 14 in f-sharp minor from Bach's Well-tempered Clavier Book 2).[25][27] Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


Counter-Fugue

A counter-fugue is a fugue in which the first answer is presented as the subject in inversion, and the inverted subject continues to feature prominently throughout the fugue,[28] as for example in Bach's Art of Fugue, Contrapunctus IV.[29] In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... The Art of Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV1080, is an unfinished work by Johann Sebastian Bach composed in 1748-1749 and published after his death in 1750. ...


Permutation Fugue

Permutation fugue describes a type of composition (or technique of composition) in which elements of fugue and strict canon are combined.[30] Each voice enters in succession with the subject, each entry alternating between tonic and dominant, and each voice, having stated the initial subject, continues by stating two or more themes (or countersubjects), which must be conceived in correct invertible counterpoint. Each voice takes this pattern and states all the subjects/themes in the same order (and repeats the material when all the themes have been stated, sometimes after a rest). There is usually very little non-structural/thematic material. It is common during the course of a permutation fugue for every single possible voice-combination (or 'permutation') of the themes to be heard at some point. One example of permutation fugue can be seen in the opening chorus of Bach’s cantata, Himmelskönig, sei willkommen BWV182. In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ...


Permutation fugues differ from conventional fugue in that there are no connecting episodes, nor statement of the themes in related keys.[30]


History

The term fuga was used as far back as the Middle Ages, but was initially used to refer to any kind of imitative counterpoint, including canons, which are now thought of as distinct from fugues. It was not until the 16th century that fugal technique as it is understood today began to be seen in pieces, both instrumental and vocal. Fugal writing is found in works such as fantasias, ricercares and canzonas. Image File history File links Information. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ...


The fugue arose from the technique of "imitation", where the same musical material was repeated starting on a different note. Originally this was to aid improvisation, but by the 1550s, it was considered a technique of composition. The Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525?-1594) wrote masses using modal counterpoint and imitation, and fugal writing became the basis for writing motets as well. Palestrina's imitative motets differed from fugues in that each phrase of the text had a different subject which was introduced and worked out separately, whereas a fugue continued working with the same subject or subjects throughout the entire length of the piece. Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (4 March 1525 - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of Renaissance music. ... In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ...


Baroque era

It was in the Baroque period that the writing of fugues became central to composition, in part as a demonstration of compositional expertise. Fugues were incorporated into a variety of musical forms. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Johann Jakob Froberger and Dieterich Buxtehude all wrote fugues, and George Frideric Handel included them in many of his oratorios. Keyboard suites from this time often conclude with a fugal gigue. The French overture featured a quick fugal section after a slow introduction. The second movement of a sonata da chiesa, as written by Arcangelo Corelli and others, was usually fugal. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562–October 16, 1621) was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras. ... Girolamo Frescobaldi. ... Johann Jakob Froberger (May 18, 1616 – May 7, 1667) was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist. ... The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, from a 1674 painting by Johannes Voorhout. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... It has been suggested that Suite_de_Danses be merged into this article or section. ... The gigue or giga is a lively baroque dance in a compound metre such as 3/8, 6/8, 6/4, 9/8 or 12/16. ... The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period. ... Sonata da Chiesa is Italian for church sonata. Sonatas are instrumental compositions of three or more movements. ... Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ...


The Baroque period also saw a rise in the importance of music theory. The most influential text was published by Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741), his Gradus Ad Parnassum ("Steps to Parnassus"), which appeared in 1725. This work laid out the terms of "species" of counterpoint, and offered a series of exercises to learn fugue writing. Fux's work was largely based on the practice of Palestrina's modal fugues. It remained influential into the nineteenth century. Haydn, for example, taught counterpoint from his own summary of Fux, and thought of it as the basis for formal structure. Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... Johann Joseph Fux (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ... Mount Parnassus (also Mount Parnassos) is a mountain in central Greece that towers above Delphi. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent...


Johann Sebastian Bach often entered into contests where he would be given a subject with which to spontaneously improvise a fugue on the organ or harpsichord. This musical form was also apparent in chamber music he would later compose for Weimar; the famous Concerto for Two Violins in D Minor (BWV 1043) (although not contrapuntal in its entirety) has a fugal opening section to its first movement. Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... The Concerto for Two Violins in D Minor, BWV 1043, is perhaps one of the most famous works by J.S. Bach and considered among the best examples of the work of the late Baroque period. ...


Bach's most famous fugues are those for the harpsichord in The Well-Tempered Clavier and the Art of Fugue, and his organ fugues, which are usually preceded by a prelude or toccata. The Art of Fugue is a collection of fugues (and four canons) on a single theme that is gradually transformed as the cycle progresses. The Well-Tempered Clavier comprises two volumes written in different times of Bach's life, each comprising 24 prelude and fugue pairs, one for each major and minor key. Bach also wrote smaller single fugues, and put fugues into many of his works that were not fugues per se. Title-page of Das wohtemperierte Klavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohtemperierte Klavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das wohltemperierte Klavier in German -- Klavier means piano, but the English word clavier (which means keyboard) looks more like the German title) consists of two... The Art of Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV1080, is an unfinished work by Johann Sebastian Bach composed in 1748-1749 and published after his death in 1750. ... A prelude is a short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that are usually longer and more complex. ... Toccata (Italian for touched) is a piece of classical music for a keyboard instrument, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ...


Although J. S. Bach was not well known as a composer in his lifetime, his influence extended forward through his son C.P.E. Bach and through the theorist Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1718-1795) whose Abhandlung von der Fuge ("Treatise on the fugue", 1753) was largely based on J. S. Bach's work. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (21 November 1718 - 22 May 1795) was a German music critic, music-theorist and composer. ...

See also: List of fugal works by Johann Sebastian Bach

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Classical era

During the Classical era, the fugue was no longer a central or even fully natural mode of musical composition. Nevertheless, both Haydn and Mozart had periods of their careers in which they in some sense "rediscovered" fugal writing and used it frequently in their work. Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ...


Haydn's most famous fugues can be found in his Sun quartets, (op. 20, 1772) of which three have fugal finales. This was a practice that Haydn repeated only once later in his quartet-writing career, with the finale of his quartet Op. 50 no. 4 (1787). Some of the earliest examples of Haydn's use of counterpoint, however, are in three symphonies (No. 3, No. 13, and No. 40) that date from 1762-63. The earliest fugues, in both the symphonies and in the baryton trios, exhibit the influence of Joseph Fux's treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum (1725), which Haydn studied carefully. Haydn's second fugal period occurred after he heard, and was greatly inspired by, the oratorios of Handel during his visits to London (1791-1793, 1794-1795). Haydn then studied Handel's techniques and incorporated Handelian fugal writing into the choruses of his mature oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, as well as several of his later symphonies, including No. 88, No. 95, and No. 101. This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... The Creation (German: Die Schöpfung) is an oratorio written between 1796 and 1798 by Joseph Haydn, and considered by many to be his masterpiece. ... The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn (H. 21/3). ... Joseph Haydns 88th Symphony in G major, was written in the late 1780s. ... Joseph Haydns 95th Symphony in C minor, is the only one of the twelve London Symphonies in a minor key. ... The Symphony No. ...


Mozart studied counterpoint when young with Padre Martini in Rome. However, the major impetus to fugal writing for Mozart was the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten in Vienna around 1782. Van Swieten, during diplomatic service in Berlin, had taken the opportunity to collect as many manuscripts by Bach and Handel as he could, and he invited Mozart to study his collection and also encouraged him to transcribe various works for other combinations of instruments. Mozart was evidently fascinated by these works, and wrote a set of transcriptions for string trio of fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, introducing them with preludes of his own. Mozart then set to writing fugues on his own, mimicking the Baroque style. These included the fugues for string quartet, K. 405 (1782) and a fugue in C Minor K. 426 for two pianos (1783). Later, Mozart incorporated fugal writing into the finale of his Symphony No. 41 and his opera Die Zauberflöte. The parts of the Requiem he completed also contain several fugues (most notably the Kyrie, and the three fugues in the Domine Jesu; he also left behind a sketch for an Amen fugue which would have come at the end of the Sequentia). Giovanni Battista Martini (April 24, 1706 - August 4, 1784), Italian musician, was born at Bologna. ... Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1733-1803) was a minor aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the eighteenth century. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in the United States. ... Look up Amen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A common characteristic of the Classical composers is that they usually wrote fugues not as isolated works but as part of a larger work, often as a sonata-form development section or as a finale. It was also characteristic to abandon fugal texture just before the end of a work, providing a purely homophonic resolution. This is found, for instance, in the final fugue of the chorus "The Heavens are Telling" in Haydn's The Creation (1798). The Creation (German: Die Schöpfung) is an oratorio written between 1796 and 1798 by Joseph Haydn, and considered by many to be his masterpiece. ...


Romantic era

By the beginning of the Romantic era, fugue writing had become specifically attached to the norms and styles of the Baroque. Ludwig van Beethoven was familiar with fugal writing from childhood, as an important part of his training was playing from The Well-Tempered Clavier. During his early career in Vienna, Beethoven attracted notice for his performance of these fugues. There are fugal sections in Beethoven's early piano sonatas, and fugal writing is to be found in the second and fourth movements of the Eroica Symphony (1805). Nevertheless, fugues did not take on a truly central role in Beethoven's work until his "late period." A fugue forms the development section of the last movement of his piano sonata op. 101 (1816), and massive, dissonant fugues form the finales of his Hammerklavier piano sonata (1818) and string quartet op. 130 (1825); the latter was later published separately as op. 133, the Grosse Fuge ("Great Fugue"). Also his piano sonata op. 110 and his cello sonata op. 102,2 have fugue movements. Beethoven's last piano sonata, op. 111 (1822) integrates fugal texture throughout the first movement, written in sonata form. Fugues are also found in the Missa Solemnis and in the finale of the Ninth Symphony. The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... Title-page of Das wohtemperierte Klavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohtemperierte Klavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das wohltemperierte Klavier in German -- Klavier means piano, but the English word clavier (which means keyboard) looks more like the German title) consists of two... “Wien” redirects here. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The String Quartet No. ... Lost Beethoven manuscript discovered after 115 years http://news. ... Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


One manual explicitly stated that the hallmark of contrapuntal style was the style of J. S. Bach. The 19th century's taste for academicism - setting of forms and norms by explicit rules - found Marpurg, and the fugue, to be a congenial topic. The writing of fugues also remained an important part of musical education throughout the 19th century, particularly with the publication of the complete works of Bach and Handel, and the revival of interest in Bach's music. Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (21 November 1718 - 22 May 1795) was a German music critic, music-theorist and composer. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ...


Examples of fugal writing in the Romantic era are found in the last movement of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique, and Wagner's Meistersinger, in particular the conclusion of the second act. The finale of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Falstaff is a ten-voice fugue. Felix Mendelssohn was obsessed with fugal writing, as it can be found prominently in the Scottish Symphony, Italian Symphony, and the Hebrides Overture. In the last movement of his Fifth Symphony Anton Bruckner wrote the development section in form of a big double fugue. The unfinished Finale of his Ninth Symphony has a fugue section, too. Another composer of this time, whose work is strongly influenced by fugal textures, was Felix Draeseke. Especially in his church music highly artificial fugues could be found. The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (either October 9 or 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. ... For other uses, see Falstaff (disambiguation). ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... The Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... Mendelssohns original sketch of the overture, contained in the letter to Fanny, 1829. ... The Symphony No. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Felix Draeseke, oil portrait by Robert Sterl (1907) Felix August Bernhard Draeseke (October 7, 1835 – February 26, 1913) was a composer of the New German School admiring Liszt and Wagner. ...


Robert Schumann, and Johannes Brahms also included fugues in many of their works. The final part of Schumann's Piano Quintet is a double fugue, and his opus numbers 126, 72 and 60 are all sets of fugues for the piano (opus 60 based on the BACH motif). The recapitulation of Liszt's B minor sonata is cast in the form of a 3-part fugato. The Quasi-Faust movement of Charles-Valentin Alkan's Grande Sonate contains a bizarre but musically convincing fugue in 8 parts. Brahms' Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Handel ends with a fugue, as does his Cello Sonata No. 1. Towards the end of the Romantic era, Richard Strauss included a fugue in his tone poem, Also sprach Zarathustra, to represent the high intelligence of science. Sergei Rachmaninoff, despite writing in a lush post-romantic idiom, was highly skilled in counterpoint (as is highly evident in his Vespers); a well known fugue occurs in his Symphony No. 2. Alexander Glazunov wrote a very difficult Prelude and Fugue in D minor, his Op. 62, for the piano. For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Piano Quintet by Robert Schumann was written in 1842. ... The BACH motif. ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... The cello sonata number 1 in E minor, opus 38 written by Johannes Brahms in 1862–5 has three movements: Allegro non troppo, in E minor, in common (4/4) time. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Symphony No. ... Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ...


20th century

The late Romantic composer Max Reger had the closest association with the fugue among his contemporaries. Many of his organ works contain, or are themselves fugues. Two of Reger's most-played orchestral works, the Hiller variations and the Mozart variations, end with a large-scale orchestral fugue. Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ...


A number of other twentieth century composers made extensive use of the fugue. Béla Bartók opened his Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta with a fugue in which the tritone, rather than the fifth, is the main structural interval. He also included fugal sections in the final movements of his String Quartet No. 1, String Quartet No. 5, Concerto for Orchestra, and Piano Concerto No. 3. The second movement of his Sonata for Solo Violin is also a fugue. The Czech composer Jaromir Weinberger studied fugue with Max Reger, and had an uncommonly facile skill in fugal writing. The fugue of the "Polka and Fugue" from his opera "Schwanda the Bagpiper" is a superb example. Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta is a piece of classical music by Béla Bartók. ... The augmented fourth between C and F# forms a tritone. ... The String Quartet No. ... The String Quartet No. ... Bartóks third piano concerto is a musical composition for piano with orchestral accompaniment. ... Jaromir Weinberger was a Czech composer of music. ...


Igor Stravinsky also incorporated fugues into his works, including the Symphony of Psalms and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto. The last movement of Samuel Barber's famous Sonata for Piano is a sort of "modernized" fugue, which, instead of obeying the constraint of a fixed number of voices, develops the fugue subject and its head-motif in various contrapuntal situations. In a different direction, the tonal fugue movement of Charles Ives' fourth symphony evokes a nostalgia for an older, halcyon time. The practice of writing fugue cycles in the manner of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier was perpetuated by Paul Hindemith in his Ludus Tonalis, Kaikhosru Sorabji in a number of his works including the Opus clavicembalisticum, and Dmitri Shostakovich in his Preludes and Fugues, opus 87 (which, like the Well-Tempered Clavier, contains a prelude and fugue in each key, although the order of Shostakovich's pieces follows the cycle of fifths, whereas Bach's progressed chromatically). Several Bachianas Brasileiras of Heitor Villa-Lobos feature a fugue as one of the movements. Ástor Piazzolla also wrote a number of fugues in his Nuevo tango style. György Ligeti wrote a Fugue for his "Requiem" (1966), which consists of a 5 part fugue in which each part (S,M,A, T,B) is subsequently divided in four voices that make a canon. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th-century music. ... The Symphony of Psalms by Igor Stravinsky was written in 1930 and was commissioned by Serge Koussevitzky to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) (1937-38) is a chamber concerto by Igor Stravinsky, named for the Dumbarton Oaks estate of Robert Woods Bliss in Washington, DC, who commissioned it for his thirtieth wedding anniversary. ... In music, a movement is a large division of a larger composition or musical form. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Charles Edward Ives (October 20, 1874 – May 19, 1954) was an American composer of classical music. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Ludus Tonalis (Game of the Notes or The Tonal Game) is a collection of piano works by Paul Hindemith. ... Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji (August 14, 1892 – October 15, 1988) was a British Parsi composer, music journalist and pianist. ... Opus Clavicembalisticum is a solo piano piece composed by Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji, completed on June 26, 1930 at 1:30 P.M.. It is characterized by its four (sometimes five) hour duration and its extreme demands upon the pianist. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... The 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. ... The Bachianas Brasileiras is a series of nine suites by the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, written for various combinations of instruments between 1930 and 1935. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Ástor Piazzolla with his bandoneon in 1971. ... Nuevo tango or Tango nuevo is a form of music, which was born as elements of jazz and classical music were incorporated into traditional Argentinian tango. ...


Benjamin Britten composed a fugue for orchestra in his The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, consisting of subject entries by each instrument once. Leonard Bernstein wrote a "Cool Fugue" as part of his musical West Side Story. Stephen Schwartz wrote a song from his 1974 Broadway hit The Magic Show called "The Goldfarb Variations" which uses fugue-like vocal counterpoint. Jazz musician Alec Templeton even wrote a fugue (recorded subsequently by Benny Goodman): "Bach Goes to Town." Canadian pianist Glenn Gould composed So You Want to Write a Fugue?, a full-scale fugue set to a text that cleverly explicates its own musical form. Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra, op. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ... Stephen Schwartz (born March 6, 1948) is an American musical theater lyricist and composer. ... The Magic Show is a musical in one act composed and with lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and a book by Bob Randall. ... Alec Templeton (1909-1963), was a pianist, mimic, mnemonist, and satirist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Glenn Herbert Gould (September 25, 1932 – October 4, 1982) was a Canadian pianist, noted especially for his recordings of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


20th-century fugue writing explored many of the directions implied by Beethoven's Grosse Fuge, and what came to be termed "free counterpoint" as well as "dissonant counterpoint." Fugal technique as described by Marpurg became part of the theoretical basis for Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique. Lost Beethoven manuscript discovered after 115 years http://news. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ...


Is the fugue a musical form or texture?

A widespread view of the fugue is that it is not a musical form (in the sense that, say, sonata form is) but rather a technique of composition. For instance, Donald Francis Tovey wrote that "Fugue is not so much a musical form as a musical texture," that can be introduced anywhere as a distinctive and recognizable technique, often to produce intensification in musical development. Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... Wikisource has original works written by or about: Donald Francis Tovey Sir Donald Francis Tovey (July 17, 1875 – July 10, 1940) was a British musical analyst, musicologist, writer on music, composer and pianist. ...


On the other hand, composers almost never write music in a purely cumulative fashion, and usually a work will have some kind of overall formal organization—hence the rough outline given above, involving the exposition, the sequence of episodes, and the concluding coda. When scholars say that the fugue is not a musical form, what is usually meant is that there is no single formal outline into which all fugues reliably can be fitted.


Ratz argues that the formal organization of a fugue involves not only the arrangement of its theme and episodes, but also its harmonic structure. In particular, the exposition and coda tend to emphasize the tonic key, whereas the episodes usually explore more distant tonalities. However, it is to be noted that while certain related keys are more commonly explored in fugal development, the overall structure of a fugue does not limit its harmonic structure as much as Ratz would have us believe. For example, a fugue may not even explore the dominant, one of the most closely related keys to the tonic. Bach's Fugue in Bb from the Well Tempered Clavier explores the relative minor, the supertonic, and the subdominant. This is unlike later forms such as the sonata, which clearly prescribes which keys are explored (typically the tonic and dominant in an ABA form).


Fugues are also not limited in the way the exposition is structured, the number of expositions in related keys, or the number of episodes (if any). So, the fugue may be considered a compositional practice rather than a compositional form, similar to the invention. The fugue, like the invention and sinfonia, employs a basic melodic subject and spins out additional melodic material from it to develop an entire piece. Fugual technique is really just a way to develop pieces of a particular contrapuntal style.


Perceptions and aesthetics

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Fugue is the most complex of contrapuntal forms and as a result, gifted composers have used it to express the profound. The complexity of fugue has foiled lesser composers who have produced only the banal [improper synthesis?]. The philosopher Theodor Adorno, a skilled pianist and interpreter of Beethoven's music, expressed a sense of the arduousness and also the inauthenticity of modern fugue composition, or any composing of fugue in a contemporary context, i.e., as an anachronism[citation needed]. Adorno's conservative and historically bound view of Bach is not found among most modern fugue composers, such as David Diamond, Paul Hindemith or Dmitri Shostakovich. The most classicist fugues that have appeared after Beethoven are those of Felix Mendelssohn, who as a child impressed Goethe and others with his mastery of counterpoint while improvising at the piano. In the words of the Austrian musicologist Erwin Ratz, "fugal technique significantly burdens the shaping of musical ideas, and it was given only to the greatest geniuses, such as Bach and Beethoven, to breathe life into such an unwieldy form and make it the bearer of the highest thoughts."[31] Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... David Leo Diamond (July 9, 1915 – June 13, 2005) was an American composer of classical music. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... Erwin Ratz (1898 - 1973) was an Austrian musicologist and music theorist. ...



In presenting Bach's fugues as among the greatest of contrapuntal works, Peter Kivy points out that "counterpoint itself, since time out of mind, has been associated in the thinking of musicians with the profound and the serious" [32] and argues that "there seems to be some rational justification for their doing so."[33] Because of the way fugue is often taught, the form can be seen as dry and filled with laborious technical exercises. The term "school fugue" is used for a very strict form of the fugue that was created to facilitate teaching. The works of the Austrian composer Simon Sechter, who was a teacher of Schubert and Bruckner, include several thousand fugues, but they are not found in the standard repertory, not because they are fugues but because of Sechter's limitations as a musical artist.[original research?] Simon Sechter (October 11, 1788 -September 10, 1867), was an Austrian music theorist, teacher, organist, conductor and composer. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ...


Others, such as Alfred Mann, argued that fugue writing, by focusing the compositional process actually improves or disciplines the composer towards musical ideas. This is related to the idea that restrictions create freedom for the composer, by directing their efforts. He also points out that fugue writing has its roots in improvisation, and was, during the baroque, practiced as an improvisatory art.


References

  1. ^ a b c "fugue" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. Ed. Michael Kennedy. Oxford University Press, 1996. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. (accessed 16 March 2007) <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t76.e3627>
  2. ^ "Fugue [Fr. fugue; Ger. Fuge; Lat., It., Sp., fuga]." The Harvard Dictionary of Music, (New England, 2003), (accessed via Xreferplus, 06 May 2007) <http://www.xreferplus.com/entry.jsp?xrefid=4663031&secid=.3.2.->
  3. ^ see Walker, Paul. "Fugue", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access). for discussion of the changing use of the term throughout Western music history.
  4. ^ a b c d Walker, Paul. "Fugue, §1: A classic fugue analysed", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  5. ^ G. M. Tucker, Andrew V. Jones "fugue" The Oxford Companion to Music. Ed. Alison Latham. Oxford University Press, 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. King's College London. 16 March 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t114.e2723>
  6. ^ a b Walker, Paul. "Fugue", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  7. ^ a b c Walker, Paul. "Fugue, §6: Late 18th century", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  8. ^ Walker, Paul. "Fugue, §8: 20th century", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  9. ^ "fugue n." The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Eleventh edition revised . Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 16 March 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t23.e22155>
  10. ^ "fugal adj." The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Eleventh edition revised . Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. King's College London. 16 March 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t23.e22149>
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i G. M. Tucker, Andrew V. Jones "fugue" The Oxford Companion to Music. Ed. Alison Latham. Oxford University Press, 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. King's College London. 16 March 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t114.e2723>
  12. ^ Verrall, John W., Fugue and Invention - In Theory and Practice (Pacific, California, 1966), p.12
  13. ^ PAUL WALKER: 'Fugue, §1: A classic fugue analysed', Grove Music Online (Accessed 18 February 2007),<http://www.grovemusic.com/shared/views/article.html?section=music.51678.1>
  14. ^ "invertible counterpoint" The Oxford Companion to Music. Ed. Alison Latham. Oxford University Press, 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. King's College London. 16 March 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t114.e3465>
  15. ^ Drabkin, William. "Invertible Counterpoint", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  16. ^ Verrall, John W., Fugue and Invention - In Theory and Practice (Pacific, California, 1966), p.33
  17. ^ Walker, Paul. "Counter-exposition", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 19 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  18. ^ BACH, Johann Sebastian, 'Fuge Nr. 2', Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I, G. Henle Verlag, ed. Ernst-Günter Heinemann, (Munich, 1997)
  19. ^ Verrall, John W., Fugue and Invention - In Theory )and Practice (Pacific, California, 1966), p.33
  20. ^ See, DREYFUS, Laurence, 'Figments of the Organicist Imagination', Bach and the Patterns of Invention (Cambridge and London, Harvard Univ. Press, 1996), p. 178
  21. ^ Verrall, John W., Fugue and Invention - In Theory and Practice (Pacific, California, 1966), p.12
  22. ^ Walker, Paul. "Stretto (i)", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  23. ^ Verrall, John W., Fugue and Invention - In Theory and Practice (Pacific, California, 1966), p.77
  24. ^ Walker, Paul. "Stretto (i)", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 29 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  25. ^ a b Walker, Paul. "Double Fugue", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 29 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  26. ^ "double fugue" The Oxford Companion to Music, Ed. Alison Latham, (Oxford University Press, 2002), Oxford Reference Online, (accessed 29 March 2007) www.oxfordreference.com (subscription access)
  27. ^ "double fugue" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, Ed. Michael Kennedy, (Oxford University Press, 1996), Oxford Reference Online(accessed 29 March 2007), oxfordreference.com (subscription access)
  28. ^ Walker, Paul. "Counter-fugue", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 31 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  29. ^ Wolff, Christoph. "Bach, §III: (7) Johann Sebastian Bach, §20: Canons, ‘Musical offering’, ‘Art of fugue’", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 31 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  30. ^ a b Walker, Paul. "Permutation Fugue", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 31 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  31. ^ Ratz, Erwin (1951). Einführung in die Musikalische Formenlehre: Über Formprinzipien in den Inventionen J. S. Bachs und ihre Bedeutung für die Kompositionstechnik Beethovens {"Introduction to Musical Form: On the Principles of Form in J. S. Bach's Inventions and their Import for Beethoven's Compositional Technique", first edition with supplementary volume. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst, p259.
  32. ^ Kivy, Peter (1990). Music Alone: Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, p206. ISBN 0-8014-2331-7.
  33. ^ Kivy, Peter (1990). Music Alone: Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, p210. ISBN 0-8014-2331-7.

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

External links

Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fugue - LoveToKnow 1911 (621 words)
Hence, a rule or canon was given, often in enigmatic form, by which the comes was deduced from the dux: and so the term canon became the appropriate name for the form itself, and is still retained.
Cherubini, holding the doctrine that a fugue cannot have more than one subject, insists on applying the term to the less prominent of the subjects of what are commonly called double fugues, i.e.
fugue with an exact answer) that could rightly be contrasted with tonal fugue would be that in which the answer ought to be tonal but is not.
Dissociative Fugue: Dissociative Disorders: Merck Manual Professional (561 words)
Dissociative fugue is one or more episodes of amnesia in which the inability to recall some or all of one's past is combined with either the loss of one's identity or the formation of a new identity.
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A fugue may remove the patient from an embarrassing situation or intolerable stress or may be related to issues of rejection or separation.
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