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Encyclopedia > Fuel injection

Contents

Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary system used in automotive engines, having replaced carburetors primarily in the 1980s. A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Car redirects here. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ...


A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle: gasoline (petrol), Autogas (LPG, also known as propane), ethanol, methanol, methane (natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with multiple different fuels. For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before the widespread use of fuel injection. However, a wide variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the fuel. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The primary functional difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on the vacuum created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream.


The fuel injector is only a nozzle and a valve: the power to inject the fuel comes from farther back in the fuel supply, from a pump or a pressure container. This article is about a mechanical device. ...


Objectives

The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:

  • power output
  • fuel efficiency
  • emissions performance
  • ability to accommodate alternative fuels
  • reliability
  • driveability and smooth operation
  • initial cost
  • maintenance cost
  • diagnostic capability
  • range of environmental operation

Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting, and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. In practice, automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives than a carburetor. Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ... The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ...


Benefits

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Engine operation

Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more dependable engine response during quick throttle transitions, easier and more dependable engine starting, better operation at extremely high or low ambient temperatures, reduced maintenance intervals, and increased fuel efficiency. On a more basic level, fuel injection does away with the choke which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be operated when starting the engine from cold and then adjusted as the engine warms up. In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... A choke valve is sometimes installed in the carburetor internal combustion engines. ...


An engine's air/fuel ratio must be accurately controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance, emissions, driveability, and fuel economy. Modern electronic fuel-injection systems meter fuel very accurately and precisely, and use closed loop fuel-injection quantity-control based on feedback from an oxygen sensor (or "O2 sensor"). This enables fuel-injected engines to produce less air pollutants than comparable carbureted engines. Properly-designed fuel injection systems can react rapidly to changing inputs such as sudden throttle movements, and will control the amount of fuel injected to match the engine's needs across a wide range of operating conditions such as engine load, ambient air temperature, engine temperature, fuel octane level, and altitude (i.e., barometric pressure). “Accuracy” redirects here. ... A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ...


What not to do

A multipoint fuel injection system generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to each cylinder than can a carburetor, thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine, and because exhaust cleanup devices such as the catalytic converter can be optimized to operate more efficiently since the exhaust is of consistent and predictable composition. Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ...


Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution, less fuel is needed for the same power output. When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal, as is always the case to some degree with a carburetor or throttle body fuel injection, some cylinders receive excess fuel as a side effect of ensuring that all cylinders receive sufficient fuel. Power output is asymmetrical with respect to air/fuel ratio; burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean cylinders. However, rich-running cylinders are undesirable from the standpoint of exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, engine wear, and engine oil contamination. Deviations from perfect air/fuel distribution, however subtle, affect the emissions, by not letting the combustion events be at the chemically ideal (stoichiometric) air/fuel ratio. Grosser distribution problems eventually begin to reduce efficiency, and the grossest distribution issues finally affect power. Increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution affects emissions, efficiency, and power, in that order. By optimizing the homogeneity of cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution, all the cylinders approach their maximum power potential and the engine's overall power output improves. In chemistry, stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. ...


A fuel-injected engine often produces more power than an equivalent carbureted engine. Fuel injection alone does not necessarily increase an engine's maximum potential output, for increased airflow is needed to burn more fuel to generate more heat to generate more output. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy, whether the fuel is supplied by fuel injectors or a carburetor. However, airflow is often improved with fuel injection, the components of which allow more design freedom to improve the air's path into the engine. In contrast, a carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger, it must be carefully oriented with respect to gravity, and it must be equidistant from each of the engine's cylinders to the maximum practicable degree. These design constraints generally compromise airflow into the engine. Furthermore, a carburetor relies on a restrictive venturi to create a local air pressure difference, which forces the fuel into the air stream. The flow loss caused by the venturi, however, is small compared to other flow losses in the induction system. In a well-designed carburetor induction system, the venturi is not a significant airflow restriction. Aside from airflow considerations, fuel injection offers a more homogeneous air/fuel mixture due to better atomization of the fuel entering the cylinders. A Venturi meter is shown in a diagram, the pressure in 1 conditions is higher than 2, and the relationship between the fluid speed in 2 and 1 respectively, is the same as for pressure. ... Atomization (British English: atomisation) is conversion of bulk liquid into a spray or mist (i. ...


History and development

Frederick William Lanchester joined the Forward Gas Engine Company Birmingham, England in 1889. He carried out what were possibly the earliest experiments with fuel injection. In 1896 E.J. Pennington had detailed a crude form of fuel injection in the patent for his motorcycle (U.S. patent 574262).[citation needed]. Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first system laid out on modern lines (with a highly-accurate 'jerk pump' to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the hot bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Robert Bosch for use on diesel engines- Rudolf Diesel's original system using a cumbersome and less efficent 'air-blast' system using highly compressed air. Frederick William Lanchester (October 23, 1868 - March 8, 1946) was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to automotive engineering, aerodynamics and co-invented the field of operations research. ... This article is about the British city. ... Edward Joel Pennington Was an inventor of many mechanical devices, including Airships, Motorcycles and Automobiles. ... Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... 1939 Lanz Bulldog tractor with hot bulb engine. ... Robert Bosch at the age of 27 Robert Bosch (September 23, 1861 - March 12, 1942), German industrialist and philanthropist, born in Albeck near Ulm as the 11th child of Servatius and Margarete Bosch, themselves children of wealthy farmers. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... This article is about Rudolf Diesel, the German inventor. ...


Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Because of its greater immunity to wildly changing g-forces on the engine, the concept was adapted for use in petrol-powered aircraft during World War II, and direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the Daimler-Benz DB 603, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh-82FN (M-82FN) and later versions of the Wright R-3350 used in the B-29 Superfortress. Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Daimler-Benz DB 603 The Daimler-Benz DB 603 engine was a German aircraft engine used during World War 2. ... The BMW 801 was a powerful German air-cooled radial aircraft engine built by BMW and used in a number of German military aircraft of World War II. The engine’s cylinders were in two rows of seven cylinders each, the bore and stroke were both 156 mm, giving a... The Shvetsov ASh-82 was an air-cooled radial piston engine used in Soviet aircraft from the 1940s. ... Wright R-3350-57 The R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ...


One of the first commercial gasoline injection systems was a mechanical system developed by Bosch and introduced in 1955 on the Mercedes-Benz 300SL. This system used a normal fuel pump, to provide fuel to a mechanically driven injection pump, which had separate plungers per injector to deliver a very high injection pressure. A variant of this system, also by Bosch, was later used by Porsche from 1969 until 1973 on the 911 production range. Porsche continued using it on its racing cars into the late seventies and early eighties, and cars like the Porsche 906, 908, 910, 917 (in its regular normally aspirated or 5.5 Liter/1500 HP Turbocharged form), and 935 all used Bosch or Kugelfischer built variants of injection. The Kugelfischer system was also used by the BMW 2000/2002 Tii and some versions of the Peugeot 404/504 and Lancia Flavia. Lucas also offered a mechanical system which was used by some Maserati, Aston Martin and Triumph models between ca. 1963 and 1973. Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe from the Ralph Lauren collection 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe from the Ralph Lauren collection Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe The Mercedes-Benz 300SL was available as a two-seat closed sports car with characteristic... Bosch is the colloquial short name for the German company Robert Bosch GmbH, as well as the last name of: Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) - Dutch painter Robert Bosch (1861-1942) - German industrialist Carl Bosch (1874-1940) - German chemist and engineer Juan Bosch (1909-2001) - Dominican politician and writer Orlando Bosch... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Due to the high pressure, the fuel atomisation was exceptional; resulting in good power, throttle response and the pump design offered good reliability.[citation needed] It did have drawbacks as the fuel economy and emission results were terribly inefficient compared to more modern injection setups such as electronic injection, or even the Jetronic systems that went in production in the early seventies.[citation needed] Atomization is common practice to inject the fuel into the combustor (or premixer) through a nozzle, which atomizes the fuel. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... Look up Electronic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ...


A system similar to the Bosch inline mechanical pump was built by Spica for Alfa Romeo, used on the Alfa Romeo Montreal and on US market 1750 and 2000 models from 1969 until 1981. This was specifically designed to meet the US emission requirements, and allowed Alfa to meet these requirements at no loss in performance and with a reduction in fuel consumption. The Alfa Romeo Montreal was a 2+2 coupé automobile produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1970 to 1977. ...


In 1957, Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option, made by General Motors' Rochester Products division, for its 283 V8 engine. This system directed the inducted engine air across a "spoon shaped" plunger that moved in proportion to the air volume. The plunger connected to the fuel metering system which mechanically dispensed fuel to the cylinders via distribution tubes. This system was not a "pulse" or intermittent injection, but rather a constant flow system, metering fuel to all cylinders simultaneously from a central "spider" of injection lines. The fuel meter adjusted the amount of flow according to engine speed and load, and included a fuel reservoir, which was similar to a carburetor's float chamber. With its own high-pressure fuel pump driven by a cable from the distributor to the fuel meter, the system supplied the necessary pressure for injection. However, this was "port" injection, in which the injectors are located in the intake manifold, very near the intake valve. (Direct fuel injection is a fairly recent innovation for automobile engines.) The highest performance version of the fuel injected engine was rated at 283 hp (211 kW) from 283 in³ (4.6 L), though it really produced about 290 hp.[citation needed] This made it among the early production engines in history to exceed 1 hp/in³ (45.5 kW/L), after Chrysler's Hemi engine and a number of others. Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... Chevrolets small-block V8 engines began with the 1955 265 in³ (4. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Early Hemi in a 1957 Chrysler 300C. A Chrysler Hemi engine is one of three different internal combustion engine families from Chrysler that are Hemi engines; in other words, they utilize a hemispherical combustion chamber. ...


During the 1960s, other mechanical injection systems such as Hilborn were occasionally used on modified American V8 engines in various racing applications such as drag racing, oval racing, and road racing.[citation needed] These racing-derived systems were not suitable for everyday street use, having no provisions for low speed metering or even starting (fuel had to be squirted into the injector tubes while cranking the engine in order to start it). However they were a favorite in the aforementioned competition trials in which essentially wide-open throttle operation was prevalent. The Liberty V8 aircraft engine clearly shows the configuration A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders. ... Top Fuel dragster Drag racing is a sport in which cars race down a track with a set distance as fast as possible. ... Road racing can be a term involving road running, road bicycle races, or automobile races. ...


The first commercial electronic fuel injection (EFI) system was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation and was to be offered by American Motors (AMC) in 1957.[1] A special muscle car model, the Rambler Rebel, showcased AMC's new 327 cu in (5.4 L) engine. The Electrojector was an option and rated at 288 hp (215 kW). The Rebel Owners Manual described the design and operation of the new system.[2] Initial press information about the Bendix system in December 1956 was followed in March 1957 by a price bulletin that pegged the option at US$395, but due to supplier difficulties, fuel-injected Rebels would only be available after June 15.[3] This was to have been the first production EFI engine, but Electrojector's teething problems meant only pre-production cars were so equipped and none were made available to the public.[4] The EFI system in the Rambler was a far more-advanced setup than the mechanical types then appearing on the market and the engines ran fine in warm weather, but suffered hard starting in cooler temperatures.[5] The Bendix Corporation was founded in 1924 by the inventor Vincent Bendix. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... The Pontiac GTO is a classic example of the muscle car. ... The Rambler Rebel was an automobile was a product by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) of Kenosha, Wisconsin between 1957 and 1961. ... American Motors produced a series of widely-used V8 engines before being absorbed into Chrysler. ... USD redirects here. ... Category: ...


Chrysler offered Electrojector on specific high performance 1958 models...the 300D, the D500, and the DeSoto Adventurer, arguably the first series-production cars equipped with an EFI system, but the early electronic components were not equal to the rigors of underhood service, and were too slow to keep up with the demands of "on the fly" engine control. Most vehicles originally so equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents were subsequently sold to Bosch. 1957 Chrysler 300C The Chrysler 300 letter series were high-performance luxury cars built in very limited numbers by the Chrysler Corporation in the United States between 1955 and 1965. ... Promtional image of the 1956 DeSoto Adventurer, the Official Pace Car of that years Indianapolis 500 The DeSoto Adventurer was an automobile produced by the Chrysler Corporation and sold under its DeSoto automotive brand from 1956 through the 1960 model year. ...


Bosch developed an electronic fuel injection system, called D-Jetronic (D for Druck, the German word for pressure), which was first used on the VW 1600TL in 1967. This was a speed/density system, using engine speed and intake manifold air density to calculate "air mass" flow rate and thus fuel requirements. The system used all analog, discrete electronics, and an electro-mechanical pressure sensor. The sensor was susceptible to vibration and dirt.[citation needed] This system was adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citroën, Saab, and Volvo. Lucas licensed the system for production with Jaguar. Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ... The Volkswagen Type 3, properly referred to as the Volkswagen 1500 and later the Volkswagen 1600, was a range of small cars from German manufacturer Volkswagen (VW). ... VW redirects here. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... This article is about the auto company. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... Saab Automobile AB is automobile manufacturing company in Sweden, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ... Jaguar Cars Limited is a luxury car manufacturer, originally with headquarters in Browns Lane, Coventry, England but now at Whitley, Coventry. ...


Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems for 1974, though some cars (such as the Volvo 164) continued using D-Jetronic for the following several years, and General Motors installed a very close copy of D-Jetronic on Cadillacs starting in 1977.[citation needed] L-Jetronic first appeared on the 1974 Porsche 914, and uses a mechanical airflow meter (L for Luft, German for air) that produces a signal that is proportional to "air volume". This approach required additional sensors to measure the barometer and temperature, to ultimately calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was widely adopted on European cars of that period, and a few Japanese models a short time later. Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ... Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ... The Volvo 164 was an automobile manufactured by Volvo from 1968 to 1975. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds most dominant automaker since 1931. ...


In 1982, Bosch introduced a sensor that directly measures the air mass flow into the engine, on their L-Jetronic system. Bosch called this LH-Jetronic (L for Luftmasse, or air, and H for Hitzdraht, or hot-wire). The mass air sensor utilizes a heated platinum wire placed in the incoming air flow. The rate of the wire's cooling is proportional to the air mass flowing across the wire. Since the hot wire sensor directly measures air mass, the need for additional temperature and pressure sensors is eliminated. The LH-Jetronic system was also the first fully digital EFI system, which is now the standard approach.[citation needed] The advent of the digital microprocessor permitted the integration of all powertrain sub-systems into a single control module. Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ...


Supersession of carburetors

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed were promulgated at the municipal or, occasionally, the state level. The ineffective local regulations were gradually supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations. By 1967 the state of California (Governor Ronald Reagan), created the California Air Resources Board, and in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was formed. Both agencies now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles, as well as for many other sources. Similar agencies and regulations were contemporaneously developed and implemented in Europe, Australia, and Japan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Reagan redirects here. ... California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... EPA redirects here. ...


The ultimate combustion goal is to match each molecule of fuel with a corresponding number of molecules of oxygen so that neither has any molecules remaining after combustion in the engine and catalytic converter. Such a balanced condition is known as stoichiometry. Extensive carburetor modifications and complexities were needed to approach stoichiometric engine operation in order to comply with increasingly-strict US exhaust emission regulations of the 1970s and 1980s. This increase in complexity gradually eroded and then reversed the simplicity, cost, and packaging advantages carburetors had traditionally offered. Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ...


Fuel injection appeared first on the 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing with the fuel injected directly into the combustion chambers using an engine driven pump. In the U.S., fuel injection was available in the late 1950s, such as the 1958 Chrysler products equipped with Bendix' ElectroJector, and 1957–1965 Rochester fuel injected Chevrolet Corvettes. About a decade later, more practical fuel injection systems were introduced in European-made cars. As emission regulations progressively tightened worldwide, generally led by the US state of California's especially stringent rules, automakers had to improve the precision and accuracy with which fuel was metered to the engine. Catalytic converters also became practically universal equipment. The Bendix Corporation was founded in 1924 by the inventor Vincent Bendix. ... Rochester Products Division was a division of General Motors that manufactured carburetors, and related components including emissions control devices and cruise control systems. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ...


There are three primary types of toxic emissions from an internal combustion engine: Carbon Monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). CO and HC result from incomplete combustion of fuel due to insufficient oxygen in the combustion chamber. NOx, in contrast, results from excessive oxygen in the combustion chamber. The opposite causes of these pollutants makes it difficult to control all three simultaneously. Once the permissible emission levels dropped below a certain point, catalytic treatment of these three main pollutants became necessary. This required a particularly large increase in fuel metering accuracy and precision, for simultaneous catalysis of all three pollutants requires that the fuel/air mixture be held within a very narrow range of stoichiometry. The open loop fuel injection systems had already improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution and engine operation over a wide temperature range, but did not offer sufficient fuel/air mixture control to enable effective exhaust catalysis. Closed loop fuel injection systems improved the air/fuel mixture control with an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. The O2 sensor is mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalytic converter, and enables the engine management computer to determine and adjust the air/fuel ratio precisely and quickly. R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) are the hydrocarbons emitted after petroleum is burned in an engine. ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... An open-loop controller does not use feedback to control states or outputs of a dynamic system. ... ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ...


Fuel injection was phased in through the latter '70s and '80s at an accelerating rate, with the US and German markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth markets lagging somewhat, and since the early 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in first world markets like the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia have come equipped with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Many motorcycles still utilize carbureted engines, though all current high-performance designs have switched to EFI. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ...


Fuel injection systems have evolved significantly since the mid 1980s. Current systems provide an accurate, reliable and cost-effective method of metering fuel and providing maximum engine efficiency with clean exhaust emissions, which is why EFI systems have replaced carburetors in the marketplace. EFI is becoming more reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At the same time, carburetors are becoming less available, and more expensive. Even marine applications are adopting EFI as reliability improves. Virtually all internal combustion engines, including motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and outdoor power equipment, may eventually use some form of fuel injection.


It should be noted that carburetion remains a less costly alternative where strict emission regulations and advanced vehicle diagnostic and repair infrastructure do not exist, as in developing countries. Fuel injection is gradually replacing carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission regulations conceptually similar to those in force in Europe, Japan, Australia and North America.


Basic function

The process of determining the amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine, are known as fuel metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter fuel (non electronic, or mechanical fuel injection). Modern systems are nearly all electronic, and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to inject the fuel. An electronic engine control unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ...


Modern fuel injection schemes follow much the same setup. There is a mass airflow sensor or manifold absolute pressure sensor at the intake, typically mounted either in the air tube feeding from the air filter box to the throttle body, or mounted directly to the throttle body itself. The mass airflow sensor does exactly what its name implies; it senses the mass of the air that flows past it, giving the computer an accurate idea of how much air is entering the engine. The next component in line is the Throttle Body. The throttle body has a throttle position sensor mounted onto it, typically on the butterfly valve of the throttle body. The throttle position sensor (TPS) reports to the computer the position of the throttle butterfly valve, which the ECM uses to calculate the load upon the engine. The fuel system consists of a fuel pump (typically mounted in-tank), a fuel pressure regulator, fuel lines (composed of either high strength plastic, metal, or reinforced rubber), a fuel rail that the injectors connect to, and the fuel injector(s). There is a coolant temperature sensor that reports the engine temperature to the ECM, which the engine uses to calculate the proper fuel ratio required. In sequential fuel injection systems there is a camshaft position sensor, which the ECM uses to determine which fuel injector to fire. The last component is the oxygen sensor. After the vehicle has warmed up, it uses the signal from the oxygen sensor to perform fine tuning of the fuel trim.


The fuel injector acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly into the engine's air stream. In almost all cases this requires an external pump. The pump and injector are only two of several components in a complete fuel injection system.


In contrast to an EFI system, a carburetor directs the induction air through a venturi, which generates a minute difference in air pressure. The minute air pressure differences both emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel, and then acts as the force to push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle into the induction air stream. As more air enters the engine, a greater pressure difference is generated, and more fuel is metered into the engine. A carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering system, and is cost competitive when compared to a complete EFI system. A copper aspirator. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ...


An EFI system requires several peripheral components in addition to the injector(s), in order to duplicate all the functions of a carburetor. A point worth noting during times of fuel metering repair is that early EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. A single carburetor replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is malfunctioning. Newer EFI systems since the advent of OBD II diagnostic systems, can be very easy to diagnose due to the increased ability to monitor the realtime data streams from the individual sensors. This gives the diagnosing technician realtime feedback as to the cause of the drivability concern, and can dramatically shorten the number of diagnostic steps required to ascertain the cause of failure, something which isn't as simple to do with a carburetor. On the other hand, EFI systems require little regular maintenance; a carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or altitude adjustments. On-Board Diagnostics, or OBD, in an automotive context, is a generic term referring to a vehicles self-diagnostic and reporting capability. ...


Detailed function

Note: These examples specifically apply to a modern EFI gasoline engine. Parallels to fuels other than gasoline can be made, but only conceptually. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Typical EFI components

Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector.
  • Injectors
  • Fuel Pump
  • Fuel Pressure Regulator
  • ECM - Engine Control Module; includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs.
  • Wiring Harness
  • Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 588 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Drawn by WikipedianProlific 28/7/2007 for the article on fuel injection and associated mechanical pages. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 588 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Drawn by WikipedianProlific 28/7/2007 for the article on fuel injection and associated mechanical pages. ... The magnetic piston (1) in this pneumatic cylinder will cause the Hall effect sensors (2 and 3) mounted on its outer wall to activate when it is fully retracted or extended. ... A mass airflow sensor (MAF) determines the mass of air flowing through a conduit. ... A MAP Sensor (manifold absolute pressure) is a sensor used as part of an internal combustion engines electronic control system. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ...

Functional description

Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit (ECU), which monitors engine operating parameters via various sensors. The ECU interprets these parameters in order to calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected, among other tasks, and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel and/or air flow as well as other variables. The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such as engine and ambient temperatures, engine speed and workload, and exhaust gas composition. An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ...


The electronic fuel injector is normally closed, and opens to inject pressurised fuel as long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoid coil. The duration of this operation, called pulse width, is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. The electric pulse may be applied in closely-controlled sequence with the valve events on each individual cylinder (in a sequential fuel injection system), or in groups of less than the total number of injectors (in a batch fire system). For other uses, see Solenoid (disambiguation). ...


Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since the nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events, the ECU calculates fuel in discrete amounts. In a sequential system, the injected fuel mass is tailored for each individual induction event. Every induction event, of every cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements. The four-stroke (4 Stroke) cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...


It is necessary to know the mass of air the engine "breathes" during each induction event. This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using several methods. (See MAF sensor, and MAP sensor.) A mass airflow sensor (MAF) determines the mass of air flowing through a conduit. ... A MAP Sensor (manifold absolute pressure) is a sensor used as part of an internal combustion engines electronic control system. ...


The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However, complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in the exact stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air, with no undesirable polluting leftovers. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ...


To achieve stoichiometry, the air mass flow into the engine is measured and multiplied by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio 14.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. The required fuel mass that must be injected into the engine is then translated to the required pulse width for the fuel injector. The stoichiometric ratio changes as a function of the fuel; diesel, gasoline, ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural gas), or hydrogen.


Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions such as heavy load, or cold operation, in which case, the mixture ratio can range from 10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline).


Pulse width is inversely related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel. Fuel injectors are available in various sizes and spray characteristics as well. Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's software.


Sample pulsewidth calculations

Note: These calculations are based on a 4-stroke-cycle, 5.0L, V-8, gasoline engine. The variables used are real data. The four-stroke (4 Stroke) cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...

Calculate injector pulsewidth from airflow

First the CPU determines the air mass flow rate from the sensors - lb-air/min. (The various methods to determine airflow are beyond the scope of this topic. See MAF sensor, or MAP sensor.)
  • (lb-air/min) × (min/rev) × (rev/4-strokes-per-cycle) = (lb-air/intake-stroke) = (air-charge)
- min/rev is the reciprocal of engine speed (RPM) – minutes cancel.
- rev/2-revs-per-cycle for an 8 cylinder 4-stroke-cycle engine.
  • (lb-air/intake-stroke) × (fuel/air) = (lb-fuel/intake-stroke)
- fuel/air is the desired mixture ratio, usually stoichiometric, but often different depending on operating conditions.
  • (lb-fuel/intake-stroke) × (1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)
- injector-size is the flow capacity of the injector, which in this example is 24 lb/h if the fuel pressure across the injector is 40 psi.
Combining the above three terms . . .
  • (lb-air/min) × (min/rev) × (rev/4-strokes) × (fuel/air) × (1/injector-size) = (pulsewidth/intake-stroke)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at idle.
  • (0.55 lb-air/min) × (min/700 rev) × (rev/4-strokes-per-cycle) × (1/14.64) × (h/24-lb) × (3,600,000 ms/h) = (2.0 ms/intake-stroke)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at maximum power.
  • (28 lb-air/min) × (min/5500 rev) × (rev/4-strokes-per-cycle) × (1/11.00) × (h/24-lb) × (3,600,000 ms/h) = (17 ms/intake-stroke)

Injector pulsewidth typically ranges from 4 ms/engine-cycle at idle, to 35 ms per engine-cycle at wide-open throttle. The pulsewidth accuracy is approximately 0.01 ms; injectors are very precise devices. A mass airflow sensor (MAF) determines the mass of air flowing through a conduit. ... A MAP Sensor (manifold absolute pressure) is a sensor used as part of an internal combustion engines electronic control system. ... The four-stroke (4 Stroke) cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...

Calculate fuel-flow rate from pulsewidth

  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (pulsewidth) × (engine speed) × (number of fuel injectors)
Looking at it another way:
  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (throttle position) × (rpm) × (cylinders)
Looking at it another way:
  • (Fuel flow rate) ≈ (air-charge) × (fuel/air) × (rpm) × (cylinders)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0 L engine at idle.
  • (Fuel flow rate) = (2.0 ms/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000 ms) × (24 lb-fuel/hour) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (700 rev/min) × (60 min/h) = (2.24 lb/h)
Substituting real variables for the 5.0L engine at maximum power.
  • (Fuel flow rate) = (17.3 ms/intake-stroke) × (hour/3,600,000-ms) × (24 lb-fuel/hour) × (4-intake-stroke/rev) × (5500-rev/min) × (60-min/hour) = (152 lb/h)

The fuel consumption rate is 68 times greater at maximum engine output than at idle. This dynamic range of fuel flow is typical of a naturally aspirated passenger car engine. The dynamic range is greater on a supercharged or turbocharged engine. It is interesting to note that 15 gallons of gasoline will be consumed in 37 minutes if maximum output is sustained. On the other hand, this engine could continuously idle for almost 42 hours on the same 15 gallons. A naturally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... For other meanings, see supercharger (disambiguation) A supercharger (sometimes called a blower), a positive displacement or centrifugal pump, is a gas compressor used to pump air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...

Various injection schemes

GM Throttle Body Injection unit
GM Throttle Body Injection unit

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Throttle body injection

Throttle-body injection (called TBI by General Motors and Central Fuel Injection (CFI) by Ford) or single-point injection was introduced in the mid-1980s as a transition technology toward individual port injection. The TBI system injects fuel at the throttle body (the same location where a carburetor introduced fuel). The induction mixture passes through the intake runners like a carburetor system, and is thus labelled a "wet manifold system". The justification for the TBI/CFI phase was low cost. Many of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such as the air cleaner, intake manifold, and fuel line routing. This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of these components. Most of these components were later redesigned for the next phase of fuel injection's evolution, which is individual port injection, commonly known as MPFI or "multi-point injection". TBI was used extensively on American-made passenger cars and light trucks in the 1980 to 1995 timeframe. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Throttle body showing throttle position sensor The throttle body is usually located between the air filter box and the intake manifold, and usually attached to, or near, the mass airflow sensor. ...


Continuous injection

Bosch's K-Jetronic (K stands for kontinuierlich, or continuous) was introduced in 1974. In this system, fuel sprays constantly from the injectors, rather than being pulsed in time with the engine's intake strokes. Gasoline is pumped from the fuel tank to a large control valve called a fuel distributor, which separates the single fuel supply pipe from the tank into smaller pipes, one for each injector. The fuel distributor is mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must pass, and the system works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of the air vane, which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane, and by the control pressure. The control pressure is regulated with a mechanical device called the control pressure regulator (CPR) or the warm-up regulator (WUR). Depending on the model, the CPR may be used to compensate for altitude, full load, and/or a cold engine. On cars equipped with an oxygen sensor, the fuel mixture is adjusted by a device called the frequency valve. The injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles; once fuel system pressure becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring, the injectors begin spraying. K-Jetronic was used for many years between 1974 and the mid 1990s by BMW, Lamborghini, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Ford, Porsche, Audi, Saab, and Volvo. There was also a variant of the system called KE-Jetronic with electronic instead of mechanical control of the control pressure. Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lamborghini (disambiguation). ... This article is about the automobile manufacturer. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... VW redirects here. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... This article is about the auto company. ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ... Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ...


Central port injection (CPI)

General Motors developed an "in-between" technique called "central port injection" (CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). It uses tubes with poppet valves from a central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body. This system tends to have a high failure rate and repair is fairly easy. The 2 models used were CPFI from 1992 to 1995, and CSFI from 1996 and on. On early CPI (CPFI) systems fuel is continuously injected to all ports simultaneously also called "batch fire", which is less than optimal. On 1996 and later CSFI systems the fuel is sprayed sequentially as the name implies "Centralized Sequential Fuel Injection". General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ...


Multi-point fuel injection

Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of the cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold, referred to as SPFI, or single point fuel injection. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke, batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups, without precise synchronisation to any particular cylinder's intake stroke, or Simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.


All modern EFI systems utilize sequential MPFI. Some Toyotas and other Japanese cars from the 1970s to the early 1990s used an application of Bosch's multipoint L-Jetronic system manufactured under license by DENSO. This article is about the automaker. ... Jetronic is a trade name for a type of fuel injection technology marketed by Bosch from the 1960s forward. ... DENSO Corporation (株式会社デンソー) TYO: 6902 is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. ...


Direct injection

Many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). The injection nozzle is placed inside the combustion chamber and the piston incorporates a depression (often toroidal) where initial combustion takes place. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient and cleaner than indirect injection engines. See also High-pressure Direct Injection (HDi). Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... A toroid is a doughnut-shaped object whose surface is a torus. ... In an internal combustion engine, the term indirect injection refers to a fuel injection where fuel is not directly injected into the combustion chamber. ... CRD redirects here. ... The UN Human Development Index (HDI) measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. ...


Some recent petrol engines utilize direct injection as well: Ford, Mazda(DISI), BMW, GM, Lexus, Subaru, Saab, Saturn, Mitsubishi(GDI), Volkswagen and Audi (FSI) (for Fuel Stratified Injection). This is the next step in evolution from multi port fuel injection and offers another magnitude of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the induction system. A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds most dominant automaker since 1931. ... Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. ... For other uses, see Subaru (disambiguation). ... For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ... VW redirects here. ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... Volkswagen has moved boundaries for petrol technology with its FSI unit. ...


This residual pressure may require a depressurization step before the fuel lines are disconnected. A fuel spray of only 100 psi could result in intradermal injection of fuel into the body.


Maintenance hazards

Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used. Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injection-equipped engine has been shut down. This residual pressure must be relieved, and if it is done so by external bleed-off, the fuel must be safely contained. If a high-pressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air, there is a risk to the operator of injury by injury by hypodermic jet-injection, even with only 100 psi pressure. [6]. The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation[7]. A jet injector is a type of medical injecting syringe that uses a high-pressure narrow jet of the injection liquid instead of a hypodermic needle to penetrate the epidermis. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. ...


References

  1. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. "Automobiles: Races; Everybody Manages to Win Something At the Daytona Beach Contests" The New York Times, March 24, 1957. Page 153. Retrieved on December 15, 2007.
  2. ^ Excerpts from 1957 Rambler Rebel owner's manual, retrieved on December 15, 2007.
  3. ^ "Rambler Measures Up" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on December 15, 2007.
  4. ^ American Musclecars: Power to the People, retrieved on December 15, 2007.
  5. ^ "Rambler Measures Up" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, retrieved on December 15, 2007.
  6. ^ Agha, F.P. (1978). "High-pressure paint gun injuries of hand: clinical and roentgen aspects". NY State Journal of Medicine 78: 1955-6. 
  7. ^ Rees, C.E. (1937). "Penetration of Tissue by Fuel Oil Under High Pressure from a Diesel Engine". Journal of the American Medical Association 109: 866-7. 

is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - Fuel injection - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (924 words)
Fuel injection systems may be single point where the fuel is injected using one nozzle, usually in the throttle housing, or multi point where each cylinder has its own injector in the inlet manifold.
Fuel injection has been used in diesel engines since the mid 1920s, almost from their introduction (due to the higher energy required for diesel to evaporate).
Fuel injection became widespread with the introduction of electronically controlled fuel injection systems in the 1980s and the gradual tightening of emissions and fuel economy laws.
fuel injection - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about fuel injection (157 words)
Injecting fuel directly into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine, instead of by way of a carburettor.
In the diesel engine, oil is injected into the hot compressed air at the top of the second piston stroke and explodes to drive the piston down on its power stroke.
In the petrol engine, fuel is injected into the cylinder at the start of the first induction stroke of the four-stroke cycle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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