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Encyclopedia > Fuel cell
Methanol fuel cell. The actual fuel cell stack is the layered bi-cubic structure in the center of the image
Methanol fuel cell. The actual fuel cell stack is the layered bi-cubic structure in the center of the image

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. It produces electricity from various external quantities of fuel (on the anode side) and an oxidant (on the cathode side). These react in the presence of an electrolyte. Generally, the reactants flow in and reaction products flow out while the electrolyte remains in the cell. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1115x1418, 413 KB) Methanol Fuel Cell from http://www2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1115x1418, 413 KB) Methanol Fuel Cell from http://www2. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ...


Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they consume reactant, which must be replenished, whereas batteries store electrical energy chemically in a closed system. Additionally, while the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged, a fuel cell's electrodes are catalytic and relatively stable. For other uses, see Battery. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ...


Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are possible. A hydrogen cell uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen as oxidant. Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols. Other oxidants include air, chlorine and chlorine dioxide.[1] A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ...

Contents

Fuel cell design

In essence, a fuel cell works by catalysis, separating the component electrons and protons of the reactant fuel, and forcing the electrons to travel though a circuit, hence converting them to electrical power. The catalyst is typically comprised of a platinum group metal or alloy. Another catalytic process takes the electrons back in, combining them with the protons and the oxidant to form waste products (typically simple compounds like water and carbon dioxide). For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ...


In the archetypal hydrogen–oxygen proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) design, a proton-conducting polymer membrane, (the electrolyte), separates the anode and cathode sides. This was called a "solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell" (SPEFC) in the early 1970s, before the proton exchange mechanism was well-understood. (Notice that "polymer electrolyte membrane" and "proton exchange membrane" result in the same acronym.) Diagram of a PEM fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary and portable applications. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ...


On the anode side, hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it later dissociates into protons and electrons. These protons often react with oxidants causing them to become what is commonly referred to as multi-facilitated proton membranes (MFPM). The protons are conducted through the membrane to the cathode, but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. On the cathode catalyst, oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circuit) and protons to form water — in this example, the only waste product, either liquid or vapor. 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ...


In addition to this pure hydrogen type, there are hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells, including diesel, methanol (see: direct-methanol fuel cells) and chemical hydrides. The waste products with these types of fuel are carbon dioxide and water. Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

Construction of a low temperature PEMFC: Bipolar plate as electrode with in-milled gas channel structure, fabricated from conductive plastics (enhanced with carbon nanotubes for more conductivity); Porous carbon papers; reactive layer, usually on the polymer membrane applied; polymer membrane.
Construction of a low temperature PEMFC: Bipolar plate as electrode with in-milled gas channel structure, fabricated from conductive plastics (enhanced with carbon nanotubes for more conductivity); Porous carbon papers; reactive layer, usually on the polymer membrane applied; polymer membrane.
Condensation of water produced by a PEMFC on the air channel wall. The gold wire around the cell ensures the collection of electric current.
Condensation of water produced by a PEMFC on the air channel wall. The gold wire around the cell ensures the collection of electric current.[2]

The materials used in fuel cells differ by type. The electrode–bipolar plates are usually made of metal, nickel or carbon nanotubes, and are coated with a catalyst (like platinum, nano iron powders or palladium) for higher efficiency. Carbon paper separates them from the electrolyte. The electrolyte could be ceramic or a membrane. Image File history File links PEM_fuelcell. ... Image File history File links PEM_fuelcell. ... Diagram of a PEM fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary and portable applications. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... // 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bipolar is a term used to define things with two (usually opposing) poles. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... // 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... A sheet of carbon paper, coating side down. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... An artificial membrane, also called a synthetic membrane, is a membrane prepared for separation tasks in laboratory and industry. ...


A typical PEM fuel cell produces a voltage from 0.6 V to 0.7 V at full rated load. Voltage decreases as current increases, due to several factors:

  • Activation loss
  • Ohmic loss (voltage drop due to resistance of the cell components and interconnects)
  • Mass transport loss (depletion of reactants at catalyst sites under high loads, causing rapid loss of voltage)[3]

To deliver the desired amount of energy, the fuel cells can be combined in series and parallel circuits, where series yield higher voltage, and parallel allows a stronger current to be drawn. Such a design is called a fuel cell stack. Further, the cell surface area can be increased, to allow stronger current from each cell. In electrochemistry, overpotential is the difference in the electric potential of an electrode with no current flowing through it, at equilibrium, and with a current flowing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electrical circuit components can be connected together in one of two ways: series or parallel. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...


Fuel cell design issues

  • Costs. In 2002, typical cells had a catalyst content of US$1000 per kilowatt of electric power output. In 2008 UTC Power has 400kw Fuel cells for $1,000,000 per 400kW installed costs. The goal is to reduce the cost in order to compete with current market technologies including gasoline internal combustion engines. Many companies are working on techniques to reduce cost in a variety of ways including reducing the amount of platinum needed in each individual cell. Ballard Power Systems have experiments with a catalyst enhanced with carbon silk which allows a 30% reduction (1 mg/cm² to 0.7 mg/cm²) in platinum usage without reduction in performance.[4]
  • The production costs of the PEM (proton exchange membrane). The Nafion membrane currently costs €400/m². This, and the Toyota PEM and 3M PEM membrane can be replaced with the ITM Power membrane (a hydrocarbon polymer), resulting in a price of ~€4/m². in 2005 Ballard Power Systems announced that its fuel cells will use Solupor, a porous polyethylene film patented by DSM.[5][6]
  • Water and air management[7] (in PEMFCs). In this type of fuel cell, the membrane must be hydrated, requiring water to be evaporated at precisely the same rate that it is produced. If water is evaporated too quickly, the membrane dries, resistance across it increases, and eventually it will crack, creating a gas "short circuit" where hydrogen and oxygen combine directly, generating heat that will damage the fuel cell. If the water is evaporated too slowly, the electrodes will flood, preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction. Methods to manage water in cells are being developed like electroosmotic pumps focusing on flow control. Just as in a combustion engine, a steady ratio between the reactant and oxygen is necessary to keep the fuel cell operating efficiently.
  • Temperature management. The same temperature must be maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through thermal loading. This is particularly challenging as the 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O reaction is highly exothermic, so a large quantity of heat is generated within the fuel cell.
  • Durability, service life, and special requirements for some type of cells. Stationary applications typically require more than 40,000 hours of reliable operation at a temperature of -35 °C to 40 °C, while automotive fuel cells require a 5,000 hour lifespan (the equivalent of 150,000 miles) under extreme temperatures. Automotive engines must also be able to start reliably at -30 °C and have a high power to volume ratio (typically 2.5 kW per liter).
  • Limited carbon monoxide tolerance of the anode.

Ballard Power Systems (TSX: BLD, NASDAQ: BLDP), located in Burnaby, British Columbia -- a suburb of Vancouver -- is a company that designs, develops, and manufactures zero emission proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. ... Nafion® is a sulfonated tetrafluorethylene copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont de Nemours. ... This article is about the automaker. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM), formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002, is an American corporation with a worldwide presence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM N.V.) is a multinational chemicals company. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Service life refers to the expected lifetime of a product. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...

History

The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838 and published in the January 1839 edition of the "Philosophical Magazine".[8] Based on this work, the first fuel cell was developed by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove in 1843. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell. In 1955, W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company (GE), further modified the original fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte. Three years later another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, which served as catalyst for the necessary hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. This became known as the 'Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell'. GE went on to develop this technology with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, leading to its use during Project Gemini. This was the first commercial use of a fuel cell. It wasn't until 1959 that British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon successfully developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell. In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs. This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants. Later in 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine. In the 1960s, Pratt and Whitney licensed Bacon's U.S. patents for use in the U.S. space program to supply electricity and drinking water (hydrogen and oxygen being readily available from the spacecraft tanks). Christian Friedrich Schönbein (October 18, 1799 – August 29, 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is most well-known for his discovery of guncotton. ... Sir William Robert Grove (1811 – 1896) was a British chemist born in Swansea in Wales. ... Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. ... Ge may refer to: Gê, a group of indigenous Brazilian tribes and their Ge languages Ge (Cyrillic) (Г, г), a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet Ge with upturn (Ґ, Ò‘), a letter of the Ukrainian alphabet Nikolai Ge, a Russian painter GÄ“, an ancient Chinese dagger-axe Ge (genus), a genus of butterflies Also... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Francis Thomas Bacon (December 21, 1904 - 1992), born at Ramsden Hall, Billericay, Essex, UK was a British Engineer. ...


United Technology Corp.'s UTC Power subsidiary was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a co-generation power plant in hospitals, universities and large office buildings. UTC Power continues to market this fuel cell as the PureCell 200, a 200 kW system.[9] UTC Power continues to be the sole supplier of fuel cells to NASA for use in space vehicles, having supplied the Apollo missions, [10] and currently the Space Shuttle program, and is developing fuel cells for automobiles, buses, and cell phone towers; the company has demonstrated the first fuel cell capable of starting under freezing conditions with its proton exchange membrane automotive fuel cell. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) (NYSE: UTX) is a major multinational corporation based in Hartford, Connecticut. ... UTC Power provides On-Site Power Products, Transportation Products, and Space and Defense Solutions . ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Proton-exchange fuel cells, also known as Polymer Electrolyte (Membrane) Fuel Cells (PEM or PEMFC) are low temperature fuel cells which are being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary applications. ...


Types of fuel cells

Fuel Cell Name Electrolyte Qualified Power (W) Working Temperature (°C) Electrical efficiency Status
Metal hydride fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution (e.g.potassium hydroxide) ? above -20
(50% Ppeak @ 0°C)
? Commercial/Research
Electro-galvanic fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution (e.g., potassium hydroxide) ? under 40 ? Commercial/Research
Direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) Polymer membrane (ionomer) to 50 W under 40 ? Commercial/Research
Zinc-air battery Aqueous alkaline solution (e.g., potassium hydroxide) ? under 40 ? Mass production
Microbial fuel cell Polymer membrane or humic acid ? under 40 ? Research
Upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC) ? under 40 ? Research
Reversible fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) ? under 50 ? Commercial/Research
Direct borohydride fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution (e.g., sodium hydroxide) ? 70 ? Commercial
Alkaline fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution (e.g., potassium hydroxide) 10 kW to 100 kW under 80 Cell: 60–70%
System: 62%
Commercial/Research
Direct methanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 100 kW to 1 MW 90–120 Cell: 20–30%
System: 10–20%
Commercial/Research
Reformed methanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 5 W to 100 kW (Reformer)250–300
(PBI)125–200
Cell: 50–60%
System: 25–40%
Commercial/Research
Direct-ethanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) up to 140 mW/cm² above 25
? 90–120
? Research
Direct formic acid fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) ? 25+ ? Research
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) (e.g., Nafion or Polybenzimidazole fiber) 100 W to 500 kW (Nafion)50–120
(PBI)125–220
Cell: 50–70%
System: 30–50%
Commercial/Research
RFC - Redox Liquid electrolytes with redox shuttle & polymer membrane (Ionomer) 1 kW to 10 MW ? ? Research
Phosphoric acid fuel cell Molten phosphoric acid (H3PO4) up to 10 MW 150-200 Cell: 55%
System: 40%
Co-Gen: 90%
Commercial/Research
Molten carbonate fuel cell Molten alkaline carbonate (e.g., sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3) 100 MW 600-650 Cell: 55%
System: 47%
Commercial/Research
Tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) O2--conducting ceramic oxide (e.g., zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) up to 100 MW 850-1100 Cell: 60–65%
System: 55–60%
Commercial/Research
Protonic ceramic fuel cell H+-conducting ceramic oxide ? 700 ? Research
Direct carbon fuel cell Several different ? 700-850 Cell: 80%
System: 70%
Commercial/Research
Planar Solid oxide fuel cell O2--conducting ceramic oxide (e.g., zirconium dioxide, ZrO2 Lanthanum Nickle Oxide La2XO4,X= Ni,Co, Cu.) up to 100 MW room temperature Cell: 60–65%
System: 55–60%
Commercial/Research

For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The efficiency of an entity (a device, component, or system) in electronics and electrical engineering is defined as useful power output divided by the total electrical power consumed (a fractional expression). ... Metal hydride fuel cells are a subclass of alkaline fuel cells that are currently in the research and development phase. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... An electro-galvanic fuel cell is an electrical device used to measure the concentration of oxygen gas in SCUBA diving and medical equipment. ... The Formic acid fuel cell is a type of fuel cell that uses formic acid as a fuel. ... Zinc-air batteries, also called “zinc-air fuel cells,“ are non-rechargeable electro-chemical batteries powered by the oxidation of zinc with oxygen from the air. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a device in which micro-organisms oxidize compounds such as glucose, acetate or wastewater. ... Humic acid is one of the major components of humic substances which are dark brown and major constituents of soil organic matter humus that contributes to soil chemical and physical quality and are also precursors of some fossil fuels. ... By nature, all fuel cells - which are devices meant to convert chemical energy into electrical energy - can also be operated backwards. ... An ionomer is a polyelectrolyte that comprises copolymers containing both electrically neutral repeating units and a fraction of ionic units (usually no more than 15%). Categories: Chemistry stubs | Polymers | Plastics ... Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell or DBFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel is a solution of Sodium borohydride. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Diagram of an Alkaline Fuel Cell The alkaline fuel cell (AFC), also known as the Bacon fuel cell after its British inventor, is one of the most developed fuel cell technologies and is the cell that flew Man to the Moon. ... Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol (CH3OH), is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... block diagram of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell systems or RMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol (CH3OH), is reformed, before being fed into the fuel cell. ... Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, ethanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Diagram of a PEM fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary and portable applications. ... Nafion® is a sulfonated tetrafluorethylene copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont de Nemours. ... PolyBenzImidazole or PBI fiber (1983) is a synthetic fiber with an extremely high melting point that also does not ignite. ... A Flow Battery is a form of secondary battery in which the electrolytes are not confined to within the power cell its self. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Scheme of a Phosphoric-acid fuel cell Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Scheme of a molten-carbonate fuel cell Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells, in the range of 600ºC. Their main problem is corrosion, and the need to operate a high-temperature liquid rather than a solid as in the solid-oxide fuel cells. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia, is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ... This new type of fuel cell is based on a ceramic electrolyte material that exhibits high protonic conductivity at elevated temperatures. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia, is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ...

Efficiency

Fuel cell efficiency

The efficiency of a fuel cell is dependent on the amount of power drawn from it. Drawing more power means drawing more current, which increases the losses in the fuel cell. As a general rule, the more power (current) drawn, the lower the efficiency. Most losses manifest themselves as a voltage drop in the cell, so the efficiency of a cell is almost proportional to its voltage. For this reason, it is common to show graphs of voltage versus current (so-called polarization curves) for fuel cells. A typical cell running at 0.7 V has an efficiency of about 50%, meaning that 50% of the energy content of the hydrogen is converted into electrical energy; the remaining 50% will be converted into heat. (Depending on the fuel cell system design, some fuel might leave the system unreacted, constituting an additional loss.)


For a hydrogen cell operating at standard conditions with no reactant leaks, the efficiency is equal to the cell voltage divided by 1.48 V, based on the enthalpy, or heating value, of the reaction. For the same cell, the second law efficiency is equal to cell voltage divided by 1.23 V. (This voltage varies with fuel used, and quality and temperature of the cell.) The difference between these number represents the difference between the reaction's enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This difference always appears as heat, along with any losses in electrical conversion efficiency. t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ... Exergy efficiency is also called second-law efficiency because it computes the efficiency of a process taking the second law of thermodynamics into account. ... t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ...


Fuel cells are not constrained by the maximum Carnot cycle efficiency as combustion engines are, because they do not operate with a thermal cycle. At times this is misrepresented by saying that fuel cells are exempt from the laws of thermodynamics, because most people think of thermodynamics in terms of combustion processes (enthalpy of formation). The laws of thermodynamics also hold for chemical processes (Gibb's free energy) like fuel cells, but the maximum theoretical efficiency is higher (83% efficient at 298K [11]) than the Otto cycle thermal efficiency (60% for compression ratio of 10 and specific heat ratio of 1.4). Of course, comparing limits imposed by thermodynamics is not a good predictor of practically achievable efficiencies. Also, if propulsion is the goal, electrical output of the fuel cell has to still be converted into mechanical power with the corresponding inefficiency. In reference to the exemption claim, the correct claim is that the "limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics on the operation of fuel cells are much less severe than the limitations imposed on conventional energy conversion systems".[12] Consequently, they can have very high efficiencies in converting chemical energy to electrical energy, especially when they are operated at low power density, and using pure hydrogen and oxygen as reactants. The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of that substance from its component elements, at their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 25 degrees Celsius and 100 kilopascals). ... In thermodynamics the Gibbs free energy is a state function of any system defined as G = H − T·S where G is the Gibbs free energy, measured in joules H is the enthalpy, measured in joules T is the temperature, measured in kelvins S is the entropy, measured in joules... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ...


In practice

For a fuel cell operated on air (rather than bottled oxygen), losses due to the air supply system must also be taken into account. This refers to the pressurization of the air and adding moisture to it. This reduces the efficiency significantly and brings it near to that of a compression ignition engine. Furthermore fuel cells have lower efficiencies at higher loads.


The tank-to-wheel efficiency of a fuel cell vehicle is about 45% at low loads and shows average values of about 36% when a driving cycle like the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) is used as test procedure.[13] The comparable NEDC value for a Diesel vehicle is 22%.


It is also important to take losses due to production, transportation, and storage into account. Fuel cell vehicles running on compressed hydrogen may have a power-plant-to-wheel efficiency of 22% if the hydrogen is stored as high-pressure gas, and 17% if it is stored as liquid hydrogen.[14] Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. ...


Fuel cells cannot store energy like a battery, but in some applications, such as stand-alone power plants based on discontinuous sources such as solar or wind power, they are combined with electrolyzers and storage systems to form an energy storage system. The overall efficiency (electricity to hydrogen and back to electricity) of such plants (known as round-trip efficiency) is between 30 and 50%, depending on conditions.[15] While a much cheaper lead-acid battery might return about 90%, the electrolyzer/fuel cell system can store indefinite quantities of hydrogen, and is therefore better suited for long-term storage. Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ...


Solid-oxide fuel cells produce exothermic heat from the recombination of the oxygen and hydrogen. The ceramic can run as hot as 800 degrees Celsius. This heat can be captured and used to heat water in a micro combined heat and power (m-CHP) application. When the heat is captured, total efficiency can reach 80-90%. CHP units are being developed today for the European home market. Micro combined heat and power or microCHP is an extension of the now well established idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building. ...


Fuel cell applications

Type 212 submarine with fuel cell propulsion of the German Navy in dock
Type 212 submarine with fuel cell propulsion of the German Navy in dock

Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks, rural locations, and in certain military applications. A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact, lightweight and has no major moving parts. Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99.9999% reliability.[16] This equates to less than one minute of down time in a six year period. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x825, 383 KB) Submarine Typ 212 in Docks at HDW/Kiel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x825, 383 KB) Submarine Typ 212 in Docks at HDW/Kiel. ... The German Type 212 is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine (U-Boat) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German Navy. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air...


A new application is micro combined heat and power, which is cogeneration for family homes, office buildings and factories. This type of system generates constant electric power (selling excess power back to the grid when it is not consumed), and at the same time produces hot air and water from the waste heat. A lower fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency is tolerated (typically 15-20%), because most of the energy not converted into electricity is utilized as heat. Some heat is lost with the exhaust gas just as in a normal furnace, so the combined heat and power efficiency is still lower than 100%, typically around 80%. In terms of exergy however, the process is inefficient, and one could do better by maximizing the electricity generated and then using the electricity to drive a heat pump. Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC) comprise the largest segment of existing CHP products worldwide and can provide combined efficiencies close to 90%[17] (35-50% electric + remainder as thermal) Molten-carbonate fuel cells have also been installed in these applications, and solid-oxide fuel cell prototypes exist. Micro combined heat and power or microCHP is an extension of the now well established idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building. ... For other uses, see CHP. Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... Exergy is defined differently in different fields of study. ... A heat pump is a machine or device that moves heat from one location (the source) to another location (the sink), using work. ... Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. ... Scheme of a molten-carbonate fuel cell Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells, in the range of 600ºC. They operate at the highest efficiencies of any type fuel cell, including solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells and phosphoric acid fuel cell and... Solid oxide fuel cells, or SOFC, are intended mainly for stationary applications with an output of 1 kW and larger (power plants). ...

The world's first certified Fuel Cell Boat (HYDRA), in Leipzig/Germany

. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 409 pixelsFull resolution (1561 × 799 pixel, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo of the worlds first certified Fuel Cell Boat (HYDRA) realised by Christian Machens. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 409 pixelsFull resolution (1561 × 799 pixel, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo of the worlds first certified Fuel Cell Boat (HYDRA) realised by Christian Machens. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ...


Since electrolyzer systems do not store fuel in themselves, but rather rely on external storage units, they can be successfully applied in large-scale energy storage, rural areas being one example. In this application, batteries would have to be largely oversized to meet the storage demand, but fuel cells only need a larger storage unit (typically cheaper than an electrochemical device).


One such pilot program is operating on Stuart Island in Washington State. There the Stuart Island Energy Initiative [18]has built a complete, closed-loop system: Solar panels power an electrolyzer which makes hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in a 500 gallon tank at 200 PSI, and runs a ReliOn fuel cell to provide full electric back-up to the off-the-grid residence. The SIEI website gives extensive technical details.


The world's first Fuel Cell operated and certified passenger ship was the "HYDRA" (see picture). Mr. Christian Machens was the founder of the company "etaing GmbH" and realised this project with a small team of young engineers in Leipzig. It was christened in June 2000 in Bonn. The Fuel Cell System (AFC type, 6,5 kWel net output) was built in Wurzen near Leipzig, the hull was built in Hamburg and it was certified by the Germanischer Lloyd (Hamburg). The boat has transported around 2.000 persons without any major technical problems. The main advantages of the AFC technology are that the system can start at freezing temperatures (-10°C) and is not sensitive to a salty environment.


Suggested applications

Toyota FCHV PEM FC fuel cell vehicle
Toyota FCHV PEM FC fuel cell vehicle

A base load power plant is one that provides a steady flow of power regardless of total power demand by the grid. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... Auxiliary power: Electric power that is provided by an alternate source and that serves as backup for the primary power source at the station main bus or prescribed sub-bus. ... Power line redirects here. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... A smartphone is generally considered any handheld device that integrates personal information management and mobile phone capabilities in the same device. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1957x1536, 2342 KB) Description: Toyota FCHV fuel cell vehicle Source: The photograph was taken by Kjkolb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1957x1536, 2342 KB) Description: Toyota FCHV fuel cell vehicle Source: The photograph was taken by Kjkolb. ... Toyota FCHV The Toyota FCHV is a series of prototype hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, presented in 2001. ... Diagram of a PEM fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary and portable applications. ...

Hydrogen transportation and refueling

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen station.
For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen highway.

The first public hydrogen refueling station was opened in Reykjavík, Iceland in April 2003. This station serves three buses built by DaimlerChrysler that are in service in the public transport net of Reykjavík. The station produces the hydrogen it needs by itself, with an electrolyzing unit (produced by Norsk Hydro), and does not need refilling: all that enters is electricity and water. Royal Dutch Shell is also a partner in the project. The station has no roof, in order to allow any leaked hydrogen to escape to the atmosphere. A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. ... Proposed hydrogen highways are chains of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure which allow hydrogen powered cars to travel long distances. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds eighth largest car manufacturer. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... Norsk Hydro ASA is a Norwegian oil and energy and integrated aluminium company, headquartered in Oslo. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ...

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen vehicle.

The GM 1966 Electrovan was the automotive industry's first attempt at an automobile powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. The Electrovan, which weighed more than twice as much as a normal van, could travel up to 70mph for 30 seconds.[19][20] Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ...


The 2001 Chrysler Natrium used its own on-board hydrogen processor. It produces hydrogen for the fuel cell by reacting sodium borohydride fuel with Borax, both of which Chrysler claimed was naturally occurring in great quantity in the United States.[21] The hydrogen produces electric power in the fuel cell for near-silent operation and a range of 300 miles without impinging on passenger space. Chrysler also developed vehicles which separated hydrogen from gasoline in the vehicle, the purpose being to reduce emissions without relying on a nonexistent hydrogen infrastructure and to avoid large storage tanks.[22] The Chrysler Natrium is a fuel cell-type hydrogen vehicle based on the Chrysler Town and Country. ... Borax from Persian burah. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ...


In 2005 the British firm Intelligent Energy produced the first ever working hydrogen run motorcycle called the ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle). The motorcycle holds enough fuel to run for four hours, and to travel 100 miles in an urban area. Its top speed is 50 miles per hour.[23] Honda is also going to offer fuel-cell motorcycles.[24][25] For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... env is a shell utility for Unix-like operating systems (including Linux). ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... The ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle) is an electric motorcycle prototype powered by an hydrogen fuel cell. ...

A hydrogen fuel cell public bus accelerating at traffic lights in Perth, Western Australia
A hydrogen fuel cell public bus accelerating at traffic lights in Perth, Western Australia

There are numerous prototype or production cars and buses based on fuel cell technology being researched or manufactured. Research is ongoing at a variety of motor car manufacturers. Honda has announced the release of a hydrogen vehicle in 2008.[26] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ...


Type 212 submarines use fuel cells to remain submerged for weeks without the need to surface. The German Type 212 is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine (U-Boat) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German Navy. ...


Boeing researchers and industry partners throughout Europe are planning to conduct experimental flight tests in 2007 of a manned airplane powered only by a fuel cell and lightweight batteries. The Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane research project was completed recently and thorough systems integration testing is now under way in preparation for upcoming ground and flight testing. The Boeing demonstrator uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric motor, which is coupled to a conventional propeller. The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


Market structure

Not all geographic markets are ready for SOFC powered m-CHP appliances. Currently, the regions that lead the race in Distributed Generation and deployment of fuel cell m-CHP units are the EU and Japan.[27]


Hydrogen economy

Main article: Hydrogen economy

Electrochemical extraction of energy from hydrogen via fuel cells is an especially clean method of meeting our power needs, but not an efficient one, due to the necessity of adding large amounts of energy to either water or hydrocarbon fuels in order to produce the hydrogen. Additionally, during the extraction of hydrogen from hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide is released. Although this gas is artificially converted into carbon dioxide, such a method of extracting hydrogen remains environmentally injurious. It must however be noted that regarding the concept of the hydrogen vehicle, burning/combustion of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine (IC/ICE) is often confused with the electrochemical process of generating electricity via fuel cells (FC) in which there is no combustion (though there is a small byproduct of heat in the reaction). Both processes require the establishment of a hydrogen economy before they may be considered commercially viable, and even then, the aforementioned energy costs make a hydrogen economy of questionable environmental value. Hydrogen combustion is similar to petroleum combustion, and like petroleum combustion, still results in nitrogen oxides as a by-product of the combustion, which lead to smog. Hydrogen combustion, like that of petroleum, is limited by the Carnot efficiency, but is completely different from the hydrogen fuel cell's chemical conversion process of hydrogen to electricity and water without combustion. Hydrogen fuel cells emit only water during use, while producing carbon dioxide emissions during the majority of hydrogen production, which comes from natural gas. Direct methane or natural gas conversion (whether IC or FC) also generate carbon dioxide emissions, but direct hydrocarbon conversion in high-temperature fuel cells produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than either combustion of the same fuel (due to the higher efficiency of the fuel cell process compared to combustion), and also lower carbon dioxide emissions than hydrogen fuel cells, which use methane less efficiently than high-temperature fuel cells by first converting it to high-purity hydrogen by steam reforming. Although hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis of water using renewable energy, at present less than 3% of hydrogen is produced in this way. A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... Electrochemistry is the study of the electronic and electrical aspects of chemical reactions. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Exergy efficiency is also called second-law efficiency because it computes the efficiency of a process taking the second law of thermodynamics into account. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Hydrogen is an energy carrier, and not an energy source, because it is usually produced from other energy sources via petroleum combustion, wind power, or solar photovoltaic cells. Hydrogen may be produced from subsurface reservoirs of methane and natural gas by a combination of steam reforming with the water gas shift reaction, from coal by coal gasification, or from oil shale by oil shale gasification.[citation needed] Electrolysis, which requires electricity, and high-temperature electrolysis/thermochemical production, which requires high temperatures (ideal for nuclear reactors), are two primary methods for the extraction of hydrogen from water. An energy carrier is simply any system or substance used to transfer energy from somewhere to somewhere else. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... The water gas shift reaction is an inorganic chemical reaction in which water and carbon monoxide react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (water splitting): CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 The water gas shift reaction is part of steam reforming of hydrocarbons[1] and is involved in the chemistry of catalytic... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Oil shale extraction refers to the process that converts kerogen, an immature form of hydrocarbon trapped in the oil shale, into a useable hydrocarbons in form of a petroleum-like shale oil—a form of non-conventional oil—and combustible shale gas. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... High-temperature electrolysis schema. ... Hydrogen production is commonly completed from hydrocarbon fossil fuels via a chemical path. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


As of 2005, 49.7% of the electricity produced in the United States comes from coal, 19.3% comes from nuclear, 18.7% comes from natural gas, 6.5% from hydroelectricity, 3% from petroleum and the remaining 2.8% mostly coming from geothermal, solar and biomass. [28] When hydrogen is produced through electrolysis, the energy comes from these sources. Though the fuel cell itself will only emit heat and water as waste, pollution is often caused when generating the electricity required to produce the hydrogen that the fuel cell uses as its power source (for example, when coal, oil, or natural gas-generated electricity is used). This will be the case unless the hydrogen is produced using electricity generated by hydroelectric, geothermal, solar, wind or other clean power sources (which may or may not include nuclear power, depending on one's attitude to the nuclear waste byproducts); hydrogen is only as clean as the energy sources used to produce it. If fusion power were to become a viable energy source, then this would provide a clean method of producing abundant electricity. A holistic approach has to take into consideration the impacts of an extended hydrogen scenario, including the production, the use and the disposal of infrastructure and energy converters. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Petro redirects here. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. ... Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ...


Nowadays low temperature fuel cell stacks proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) make extensive use of catalysts. Impurities poison or foul the catalysts (reducing activity and efficiency), thus higher catalyst densities are required.[29] Limited reserves of platinum quicken the synthesis of an inorganic complex very similar to the catalytic iron-sulfur core of bacterial hydrogenase to step in.[30] Although platinum is seen by some as one of the major "showstoppers" to mass market fuel cell commercialization companies, most predictions of platinum running out and/or platinum prices soaring do not take into account effects of thrifting (reduction in catalyst loading) and recycling. Recent research at Brookhaven National Laboratory could lead to the replacement of platinum by a gold-palladium coating which may be less susceptible to poisoning and thereby improve fuel cell lifetime considerably.[31] Current targets for a transport PEM fuel cells are 0.2 g/kW Pt – which is a factor of 5 decrease over current loadings – and recent comments from major original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) indicate that this is possible. Also it is fully anticipated that recycling of fuel cells components, including platinum, will kick-in. High-temperature fuel cells, including molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC's) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's), do not use platinum as catalysts, but instead use cheaper materials such as nickel and nickel oxide, which are considerably more abundant (for example, nickel is used in fairly large quantities in common stainless steel). Diagram of a PEM fuel cell Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed for transport applications as well as for stationary and portable applications. ... Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol (CH3OH), is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Scheme of a Phosphoric-acid fuel cell Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... The international recycling symbol. ... Scheme of a solid-oxide fuel cell Solid oxide fuel cells, or SOFC, are intended mainly for stationary applications with an output of 1 kW and larger (power plants). ...


Research and development

  • August 2005: Georgia Institute of Technology researchers use triazole to raise the operating temperature of PEM fuel cells from below 100 °C to over 120 °C, claiming this will require less carbon-monoxide purification of the hydrogen fuel.[32]
  • 2006:Staxon introduced an inexpensive OEM fuel cell module for system integration. In 2006 Angstrom Power, a British Columbia based company, began commercial sales of portable devices using proprietary hydrogen fuel cell technology, trademarked as "micro hydrogen."[33][34]

The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... Triazole refers to either one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. ...

See also

Electronics Portal
Energy Portal
Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... ... Distributed generation generates electricity from many small energy sources. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... A Flow Battery is a form of secondary battery in which the electrolytes are not confined to within the power cell its self. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ... A hydrogen reformer is a device that extracts the hydrogen contained in other fuels. ... Hydrogen storage is the main technological problem of a viable hydrogen economy. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Microgeneration is the generation of zero or low-carbon heat and power by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet their own needs. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Water splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is converted into oxygen and hydrogen. ... The water fuel cell, named by American Stanley Meyer, is a device designed to convert water into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen (2H2O → 2H2 + O2). ...

References

  1. ^ S. G. Meibuhr, Electrochim. Acta, 11, 1301 (1966)
  2. ^ LEMTA - Our fuel cells
  3. ^ Larminie, James (May 2003). Fuel Cell Systems Explained, Second Edition. SAE International. ISBN 0768012597. 
  4. ^ "Ballard Power Systems: Commercially Viable Fuel Cell Stack Technology Ready by 2010", March 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  5. ^ EP patent 0950075, "Electrolytic Membrane, Method of Manufacturing it and Use", granted 2003-02-12, assigned to DSM 
  6. ^ Ballard Uses Solupor (September 13, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  7. ^ Water_and_Air_Management
  8. ^ History of Fuel Cells. Johnson Matthey plc.. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  9. ^ The PureCell 200 - Product Overview. UTC Power. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  10. ^ Apollo Space Program Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  11. ^ Fuel Cell efficiency
  12. ^ About Fuel Cells. MIT / NASA. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  13. ^ Fuel Cell Vehicles:Status 2007 (March 20, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  14. ^ Efficiency of Hydrogen PEFC, Diesel-SOFC-Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles (July 15, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  15. ^ "Round Trip Energy Efficiency of NASA Glenn Regenerative Fuel Cell System" (January 2006). Preprint. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  16. ^ Fuel Cell Basics: Benefits. Fuel Cells 2000. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  17. ^ Fuel Cell Efficiency. UTC Power. Retrieved on 2007-11-16.
  18. ^ Stuart Island Energy Initiative
  19. ^ Fuel Cell Vehicles:Status 2007 (March 20, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  20. ^ "An Electrovan, Not an Edsel" by Danny Hakim. New York Times. New York, N.Y.: November 17, 2002. pg. 3.2
  21. ^ natrium
  22. ^ Chrysler Fuel Cell Vehicles. allpar.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  23. ^ The ENV Bike. Intelligent Energy. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  24. ^ "Honda Develops Fuel Cell Scooter Equipped with Honda FC Stack", Honda Motor Co., August 24, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  25. ^ Bryant, Eric (July 21, 2005). Honda to offer fuel-cell motorcycle. autoblog.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  26. ^ "Honda readies fuel-cell car for 2008 launch", CBC News, September 25, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  27. ^ m-CHP
  28. ^ EIA - Electricity Data, Analysis, Surveys
  29. ^ Faur-Ghenciu, Anca (April/May 2003). "Fuel Processing Catalysts for Hydrogen Reformate Generation for PEM Fuel Cells". FuelCell Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  30. ^ Borman, Stu (February 14, 2005). "Iron-Sulfur Core Assembled". Chemical & Engineering News 83 (7): 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  31. ^ Johnson, R. Colin. "Gold is key to ending platinum dissolution in fuel cells", EETimes.com, January 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  32. ^ "Chemical Could Revolutionize Polymer Fuel Cells", Georgia Institute of Technology, August 24, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  33. ^ Angstrom Power products. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  34. ^ Micro-Fuel Cell Blog. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.

SAE International (SAE) is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in aerospace, automotive and the commercial vehicle industries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • TC 105 IEC Technical standard for Fuel Cells
  • BIGS: Fuel Cell Animation
  • EERE: Fuel Cell Types
  • EERE: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program
  • Fuel Cell Today
  • Fuel Cells 2000
  • USFCC
  • Ponaganset's Fuel Cell Education Initiative Classes
  • r2h Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Wiki
  • Thermodynamics of electrolysis of water and hydrogen fuel cells
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cells - Alternative Renewable Energy
  • Questions and answers on Hydrogen and Hydrogen Fuel Cells
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...

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The Fuel Cell Seminar & Exposition (0 words)
The Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition is the premier meeting for the fuel cell industry.
The Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition offers the largest number of technical papers, the most exhibits and the best coverage of the latest technical advances in the field.
Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition exhibitors and sponsors represent the latest in leading research and development—both domestically and abroad.
Fuel Cell background information (4731 words)
A fuel cell is an electrochemical device which brings together hydrogen and oxygen, or air in the midst of a catalyst to produce electricity, heat and water.
This type of fuel cell is still in the design stages because of the problems of finding a good electrocatalyst to both, transform methanol into carbon dioxide and hydrogen efficiently and to reduce oxygen in the presence of methanol should any transfer through the electrolyte which is in itself a problem (1, 7, 8).
A fuel cell generates power though a voltage difference and current, therefore electrical separation of the poles is required in order not to short the cell thus subverting all current through the short and not through the load.
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