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Encyclopedia > Fruit
Fruit and vegetable output in 2004
Fruit and vegetable output in 2004

The term fruit has many different meanings depending on context. In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds— of a flowering plant. In many species, the fruit incorporates the ripened ovary and the surrounding tissues. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds.[1] Look up fruit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


In cuisine, when food items are called "fruit", the term is most often used for those plant fruits that are edible and sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. But in cooking, the word fruit may also rarely be loosely applied to other parts of a plant, such as the stems of rhubarb, which are made into sweet pies, but which are not botanically a fruit at all. Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...


Although the word fruit has limited use in cooking, in reality a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are botanically speaking, the fruits of various plant species.[2] No single terminology really fits the enormous variety that is found among plant fruits.[3] The cuisine terminology for fruits is quite inexact and is likely to remain so. For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ...


The term false fruit (pseudocarp, accessory fruit) is sometimes applied to a fruit like the fig (a multiple-accessory fruit; see below) or to a plant structure that resembles a fruit but is not derived from a flower or flowers. Some gymnosperms, such as yew, have fleshy arils that resemble fruits and some junipers have berry-like, fleshy cones. The term "fruit" has also been inaccurately applied to the seed-containing female cones of many conifers.[4] An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ...


With most cultivated fruits, pollination is a vital part of fruit culture, and the lack of knowledge of pollinators and pollenizers can contribute to poor crops or poor quality crops. In a few species, the fruit may develop in the absence of pollination/fertilization, a process known as parthenocarpy.[5] Such fruits are seedless. A plant that does not produce fruit is known as acarpous, meaning "without fruit".[6] Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... The words pollenizer (polleniser) and pollinator are often confused. ... In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpic literally means virgin fruit; the fruit develops without fertilization of ovules, therefore it is seedless. ...

Contents

Botanic fruit and culinary fruit

Venn diagram representing the relationship between (culinary) vegetables and (botanical) fruits. Some vegetables fall into both categories.
Venn diagram representing the relationship between (culinary) vegetables and (botanical) fruits. Some vegetables fall into both categories.

Many foods are botanically fruit, but are treated as vegetables in cooking and food preparation. These include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomato, peas, beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper, spices, such as allspice and chillies.[2] Occasionally, though rarely, a culinary "fruit" is not a true fruit in the botanical sense. For example, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, however only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible.[7] In the culinary sense, a fruit is usually any sweet tasting plant product associated with seed(s), a vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product, and a nut any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.[8] A Venn diagram of sets A, B, and C Venn diagrams (or set diagrams) are illustrations used in the branch of mathematics known as set theory. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses and abbreviations, see PEA. Binomial name L. A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Savoury () denotes a broad band of flavour which is characteristically salty or spicy. ...


Although a nut is a type of fruit, it is also a popular term for edible seeds, such as peanuts (which are actually a legume) and pistachios.[9] Technically, a cereal grain is a fruit termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin and fused to the seed coat so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed. Therefore, cereal grains, such as corn, wheat and rice are better considered edible seeds, although some references list them as fruits.[10] Edible gymnosperms seeds are often misleadingly given fruit names, e.g. pine nuts, ginkgo nuts, and juniper berries. For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... This article is about the legume. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Grain redirects here. ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ...


Fruit development

The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7½ month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see image page for further information)
The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7½ month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see image page for further information)
Main article: Fruit anatomy

A fruit is a ripened ovary. After the ovule in an ovary is fertilized in a process known as pollination, the ovary begins to ripen. The ovule develops into a seed and the ovary wall pericarp may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. Fruit development continues until the seeds have matured. With some multiseeded fruits the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.[11] The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...


The wall of the fruit, developed from the ovary wall of the flower, is called the pericarp. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer - also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. The plant hormone ethylene causes ripening. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.[4] Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ...


Fruits are so diverse that it is difficult to devise a classification scheme that includes all known fruits. Many common terms for seeds and fruit are incorrectly applied, a fact that complicates understanding of the terminology. Seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds. To these two basic definitions can be added the clarification that in botanical terminology, a nut is not a type of fruit and not another term for seed, on the contrary to common terminology.[2] For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...


There are three basic types of fruits:

  1. Simple fruit
  2. Aggregate fruit
  3. Multiple fruit

Simple fruit

Epigynous berries are simple fleshy fruit. From top right: cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries red huckleberries
Epigynous berries are simple fleshy fruit. From top right: cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries red huckleberries

Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent (opening to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (not opening to discharge seeds).[12] Types of dry, simple fruits (with examples) are: Species Vaccinium erythrocarpum Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium microcarpum Vaccinium oxycoccus Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. ... Binomial nomenclature Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Ref: ITIS 505637 The Cowberry or Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) is a small evergreen shrub in the plant Family Ericaceae that bears edible fruits. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word Huckleberry, see Huckleberry Finn and Huckleberry Hound. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Dehiscence is the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents. ...

Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits. Types of fleshy, simple fruits (with examples) are: An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... This article is about the flower. ... Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata. ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... In botany, a follicle is a dry fruit which splits along one rupture site in order to release seeds, such as in larkspur, magnolia, banksia, peony and milkweed. ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... For other uses and abbreviations, see PEA. Binomial name L. A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... This article is about the legume. ... A loment is a type of modified legume that breaks apart at constrictions occurring between the segments of the seeds. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... Maple samara or key A samara is a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... A schizocarp is a dry fruit that develops from multiple carpels. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... A silique is a fruit (seed pod) of 2 fused carpels that separate when ripe, leaving a peristant partition. ... This article is about the vegetable. ... A silique is a fruit (seed pod) of 2 fused carpels that separate when ripe, leaving a peristant partition. ... Binomial name Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ...

This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and northern Italy). ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa See Physalis peruviana for the tomato-like fruit commonly known as the Cape gooseberry and kiwifruit for the fruit sometimes known as the Chinese gooseberry. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A false berry or epigynous berry is an accessory fruit found in certain plant species with an inferior ovary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cranberry (disambiguation). ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... Dog Rose showing the bright red hips Rosehips, also called rose haws are the fruit of the rose plant, particularly wild roses that form at the base of the flower, typically red to orange but dark purple to black in some species. ...

Aggregate fruit

Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit
Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit
Main article: Aggregate fruit

An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a flower with numerous simple pistils.[13] An example is the raspberry, whose simple fruits are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.[14] The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes.[15] In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (543x704, 68 KB) Summary Taken by DanielCD in March 2006 near Houston, Texas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (543x704, 68 KB) Summary Taken by DanielCD in March 2006 near Houston, Texas. ... Species See text The Dewberries (Rubus sect. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... The blackberry is a bramble fruit Bramble refers to thorny plants of the Genus Rubus, in the Rose family (Rosaceae). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ...


Some kinds of aggregate fruits are called berries, yet in the botanical sense they are not. This article is about the fruit. ...


Multiple fruit

Main article: Multiple fruit

A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an inflorescence). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.[16] Examples are the pineapple, edible fig, mulberry, osage-orange, and breadfruit. Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Maclura pomifera (Raf. ... Binomial name Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg The Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tree and fruit native to the Malay Peninsula and western Pacific islands. ...

In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced regularly along the stem and it is possible to see together examples of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening
In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced regularly along the stem and it is possible to see together examples of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening

In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarpet.[17] Noni fruit developing cropped from photo by Eric Guinther and located at Wikibooks, released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Noni fruit developing cropped from photo by Eric Guinther and located at Wikibooks, released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Binomial name L. Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Great morinda, Indian mulberry, Beach mulberry, Tahitian Noni, or since recently: Noni (from Hawaiian), Nono (in Tahitian), Mengkudu (from Malay), Nonu (in Tongan), and Ach (in Hindi), is a shrub or small tree in the family Rubiaceae. ... Binomial name L. Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Great morinda, Indian mulberry, Beach mulberry, Tahitian Noni, or since recently: Noni (from Hawaiian), Nono (in Tahitian), Mengkudu (from Malay), Nonu (in Tongan), and Ach (in Hindi), is a shrub or small tree in the family Rubiaceae. ... Categories: Biology stubs ...


There are also many dry multiple fruits, e.g.

Species Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl. ... Species Liquidambar formosana Liquidambar orientalis Liquidambar styraciflua The sweetgums Liquidambar are a genus in the witch-hazel family Hamamelidaceae, with three species of large deciduous trees, 25-40m tall, with palmately lobed leaves: Liquidambar formosana - Chinese Sweetgum (central & southern China, Taiwan). ... Sycamore is a name applied at various times and places to three very different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms. ... Teasel (or teazel) is an herbaceous plant of the Dipsacaceae Family. ... This article is about the plant. ...

Fruit chart

To summarize common types of fruit:

  • Berry -- simple fruit and seeds created from a single ovary
  • False berries -- Epigynous fruit made from a part of the plant other than a single ovary
  • Compound fruit, which includes:
    • Aggregate fruit -- multiple fruits with seeds from different ovaries of a single flower
    • Multiple fruit -- fruits of separate flowers, packed closely together
  • Other accessory fruit -- where the edible part is not generated by the ovary
Types of fruit
True berry Pepo Hesperidium False berry (Epigynous) Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Other accessory fruit
Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry, Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Avocado, Kiwifruit, Grape, Pumpkin, Gourd, Cucumber, Melon Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit Banana, Cranberry, Blueberry Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry, Hedge apple Pineapple, Fig, Mulberry Apple, Apricot, Peach, Cherry, Green bean, Sunflower seed, Strawberry

This article is about the fruit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cucurbitaceae. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... A hesperidium is a fleshy berrylike fruit with a tough rind, as a lemon or an orange. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... Binomial name L. The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and northern Italy). ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa See Physalis peruviana for the tomato-like fruit commonly known as the Cape gooseberry and kiwifruit for the fruit sometimes known as the Chinese gooseberry. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Species About 100 species, see text. ... Origin Lucuma or Lucumo is a subtropical fruit of peruvian andean origin, adapted to to the subtropical-dry valleys of Peru. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name C.F.Liang. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the dried fruit shell. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cranberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... A boysenberry is a cross between a blackberry, red raspberry and loganberry. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Green common beans on the plant Green beans (American English) or French beans (British English) or Mahune (South Slavic, Balkans) are the unripe fruits of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the winged bean, and especially the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), whose pods are also... Various sunflower seed varieties . ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ...

Seedless fruits

An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as vegetables, including tomatoes and various squash
An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as vegetables, including tomatoes and various squash

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially navel oranges and mandarin oranges), table grapes, grapefruit, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination. Most seedless citrus fruits require a pollination stimulus; bananas and pineapples do not. Seedlessness in table grapes results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 848 KB) Summary Picture taken by me in September, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 848 KB) Summary Picture taken by me in September, 2006. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Ananas comosus The Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant and its fruit, native to Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. ... Seedless fruits are something of a paradox, as fruits are usually defined in a botanical sense as mature ovaries containing seeds. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name The Mandarin orange or mandarin (瓯柑) is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling the orange. ... Missing image Image:Ripe grapes thumbnail. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpic literally means virgin fruit; the fruit develops without fertilization of ovules, therefore it is seedless. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Stenospermocarpy is the biological mechanism that produces seedlessness in some fruits, notably table grapes. ...


Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the mode of dispersal of the seeds they contain. This dispersal can be achieved by animals, wind, water, or explosive dehiscence.[18] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals or to stick to the hairs, feathers or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.[19][20] For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body feature. ... Species See text The Cockleburs are flowering plants of the genus Xanthium, part of the daisy family Asteraceae. ... Species See text The common name unicorn plant a can be used to describe plants from the genus Proboscidea. ...


The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels) who hoard them in the soil in order to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.[2] For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Hoarding is the storing of food or other goods. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e.g. maple, tuliptree and elm. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny parachutes, e.g. dandelion and salsify.[18] For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Species about 45, including: Tragopogon coloratus Tragopogon crocifolius Tragopogon cupani Tragopogon dubius Tragopogon floccosus Tragopogon gracilis Tragopogon mirabilis Tragopogon mirus Tragopogon miscellus Tragopogon porrifolius Tragopogon pratensis Tragopogon X crantzii Tragopogon X neohybridus The Goatsbeards or Salsifies are the genus Tragopogon of flowering plants within the family Asteraceae. ...


Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine.[18] For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Nypa fruticans Wurmb Nypa fruticans , known as the Attap Palm (Singapore) and Mangrove Palm or Nipah palm (Malaysia), is the only palm considered a mangrove. ... Species see Text Pandanus is a genus containing several species of tree-like plants native to Oceania, sometimes called screw pines because their long, flat leaves grow in a spiral configuration. ...


Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in sandbox tree) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g. impatiens and squirting cucumber.[21] Binomial name Hura crepitans L. The Sandbox tree (Hura crepitans), also known as Possumwood and Jabillo, is an evergreen tree of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), native to tropical regions of North and South America. ... Species See text Impatiens namchabarwensis Impatiens rosulata Impatiens parviflora Impatiens is a genus of about 900-1000 species of flowering plants in the family Balsaminaceae. ... Binomial name Ecballium elaterium L. Ecballium elaterium, also called the squirting cucumber, is a plant in the cucumber family. ...


Uses

Nectarines are one of many fruits that can be easily stewed
Nectarines are one of many fruits that can be easily stewed

Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits like apple, peach, pear, kiwifruit, watermelon and mango are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also in manufactured foods like cookies, muffins, yoghurt, ice cream, cakes, and many more. Many fruits are used to make beverages, such as fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, etc) or alcoholic beverages, such as wine or brandy.[22] Apples are often used to make vinegar. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1712, 1651 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fruit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1712, 1651 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fruit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Nectarine is a cultivar group of peach that has a smooth, fuzzless skin. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name C.F.Liang. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Species More than 50 species; see listing Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation). ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Muffin (disambiguation). ... Cacık, a Turkish cold appetiser yoghurt variety. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... A glass of clear apple juice, from which pectin and starch have been removed. ... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Many vegetables are botanical fruits, including tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, okra, squash, pumpkin, green bean, cucumber and zucchini.[23] Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil. Spices like vanilla, paprika, allspice and black pepper are derived from berries.[24] For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger[1], bhindi (Hindustani) and gumbo, is a flowering plant in the mallow family (along with such species as cotton and cocoa) valued for its edible green fruits. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... Green common beans on the plant Green beans (American English) or French beans (British English) or Mahune (South Slavic, Balkans) are the unripe fruits of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the winged bean, and especially the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), whose pods are also... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Nutritional value

Fruits are generally high in fiber, water and vitamin C. Fruits also contain various phytochemicals that do not yet have an RDA/RDI listing under most nutritional factsheets, and which research indicates are required for proper long-term cellular health and disease prevention.[1] Regular consumption of fruit is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging.[2] Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ...


Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, different cultures have developed many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.[25] This article is about modern humans. ... Species See text The common name unicorn plant a can be used to describe plants from the genus Proboscidea. ... Species Between 70-150 species; see text The genus Lotus (Birds-foot Trefoil, Trefoil or Deervetch) contains approximately 150 species distributed world-wide. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Lunaria annua L. Dried Annual Honnesty Annual Honesty (Lunaria annua) is a tall (height about 1 m), hairy-stemmed biennial plant found throughout Europe. ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... Species See text. ... Species About 150 species; see text Viburnum (Viburnum) is a genus of about 175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees that were previously included in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae. ... Species See text Skimmia is a genus of four species of evergreen shrubs and small trees in the Rue family, Rutaceae, all native to warm temperate regions of Asia. ... Species About 40; see text Beautyberry (Callicarpa) is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Verbenaceae; between 40_150 species are accepted by different botanists. ... Species See text Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster) is a genus of woody plants in the rose family Rosaceae, native to the Palaearctic region (temperate Asia, Europe, north Africa), with a high diversity found in the mountains of southwestern China and the Himalaya. ...


Fruits of opium poppy are the source of the drugs opium and morphine.[26] Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches.[27] Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles.[28] Many fruits provide natural dyes, e.g. walnut, sumac, cherry and mulberry.[29] Dried gourds are used as decorations, water jugs, bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro.[30] Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... This article is about the drug. ... This article is about the drug. ... Binomial name (Raf. ... For other uses, see Cockroaches. ... Species About 35 species, including: Myrica adenophora Myrica californica - California Bayberry Myrica cerifera - Wax-myrtle Myrica esculenta Myrica faya - Faya Bayberry Myrica gale - Sweet Gale or Bog-myrtle Myrica hartwegii - Sierra Bayberry Myrica heterophylla Myrica holdrigeana Myrica inodora - Scentless Bayberry Myrica nana Myrica parvifolia Myrica pensylvanica - Candleberry Myrica pubescens Myrica... Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the dried fruit shell. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... This article is about the holiday. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See text The Cockleburs are flowering plants of the genus Xanthium, part of the daisy family Asteraceae. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ...


Coir is a fibre from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, insulation and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make souvenir heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.[31] Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...


Production

India is world leader in fresh fruit production followed by Vietnam and then China.

Top Ten Fresh Fruit Producers – 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of India India 1,052,766 C 6,600,000 F
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 438,652 C 2,750,000 F
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China 271,167 C 1,790,000 F
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 255,216 C 1,600,000 F
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria 223,314 C 1,400,000 F
Flag of Iran Iran 223,314 C 1,400,000 F
Flag of Burma Myanmar 183,436 C 1,150,000 F
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 129,203 C 810,000 F
Flag of Nepal Nepal 82,945 C 520,000 F
Flag of North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 78,160 C 490,000 F
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ...

Philippines is world leader in tropical fresh fruit production followed by Indonesia and then India.

Top Ten Tropical Fresh Fruit Producers – 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 389,164 C 3,400,000 F
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 377,718 C 3,300,000 F
Flag of India India 335,368 C 2,930,000 F
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China 177,413 C 2,164,000 F
Flag of Colombia Colombia 131,629 C 1,150,000 F
Flag of Thailand Thailand 83,556 C 730,000 F
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 60,893 C 532,000 F
Flag of Brazil Brazil 55,513 C 485,000 F
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 31,934 C 279,000 F
Flag of Mexico Mexico 28,615 C 250,000 F
No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ...

See also

Here are lists of fruits considered edible in some cuisines. ... A plum tree Flowering almond tree A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit — the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ... Tutti frutti can mean several things: Tutti frutti (Italian for all fruits, many fruits) is a confection, in most cases ice cream, containing a variety of chopped and usually candied fruits. ... A fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ...

References

  1. ^ Lewis, Robert A. (January 1, 2002). CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. CRC Press, pp. 375-376. ISBN 0-8493-2327-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d McGee, Harold (November 16, 2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Simon and Schuster, pp. 247-248. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  3. ^ Schlegel, Rolf H J (January 1, 2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects. Haworth Press, p. 177. ISBN 1-56022-950-0. 
  4. ^ a b Mauseth, James D. (April 1, 2003). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett, pp. 271-272. ISBN 0-7637-2134-4. 
  5. ^ a b Spiegel-Roy, P.; E. E. Goldschmidt (August 28, 1996). The Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press, pp. 87-88. ISBN 0-521-33321-0. 
  6. ^ Schlegel. Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 5. 
  7. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, p. 367. 
  8. ^ For a Supreme Court of the United States ruling on the matter, see Nix v. Hedden.
  9. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, p. 501. 
  10. ^ Lewis. CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences, p. 238. 
  11. ^ Mauseth. Botany, Chapter 9: Flowers and Reproduction. 
  12. ^ Schlegel. Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 123. 
  13. ^ Schlegel. Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 16. 
  14. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, pp. 361-362. 
  15. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, pp. 364-365. 
  16. ^ Schlegel. Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 282. 
  17. ^ Parker, Philip M. (December 1, 2004). Morinda Citrifolia - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References. ICON Group. ISBN 0-497-00758-4. 
  18. ^ a b c Capon, Brian (February 25, 2005). Botany for Gardeners. Timber Press, pp. 198-199. ISBN 0-88192-655-8. 
  19. ^ Heiser, Charles B. (April 1, 2003). Weeds in My Garden: Observations on Some Misunderstood Plants. Timber Press, pp. 93-95. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. 
  20. ^ Heiser. Weeds in My Garden, pp. 162-164. 
  21. ^ Feldkamp, Susan (2002). Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, pp. 634. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. 
  22. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, Chapter 7: A Survey of Common Fruits. 
  23. ^ McGee. On Food and Cooking, Chapter 6: A Survey of Common Vegetables. 
  24. ^ Farrell, Kenneth T. (November 1, 1999). Spices, Condiments and Seasonings. Springer, pp. 17-19. ISBN 0-8342-1337-0. 
  25. ^ Adams, Denise Wiles (February 1, 2004). Restoring American Gardens: An Encyclopedia of Heirloom Ornamental Plants, 1640-1940. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-619-1. 
  26. ^ Booth, Martin (June 12, 1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20667-4. 
  27. ^ Cothran, James R. (November 1, 2003). Gardens and Historic Plants of the Antebellum South. University of South Carolina Press, pp. 221. ISBN 1-57003-501-6. 
  28. ^ K, Amber (December 1, 2001). Candlemas: Feast of Flames. Llewellyn Worldwide, pp. 155. ISBN 0-7387-0079-7. 
  29. ^ Adrosko, Rita J. (June 1, 1971). Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing: A Practical Guide with over 150 Recipes. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22688-3. 
  30. ^ Wake, Warren (March 13, 2000). Design Paradigms: A Sourcebook for Creative Visualization. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 162-163. ISBN. 
  31. ^ The Many Uses of the Coconut. The Coconut Museum. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group which specializes in producing technical books in a wide range of subjects. ... Harold McGee writes about the chemistry, techniques and history of food and cooking and is the author of two books that explain kitchen science in an approachable manner. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding That a tomato is legally a vegetable, not a fruit. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Booth (September 7, 1944, Lancashire - February 12, 2004, Devon) was a British writer and poet. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

This article is about the fruit. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A blueberry carries the five sepals of the flower at the tip, showing that the berry forms below the flower. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal, see The Plant Cell. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels (only the styles and stigmas are visible) and stamens, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fruit of the Loom - Cotton Clothing T Shirt Underwear Apparel Outerwear (203 words)
For more than 150 years, Fruit of the Loom has fulfilled a promise to its consumers...
When you buy Fruit of the Loom products, you can be assured of comfortable, up-to-date styles at value prices.
For generations, families have purchased the Fruit of the Loom label with confidence.
Fruit - MSN Encarta (1810 words)
Fruits also play a critical role in dispersing seeds, increasing the likelihood that at least some will land in an environment favorable for germination, or sprouting, which helps to perpetuate the plant species.
The process of fruit formation begins with pollination, the transfer of pollen from the anther of one plant to the stigma of another, which prepares the plant for fertilization.
Some fruits with the word berry in their names, such as raspberry and strawberry, develop differently and are not really berries at all.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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