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Encyclopedia > Fructose
Fructose
Beta-D-Fructofuranose
IUPAC name (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-2,3,4-triol
Other names D-arabino-Hexulose
Fruit sugar
beta-Levulose
Levulose
Identifiers
CAS number 53188-23-1 (D-fructose)
SMILES C(C1C(C(C(O1)(CO)O)O)O)O
Properties
Molecular formula C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.16 g mol−1
Melting point

β-D-fructose: 103°C Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables, such as beets, sweet potatoes, parsnips, and onions, contain fructose, usually in combination with sucrose and glucose. Fructose is also derived from the digestion of sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose that is broken down by glycoside hydrolase enzymes during digestion. Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar, estimated to be 20% more sweet than sucrose. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the fruits called melons. ... A beet (called beetroot in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, as well as table beet, garden beet, blood turnip or red beet) is a plant of the genus Beta of which both the leaves and root are edible. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus, The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ... Binomial name Pastinaca sativa L. The parsnip is a root vegetable related to the carrot, which it resembles, although it has a paler color and a stronger flavor. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases) catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to generate two smaller sugars. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ...


Fructose is often recommended for, and consumed by, people with diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, because it has a very low glycemic index (GI) relative to sugar (sucrose). However, this benefit is tempered by concern that fructose may have an adverse effect on plasma lipid and uric acid levels, and the resulting higher blood levels of fructose can be damaging to proteins (see below). The low GI is due to the unique and lengthy metabolic pathway of fructose, which involves phosphorylation and a multi-step enzymatic process in the liver. See health effects and glycation for further information. For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemia, or high blood sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ...

Contents

Structure

D-Fructose, also known as levulose, is a levorotatory monosaccharide and an isomer of glucose (C6H12O6). The chemical composition of fructose is (C6H12O6). Pure fructose has a sweet taste similar to sugar (sucrose). Although fructose is a hexose (6 carbon sugar), it generally exists as a 5-member hemiketal ring (a furanose). This structure is responsible for the long metabolic pathway and high reactivity compared to glucose. Levorotation (also spelled laevorotation) is the counterclockwise rotation of plane polarized light. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ...


Despite lacking an aldehyde functional group, fructose and other 2-ketoses are reducing sugars. Under basic conditions (such as those used during oxidation with Tollens' reagent), 2-ketoses can tautomerize to form an aldose via a enediol intermediate[1]. This aldose form is susceptible to oxidation. A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms some aldehyde or ketone. ... Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+ Tollens reagent is usually ammoniacal silver nitrate, but can also be other things, as long as there is an aqueous diamminesilver(I) complex. ...


Metabolism

In the liver, fructose is metabolised into two molecules of pyruvate intermediate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and process glycolysis. Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ...

 /----> GA -----GAK FK F1P ald /  fru -------> fru-1-P ---------- -------> 2 GA-3-P - - - - > glycolysis  / ---> DHAP ----/izo 

fru - fructose, FK - fructokinase, fru-1-P - fructose-1-phosphate, F1P ald - fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (also known as aldolase B), DHAP - dihydroxyacetonephosphate, GA - glyceraldehyde, GAK - glyceraldehyde kinase, izo - izomerase, GA3P - glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate


Health effects

Fructose absorption occurs via the GLUT-5[2] (fructose only) transporter, and the GLUT2 transporter, for which it competes with glucose and galactose. A deficiency of GLUT 5 may result in excess fructose carried into the lower intestine.[citation needed] There, it can provide nutrients for the existing gut flora, which produce gas. It may also cause water retention in the intestine. These effects may lead to bloating, excessive flatulence, loose stools, and even diarrhea depending on the amounts eaten and other factors. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... GLUT5 is a fructose transporter. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths...


Excess fructose consumption has been hypothesized to possibly cause insulin resistance, obesity,[3] elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic syndrome. Short term tests, lack of dietary control, and lack of a non-fructose consuming control group are all confounding factors in human experiments. However, there are now a number of reports showing correlation of fructose consumption to obesity,[4][5] especially central obesity which is generally regarded as the most dangerous type.[citation needed] Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ...


There is a concern with Diabetic 1 patients and the apparent low GI of fructose. Fructose gives as high blood sugar spike as that obtained with glucose. In fact, GI only applies to high starch foods. The basic GI definition is chemically incorrect. This is because the body blood glucose response is "standardized" with 50g of glucose, while the GI Researchers use 50g of digestible carbohydrate as a reference quantity. Although all simple sugars are isomers, each have separate chemical properties. This is illustrated with pure fructose. In a study from The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, "fructose given alone increased the blood glucose almost as much as a similar amount of glucose (78% of the glucose-alone area)".[6][7][8][8][9]


A study in mice suggests that fructose increases obesity.[10]


One study concluded that fructose "produced significantly higher fasting plasma triacylglycerol values than did the glucose diet in men" and "if plasma triacylglycerols are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, then diets high in fructose may be undesirable".[11] Bantle et al. "noted the same effects in a study of 14 healthy volunteers who sequentially ate a high-fructose diet and one almost devoid of the sugar."[12] {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


Studies that have compared high fructose corn syrup (an ingredient in soft drinks sold in the US) to sucrose (common cane sugar) find that they have essentially identical physiological effects. For instance, Melanson et al (2006), studied the effects of HFCS and sucrose sweetened drinks on blood glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin levels. They found no significant differences in any of these parameters.[13] This is not surprising since sucrose is a disaccharide which digests to 50% glucose and 50% fructose; while the high fructose corn syrup most commonly used on soft drinks is 55% fructose. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ...


Fructose also chelates minerals in the blood. This effect is especially important with micronutrients such as copper, chromium and zinc. Since these solutes are normally present in small quantities, chelation of small numbers of ions may lead to deficiency diseases, immune system impairment and even insulin resistance, a component of type II diabetes.[14] Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw; pronounced ) is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate ligand. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Fructose is often recommended for diabetics due to its glycemic index being significantly lower than both glucose, sucrose and starches.[citation needed] Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ...


"The medical profession thinks fructose is better for diabetics than sugar," says Meira Field, Ph.D., a research chemist at the USDA, "but every cell in the body can metabolize glucose. However, all fructose must be metabolized in the liver. The livers of the rats on the high fructose diet looked like the livers of alcoholics, plugged with fat and cirrhotic."[15] This is not entirely true as certain other tissues do use fructose directly, notably the cells of the intestine, and sperm cells (for which fructose is the main energy source). USDA redirects here. ...


Fructose is a reducing sugar, as are all monosaccharides. The spontaneous addition of single sugar molecules to proteins, known as glycation, is a significant cause of damage in diabetics. Fructose appears to be as dangerous as glucose in this regard and so does not seem to be a better answer for diabetes for this reason alone.[16] This may be an important contribution to senescence and many age-related chronic diseases.[17] A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms some aldehyde or ketone. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ...


Fructose is used as a substitute for sucrose (composed of one unit each of fructose and glucose linked together with a relatively weak glycosidic bond) because it is less expensive and has little effect on measured blood glucose levels. Often, fructose is consumed as high fructose corn syrup, which is corn syrup (glucose) that has been enzymatically treated by the enzyme glucose isomerase. This enzyme converts a portion of the glucose into fructose thus making it sweeter. This is done to such a degree as to yield corn syrup with an equivalent sweetness to sucrose by weight. While most carbohydrates have around the same amount of calories, fructose is sweeter and manufacturers can use less of it to get the same result. The free fructose present in fruits, their juice, and honey is responsible for the greater sweetness of these natural sugar sources. Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Glucose Isomerase is an enzyme (EC 5. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Some studies point to fructose as key factors in hyperactivity and tooth decay in children[citation needed].


Unlike glucose, fructose is almost entirely metabolized in the liver. "When fructose reaches the liver," says Dr. William J. Whelan, a biochemist at the University of Miami School of Medicine, "the liver goes bananas and stops everything else to metabolize the fructose." Eating fructose as compared to glucose results in lower circulating insulin levels, leptin, and ghrelin levels postprandially.[18] These hormones are implicated in the control of appetite and satiety, and it is hypothesized that eating lots of fructose could increase the likelihood of weight gain.[19] RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ...


It has been suggested in a recent British Medical Journal study that high consumption of fructose is linked to gout. Cases of gout have risen in recent years, despite commonly being thought of as a Victorian disease, and it is suspected that the fructose found in sweet drinks is the reason for this.[20] The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Victorian can refer to: people from or attributes of places called Victoria (disambiguation page), including Victoria, Australia, people who lived during the British Victorian era of the 19th century, and aspects of the Victorian era, for example: Victorian architecture Victorian fashion Victorian morality Victorian literature This is a disambiguation page...


See also

2,5-Dimethylfuran or DMF is a heterocyclic compound of the formula C6H8O. It is a derivative of furan. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Fructose intolerance is a hereditary condition due to a deficiency of liver enzymes that metabolise fructose. ... Fructose malabsorption is a condition in which the fructose carrier in enterocytes is deficient. ... Fructans are a monosaccharide or single-sugar composed of chains of fructose molecules. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ... Hyperuricemia is the presence of high levels of uric acid in the blood. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ...

References

  1. ^ Brown and Foote, Organic Chemistry. 3rd ed.
  2. ^ Buchs, AE; Sasson S, Joost HG, Cerasi E. (1998). "Characterization of GLUT5 domains responsible for fructose transport". Endocrinology 139: 827-31. PMID 12399260. 
  3. ^ Elliott SS, Keim NL, Stern JS, Teff K, Havel PJ (2002). "Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76 (5): 911–22. PMID 12399260. 
  4. ^ Lustig RH (2006). "Childhood obesity: behavioral aberration or biochemical drive? Reinterpreting the First Law of Thermodynamics". Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism 2 (8): 447–58. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0220. PMID 16932334. 
  5. ^ Isganaitis E, Lustig RH (2005). "Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 25 (12): 2451–62. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000186208.06964.91. PMID 16166564. 
  6. ^ Hughes TA, Atchison J, Hazelrig JB, Boshell BR (1989). "Glycemic responses in insulin-dependent diabetic patients: effect of food composition". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49 (4): 658–66. PMID 2929488. 
  7. ^ Wylie-Rosett, Judith; et al. (2004). "Carbohydrates and Increases in Obesity: Does the Type of Carbohydrate Make a Difference?". Obesity Res 12: 124S-129S. 
  8. ^ a b Havel PJ (2001). "Peripheral signals conveying metabolic information to the brain: short-term and long-term regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 226 (11): 963–77. PMID 11743131. 
  9. ^ Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL (1997). "Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity". Pediatrics 99 (1): 15–22. PMID 8989331. 
  10. ^ Jürgens H, Haass W, Castañeda TR, et al (2005). "Consuming fructose-sweetened beverages increases body adiposity in mice". Obes. Res. 13 (7): 1146–56. PMID 16076983. 
  11. ^ Bantle JP, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Georgopoulos A (2000). "Effects of dietary fructose on plasma lipids in healthy subjects". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72 (5): 1128–34. PMID 11063439. 
  12. ^ Enerex.ca | Whey Protein and Fructose, an Unhealthy Combination
  13. ^ Melanson, K.; et al. (2006). "Eating Rate and Satiation.". Obesity Society (NAASO) 2006 Annual Meeting, October 20-24,Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusett.. 
  14. ^ Higdon, J. (2003). "Chromium". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State U.. 
  15. ^ Field, Meira (Fall 2001). "Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts". Weston A. Price Foundation. 
  16. ^ McPherson, JD; Shilton BH, Walton DJ (November 1988). "Role of fructose in glycation and cross-linking of proteins. PMID 3132203". Biochemistry 27 (5): 1901-7. 
  17. ^ Levi, B; Werman MJ (1998). "Fulltext Long-term fructose consumption accelerates glycation and several age-related variables in male rats. PMID 9732303". J Nutr 128: 1442-9. 
  18. ^ Teff, KL; Elliott SS, Tschöp M, Kieffer TJ, Rader D, Heiman M, Townsend RR, Keim NL, D'Alessio D, Havel PJ (June 2004). "Fulltext Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. PMID 15181085". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89 (6): 2963-72. 
  19. ^ Swan, Norman. ABC Radio National, The Health Report, The Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  20. ^ "Gout surge blamed on sweet drinks", BBC News, 1 February 2008. 

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External links

  • Fructose
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • [1] Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
  • [2] Sugars4Kids
Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde An aldose is a monosaccharide (a certain type of sugar) containing one aldehyde group per molecule and having a chemical formula of the form CnH2nOn (n>=3). ... Fructose, an example of a ketose. ... Glucose in its alpha-D-glucopyranose form Pyranose is a collective term for carbohydrates which have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms. ... Cyclohexane conformation is a much studied topic in organic chemistry because of the complex interrelationship between the different conformers of cyclohexane and its derivatives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... Mutarotation is the term given to the change in the specific rotation of plane polarized light, when it is passed through an aldohexose ( Monosaccharides with six carbon atoms and H-C=0 Group ). Mutarotation refers to the conversion of a pure anomer of a hemiacetal carbohydrate to an equilibrium mixture... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Sedoheptulose is a keto-heptose - a simple sugar with 5 carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of L-arabinose The chemical structure of D-arabinofuranose Arabinose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Gulose is an aldohexose sugar. ... L-Idose is a 6 carbon monosaccharide(a hexose) It has an aldehyde group and is an aldose. ... Talose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Allose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Fischer projection of L-sorbose Sorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugars known as monosaccharides. ... Tagatose is a functional sweetener. ... D-Psicose (D-ribo-2-hexulose, C6H12O6) is an ultralow-energy monosaccharide sugar. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... Rhamnose is a naturally-occurring sugar. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a type of alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α, α-1, 1-glucoside bond between α-glucose units found extensively but not abundantly in nature. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Stachyose is an oligosaccharide (tetra-saccharide) consisting of two D-galactose units and one sucrose sequentially linked. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissue and the nervous system, normally attached to a protein core. ... The repeating disaccharide unit of hyaluronan Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan, formerly called a mucopolysaccharide, found mostly in skin, but also in blood vessels, heart valves, tendons, and lungs. ... Keratan sulfate, also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal amoeba infection, or amebiasis. ... Apramycin (also Nebramycin II) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Nucleotide sugars are biochemicals that act as donors of sugar residues in nucleotide sugars metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

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Carbohydrates - Fructose (556 words)
Fructose, along with glucose are the monosaccharides found in disaccharide, sucrose.
Fructose is classified as a monosaccharide, the most important ketose sugar, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar.
An older common name for fructose is levulose, after its levorotatory property of rotating plane polarized light to the left (in contrast to glucose which is dextrorotatory).
Fructose Information Center (1209 words)
Pure crystalline fructose has had a negligible effect on the carbohydrate composition of the diet because of the small volume of this sugar produced relative to all other naturally occurring and added starches, syrups and sweeteners.
In the latter, the disaccharide bond in sucrose is enzymatically hydrolyzed to liberate glucose and fructose.
Fructose has a low glycemic index and results in moderate release of insulin to the bloodstream relative to glucose and sucrose.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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