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Encyclopedia > Frostbite
Frostbite
Classification & external resources
Hands, feet, noses, and ears are most likely to be affected by frostbite
ICD-10 T33.-T35.
ICD-9 991.0-991.3

Frostbite (congelatio in medical terminology) is the medical condition whereby damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. At or below 0� C (|F]]), blood vessels close to the skin start to narrow (constrict). This helps to preserve core body temperature. In extreme cold or when the body is exposed to cold for long periods, this protective strategy can reduce blood flow in some areas of the body to dangerously low levels. The areas where this occurs will freeze over. The combination of cold temperature and poor blood flow can cause severe tissue injury by freezing the tissue. Frostbite is most likely to happen in body parts farthest from the heart, and those with a lot of surface area exposed to cold. The initial stages of frostbite are sometimes called "frostnip". Mountains or high altitudes with snow are most dangerous to cause frostbite. If frostbite is not treated immediately than the damage and the frostbite become permanent. Nerve damage will occur because oxygen doesn't get to the areas. Frostbitten areas will turn discolored, purplish at first, and soon turn black. After a while nerve damage becomes so great that you lose feeling in the frostbitten areas. Blisters will also occur. If you lose feeling in the damaged area, checking them for cuts, and breaks in the skin are vital. If you get infected open skin it can lead to gangrene and amputation will be needed. Look up frostbite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // S00-T98 - Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-S09) Injuries to the head (S00) Superficial injury of head (S01) Open wound of head (S02) Fracture of skull and facial bones (S03) Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of head (S04) Injury of cranial nerves... // S00-T98 - Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-S09) Injuries to the head (S00) Superficial injury of head (S01) Open wound of head (S02) Fracture of skull and facial bones (S03) Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of head (S04) Injury of cranial nerves... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Medical terminology is a process of accurately describing the human body and associated components, conditions, processes and procedures in a science based manner. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

Contents

Risk factors

Risk factors for frostbite include using beta-blockers and having conditions such as diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A risk factor is a concept in finance theory such as the CAPM, APT and other theories that use pricing kernels. ... Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers) are a class of drugs used for various indications, but particularly for the management of cardiac arrhythmias and cardioprotection after myocardial infarction. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ...

Frostbitten hands
Frostbitten hands

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2022 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2022 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Symptoms

Generally, frostbite is accompanied by discoloration of the skin, along with burning and/or tingling sensations, partial or complete numbness, and possibly intense pain. If the affected areas and blood vessels have been severely damaged, gangrene may follow, and amputation may eventually be required. If left untreated, frostbitten skin gradually darkens and blisters after a few hours. Skin destroyed by frostbite is completely black, and looks loose, flayed and "flexible. The black skin looks burnt. Frostbitten areas are cold to the touch. Paresthesia (paraesthesia in British) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent physical cause, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ...


Treatment

To treat frostbite, move the victim to a warm location and seek medical help. Soak frostbitten areas in warm (not hot) water, or, if in wilderness, warm by contact with the skin of a non-frostbitten person. Continue until the victim has regained sensation and movement in the afflicted region; this often follows great pain as the nerves thaw. Never rub, slap or shake the stricken region as ice crystals in the frostbitten skin will damage surrounding tissue. Follow the treatment with a period of constant warmth: refreezing following thawing exacerbates the damage. After the area is frostbitten it is best to keep it as warm as possible. Frostbite only occurs in when it is below a specific temperature. This temperature can only be determined by the victim. If it does kick in more damage will occur to frostbitten areas.


Prevention

Factors that contribute to frostbite include extreme cold, wet clothes, wind chill, and poor circulation. This can be caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped positions, fatigue, certain medications, smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes. Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ...


Moreover employees working in chemical laboratories should take precautions to wear gloves and other safety equipment as liquid Nitrogen and other cryogenic liquids can cause frostbite even with brief exposure.


If caught in a severe snowstorm, one should find shelter early or increase physical activity to maintain body warmth.


"Prevention is better than cure"...people susceptible to frostbites should wear woolen socks/gloves/caps in extreme cold. For frostbites in the feet, keeping feet in warm saline water will provide relief. Diabetes can also sometimes lead to frostbite, so diabetics should take precautions as to avoid trips to ice-cold places (consult your physician).


[1]


References

  1. ^ Eric Perez, MD. National Institute of Health. Retrieved May 18, 2006.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See Also

Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wilderness first aid is the specific discipline of First aid which relates to care in remote areas, where emergency medical services will be difficult to obtain or will take a long time to arrive. ...

External links

[[lt:Nu�alimas]][[sv:K�ldskada]] Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Arthus reaction is a type III hypersensitivity reaction. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... An air embolism, or more WITCH generally gas embolism, is a medical condition caused by gas bubbles in the bloodstream (embolism in a medical context refers to any large moving mass or defect in the blood stream). ... A fat embolism is a type of embolism that is often (but not always) caused by physical trauma. ... Crush syndrome: is a reperfusion injury as a result of traumatic rhabdomyolysis causing a severe systemic manifestation of trauma and dead tissues ( ischemia –from lack of O2 getting to the tissues there by destroying the tissue) involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. ... Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Compartment syndrome is characterized by increased pressure within one or more fascial compartments so that vascular perfusion is compromised. ... Volkmanns contrature, also known as Volkmanns ischaemic contracture, is a permanent flexion contracture of the hand at the wrist, resulting in a claw-like deformity of the hand and fingers. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... See also Healing, North East Lincolnshire Healing is the process where the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... Serum sickness is a reaction to an antiserum derived from an animal source. ... Malignant hyperthermia (MH or MHS for malignant hyperthermia syndrome, or malignant hyperpyrexia due to anaesthesia) is a rare life-threatening condition that is triggered by exposure to certain drugs used for general anaesthesia (specifically all volatile anaesthetics), nearly all gas anaesthetics, and the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Frostbite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (257 words)
Frostbite (congelatio in medical terminology) is the medical condition where damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold.
Generally, frostbite is accompanied with discoloration of the skin, along with burning and/or tingling sensations, partial or complete numbness, and possibly intense pain.
Skin destroyed by frostbite is completely fl and looks loose and flayed, as if burnt.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Frostbite (989 words)
Frostbite is distinguishable by the hard, pale, and cold quality of the skin that has been exposed to the cold for a length of time.
Frostbite occurs when the skin and body tissues are exposed to cold temperature for a prolonged period of time.
Frostbite has occurred recently and new symptoms develop, such as fever, malaise, discoloration, or drainage from the affected body part.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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