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Encyclopedia > Frontal lobe

{{Infobox Brain| Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

 Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal lobe is blue.) | Image = | Caption = | Image2 = Gray729.png | Caption2 = Orbital surface of left frontal lobe. | IsPartOf = Cerebrum| Components = | Artery = Anterior cerebral 
Middle cerebral| Vein = | Acronym = FL | BrainInfoType = hier | BrainInfoNumber = 37 | MeshName = Frontal+Lobe | MeshNumber = A08.186.211.730.885.213.270 |

The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals. Located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere, frontal lobes are positioned in front of (anterior to) the parietal lobes. The temporal lobes are located beneath and behind the frontal lobes. In the human brain, the precentral gyrus and the related cortical tissue that folds into the central sulcus comprise the primary motor cortex, which controls voluntary movements of specific body parts associated with areas of the gyrus. The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies oxygen to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Grays FIG. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ...


Cognitive maturity associated with adulthood is marked by related maturation of cerebral fibers in the frontal lobes between late teenager years and early adult years. The frontal lobe reaches full maturity around age 25. Research by Arthur Toga, UCLA, found increased myelin in the frontal lobe white matter of young adults compared to that of teens, whereas grey matter in parietal and temporal lobes was more fully matured by teen years. Typical onset of schizophrenia in early adult years correlates with poorly myelinated and thus inefficient connections between cells in the fore-brain. Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ...


A report from the National Institute of Mental Health says a gene variant that reduces dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex is related to poorer performance and inefficient functioning of that brain region during working memory tasks, and to slightly increased risk for schizophrenia. “Prefrontal” redirects here. ...


Dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex are found primarily in the frontal lobes. The dopamine system is associated with pleasure, long-term memory, planning and drive. Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the fore-brain. Poor regulation of dopamine pathways has been associated with schizophrenia. For other uses, see Cortex. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ...


The so-called executive functions of the frontal lobes involve the ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions, to choose between good and bad actions (or better and best), override and suppress unacceptable social responses, and determine similarities and differences between things or events. The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. ...


The frontal lobes also play an important part in retaining longer term memories which are not task-based. These are often memories with associated emotions, derived from input from the brain's limbic system, and modified by the higher frontal lobe centers to generally fit socially acceptable norms (see executive functions above). The frontal lobes have rich neuronal input from both the alert centers in the brain-stem, and from the limbic regions. The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. ...


Psychological tests that measure frontal lobe function include Finger tapping, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, and measures of verbal and figural fluency.[1] The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test® (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...


Psychosurgery

In the early 20th century, a medical treatment for mental illness, first developed by Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz, involved damaging the pathways connecting the frontal lobe to the limbic system. Frontal lobotomy (sometimes called frontal leucotomy) successfully reduced distress but at the cost of often blunting the subject's emotions, volition and personality. The indiscriminate use of this psychosurgical procedure, combined with the severe side effects and dangerous nature of the operation gained it a bad reputation and the frontal lobotomy has largely died out as a psychiatric treatment. A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. ... António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (November 29, 1874 - December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese physician and neurologist. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... Look up Lobotomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Psychosurgery is a term for surgeries of the brain involving procedures that modulate the performance of the brain, and thus effect changes in cognition, with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness. ...


More precise psychosurgical procedures are still occasionally used, although are now very rare occurrences. They may include procedures such as the anterior capsulotomy (bilateral thermal lesions of the anterior limbs of the internal capsule) or the bilateral cingulotomy (bilateral they are one lesions of the anterior cingulate gyri) and might be used to treat otherwise untreatable obsessional disorders or clinical depression. The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... OCD redirects here. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Theories of frontal lobe function

Theories of frontal lobe function can be differentiated into three categories: single-process theories, construct-led theories, and multi-process theories (Burgess & Simons, 2005; Burgess, 2003). Actually Burgess (2003) and Burgess & Simons (2005) name a fourth category: single symptom theories. However, single symptom theories are different from the other three ones since they focus on the investigation of a specific dysexecutive symptom (e.g., confabulation) and relate that symptom to the underlying structures (processes, construct) in a top-bottom approach (cf. Burgess & Simons, 2005). Stuss (1999) suggests a differentiation into two categories according to homogeneity and heterogeneity of function. A single-process theory posits “that damage to a single process or system is responsible for a number of different dysexecutive symptoms” (Burgess, 2003, p. 309). In a construct-led theory it is assumed “that most if not all frontal functions can be explained by one construct (homogeneity of function) such as working memory or inhibition” (Stuss, 1999, p. 348; cf. Burgess & Simons, 2005). Multi-process theories “propose that the frontal lobe executive system consists of a number of components that typically work together in everyday actions [(heterogeneity of function)]“ (Burgess, 2003, p. 310).


Further theoretical approaches to frontal lobe function include: Grafman's managerial knowledge units (MKU) / structured event complex (SEC) approach (cf. Wood & Grafman, 2003), Miller & Cohen's integrative theory of prefrontal functioning (e.g. Miller & Cohen, 2001), Rolls's stimulus-reward approach and Stuss's anterior attentional functions (Burgess & Simons, 2005; Burgess, 2003; Burke, 2007).


It must be highlighted that the theories described above differ in their focus on certain processes/systems or construct-lets. Stuss (1999) remarks that the question of homogeneity (single construct) or heterogeneity (multiple processes/systems) of function “may represent a problem of semantics and/or incomplete functional analysis rather than an unresolvable dichotomy” (p. 348). However, further research will show if a unified theory of frontal lobe function that fully accounts for the diversity of functions will be available.


Damage

Damage to one's frontal lobes can do a variation of things:

  • Mental flexibility and spontaneity is impaired, but one's IQ would not lower.
  • Talking may increase or decrease dramatically.
  • Senses regarding risk taking and rule abiding are impaired.
  • Socialization can diminish or increase.
  • Orbital frontal lobe damage can bring up peculiar sexual habits.
  • Dorsolateral frontal lobe damage reduces sexual interest.

Additional images

See also

There are five main lobes of the brain. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ...

References

  1. ^ Kimberg, D.Y., Farah, M.J. A unified account of cognitive impariments following frontal lobe damage: the role of working memory in complex, organized behavior. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 1993 122(4):411-28
Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... A sulcus (pl. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ... The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... Only a small part of the Parietoöccipital Fissure (or parieto-occipital sulcus) is seen on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, its chief part being on the medial surface. ... The calcarine fissure (or calcarine sulcus) is an anatomical landmark located at the very caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The callosal sulcus is a sulcus between the cingulate gyrus and corpus callosum, below the longitudinal cerebral fissure. ... The collateral fissure (or sulcus) is on the tentorial surface of the hemisphere and extends from near the occipital pole to within a short distance of the temporal pole. ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The term Brodmann area 12 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the posterior central gyrus above the end of the sulcus; behind it is the lateral part of the parietoöccipital fissure, around the end of which it is joined... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district or lobule) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is cleft by a well-marked furrow, the intraparietal sulcus of Turner, which consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion. ... The marginal sulcus is the portion of the cingulate sulcus adjacent to the paracentral lobule and the precuneus. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... The lingual gyrus of the occipital lobe lies between the calcarine fissure and the posterior part of the collateral fissure; behind, it reaches the occipital pole; in front, it is continued on to the tentorial surface of the temporal lobe, and joins the hippocampal gyrus. ... In the occipital lobe, the lateral occipital sulcus extends from behind forward, and divides the lateral surface of the occipital lobe into a superior and an inferior gyrus, which are continuous in front with the parietal and temporal lobes. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... // Guenon The term Brodmann area 28 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The retrosplenial region is a brain area part of the cingular cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... The supracallosal gyrus (indusium griseum; gyrus epicallosus) consists of a thin layer of gray substance in contact with the upper surface of the corpus callosum and continuous laterally with the gray substance of the cingulate gyrus. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... The posterior end of the corpus callosum is the thickest part, and is termed the splenium. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... On either side of the corpus collosum, the fibers radiate in the white substance and pass to the various parts of the cerebral cortex; those curving forward from the genu into the frontal lobe constitute the forceps anterior, and those curving backward into the occipital lobe, the forceps posterior. ... The septum pellucidum, also called the septum lucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane that separates the lateral ventricles of the brain. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The olfactory tract is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward. ... The fornix is also the name of part of the cervix (fornix vaginae). ... The Anterior Commissure (precommissure) is a bundle of white fibers, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the middle line, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix. ... The posterior commissure is a rounded band of white fibers crossing the middle line on the dorsal aspect of the upper end of the cerebral aqueduct. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The superior longitudinal fasciculus (also called the superior longitudinal fascicle or SLF) is a pair of long bi-directional bundles of neurons connecting the front and the back of the cerebrum. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects the temporal lobe and occipital lobe, running along the lateral walls of the inferior and posterior cornua of the lateral ventricle. ... The uncinate fasciculus passes across the bottom of the lateral fissure, and unites the gyri of the frontal lobe with the anterior end of the temporal lobe. ... The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ... The occipitofrontal fasciculus passes backward from the frontal lobe, along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus, and on the mesial aspect of the corona radiata; its fibers radiate in a fan-like manner and pass into the occipital and temporal lobes lateral to the posterior and inferior cornua. ... Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, the striatum and pallidum globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... Grays Fig. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The anterior olfactory nucleus is a cranial nucleus for the olfactory nerve. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... In the lateral part of the tuber cinereum is a nucleus of nerve cells, the basal optic nucleus of Meynert. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Psychopathology of Frontal Lobe Syndromes (3482 words)
Their increasing significance and clinical relevance is noted by the recent publication of several monographs on frontal lobe syndromes (5,6) and the growing literature on various frontal lobe disorders, for example, frontal lobe dementias and frontal lobe epilepsies.
The frontal lobes are anatomically represented by those areas of the cortex anterior to the central sulcus, including the main cortical areas fur the control of motor behavior.
The paradigm of frontal lobe dementia is that described by Pick in 1892, which was associated with circumscribed atrophy of both the frontal and temporal lobes.
eMedicine - Frontal Lobe Epilepsy : Article by Sheryl Haut, MD (4549 words)
Background: Frontal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures arising from the frontal lobes.
Patients with frontal lobe seizures may present with a clear epileptic syndrome or with unusual behavioral or motor manifestations that are not immediately recognizable as seizures.
Frontal lobe epilepsy may be an early or late aftermath of head trauma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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