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Encyclopedia > Front de libération du Québec

The Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a Nationalist terrorist group founded in the 1960s that was part of the Quebec sovereignty movement. Based primarily in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, they distinguished themselves by their use of extreme violence and terrorism as a means to achieve their goals. The FLQ was a group of young Québécois whose declarations called for a Marxist/anarchist insurrection, the overthrow of the Quebec government, the independence of Quebec from Canada and the establishment of a workers' society. Members and sympathizers of the group were called Felquistes ([fɛlˈkists] in IPA), a word coined from the French pronunciation of the letters FLQ. Quote: -Albert Einstein Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the Canadian federation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: As an adjective, the word refers to Quebecs francophone culture or population. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ...


In 1963, they were organized and trained by Georges Schoeters, a Belgian revolutionary and alleged but unconfirmed KGB agent, whose hero was Che Guevara. Its intellectual leaders were Charles Gagnon and Pierre Vallières. On October 7, 1963 Schoeters was given 2 five-year prison terms for political crimes. At least two of the FLQ members had also received guerrilla training in selective assassination from Palestinian commandos in Jordan. 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Che Guevara Dr. Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928¹ – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. ... Pierre Vallières Pierre Vallières (February 22, 1938 – December 23, 1998), was a founding member and intellectual leader of the terrorist group, the Front de libération du Québec and a journalist and writer of militantly polemical essays and books in support of the Quebec sovereignty movement. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


Various cells emerged over time: The Viger Cell, the Dieppe Cell, the Louis Riel Cell (see:Louis Riel), the Nelson Cell, The Saint-Denis Cell, the Liberation Cell and the Chénier Cell. The latter of these two cells were involved in what became known as the "October Crisis," the first terrorist crisis in modern Canadian history. Louis Riel Louis David Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885), was a Canadian politician and leader of the Métis people of western Canada. ... The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings that occurred in Quebec, Canada, during the month of October, 1970. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ...


From 1963 to 1970, the FLQ committed over 200 violent political actions, including bombings, bank hold-ups and at least three deaths by FLQ bombs and two deaths by gunfire. In 1963, Gabriel Hudon and Raymond Villeneuve were sentenced to 12 years in prison for crimes against the state after their bomb killed Sgt. O'Neill, a watchman at Montreal's Canadian Army Recruitment Centre. By 1970, twenty-three members of the FLQ were in jail, including four convicted murderers, and one member had been killed by his own bomb. Targets included English owned businesses, banks, McGill University, and the homes of prominent English speakers in the wealthy Westmount area of the city. On February 13, 1969 the Front de libération du Québec set off a powerful bomb that ripped through the Montreal Stock Exchange causing massive destruction and seriously injuring twenty-seven people. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Canadian Forces Flag The Canadian Armed Forces (Fr. ... McGill University is a research-intensive, non-denominational, co-educational university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Westmount City Hall Some typical homes in Westmount Westmount is a former (and future) city in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the Island of Montreal, an enclave of the city of Montreal; pop. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... The Bourse de Montréal (Montreal Stock Exchange) began in 1832 as an informal stock exchange at the Exchange Coffee House in Montreal, Canada. ...


As a Marxist group, the FLQ was also opposed to the United States' ruling class and one cell supposedly plotted to blow up the Statue of Liberty, but they were apprehended before this could occur. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Statue of Liberty Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue, given to the U.S. by France in the late 19th century, that stands at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a welcome to all: returning Americans...


In 1966 a secret eight-page document entitled Revolutionary Strategy and the Role of the Avant-Garde was prepared by the FLQ outlining its long term strategy of successive waves of robberies, violence, bombings and kidnappings, culminating in insurrection and revolution. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Violence is a general term to describe actions, usually deliberate, that cause or intend to cause injury to people, animals, or non-living objects. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... A revolution is a relatively sudden and absolutely drastic change. ...


On October 5, 1970, members of the FLQ's Liberation cell kidnapped James Richard Cross, the British Trade Commissioner. Shortly afterwards, on October 10, the Chénier cell kidnapped the Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte, whom they later murdered on October 17, 1970. October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... James Richard Cross (September 29, 1921-) was a British diplomat in Canada who was kidnapped by the Front de libération du Québec during the October Crisis of October 1970. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... Pierre Laporte (February 25, 1921 - October 1970), was a Canadian politician who was assassinated by members of the FLQ. Pierre Laporte Pierre Laporte was born in Montreal, Quebec. ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The Liberation cell members:

The Chénier Cell members: Louise Lanctôt, born March 24, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, is a convicted terrorist and writer. ... Jacques Lanctôt (born November 5, 1945, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) was an important member of the Quebec terrorist group the FLQ. Lanctôt joined the Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ) group in 1963 at the age of 17 and was involved in several violent demonstrations in Quebec... Marc Carbonneau (born May 29, 1933) is a convicted terrorist and taxi driver. ... There are three Yves Langlois on the public scene in Canada: one is a film director, the second is a film editor, and the third has been a member of the Front de Libération du Quebec (FLQ). ...

After James Cross was kidnapped from his home in Montreal by members of the Liberation cell, the FLQ released a list of demands for Cross' release, which included: See also: Paul Rose (UK politician) Paul Rose, born October 16, 1943 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, is a political scientist and a trade unionist. ... Jacques Rose of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was a member of the Chenier cell of the Front de Libération du Quebec (FLQ). ... Francis Simard, born 1946, of Montreal, Quebec, was a member of the Chenier cell of the terrorist group, the Front de Libération du Quebec (FLQ). ... Bernard Lortie of Montreal, Quebec, Canada was a member of the Chenier cell of the Front de Libération du Quebec (FLQ) terrorist group. ...

  • the release of 23 "political prisoners"
  • $500,000 in gold
  • the broadcast and publication of the FLQ manifesto
  • the publication of the names of the police informants for terrorist activities
  • an aircraft to take the kidnappers to Cuba or Algeria
  • the cessation of all police search activities

Early in December 1970, police discovered the location of the kidnappers holding James Cross. His release was negotiated and on December 3, 1970, five of the terrorists were granted their request for safe passage to Cuba by the Government of Canada after approval by Fidel Castro. December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Cuban President Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926), has led Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first socialist nation in the Western Hemisphere. ...


In July 1980, police arrested and charged a sixth person in connection with the Cross kidnapping. Nigel Barry Hamer, a British radical socialist and FLQ sympathizer, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 12 months in jail. 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Although the five terrorists who wanted to go to Cuba were exiled from Canada for life, they were later found to be living in Paris, France. Over the years, despite being exiled for life, all of the FLQ members wanted to come back to Canada. The federal government consented. On their return: The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...

  • The Cossette-Trudels pleaded guilty at trial and were sentenced to two years in jail for their part in the kidnapping. They were freed on parole after serving eight months.
  • Marc Carbonneau was sentenced to 20 months of jail and three years probation for kidnapping, forcible confinement, conspiracy and extortion.
  • Yves Langlois was sentenced to two years in prison less one day for his part in the kidnapping. He served 10 months.

In the wake of the kidnappings, at the request of Québec premier Robert Bourassa, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau declared martial law under the War Measures Act -- which had only been used twice before in Canada's history, both in times of war. The following day, the Chénier cell announced that they had executed their hostage, Pierre Laporte. His killing was only the second political assassination in Canadian history since Thomas D'Arcy McGee was murdered in 1868. The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ... The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28, 2000 Spouse... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice (and usually of the whole state). ... The War Measures Act was a Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers. ... Pierre Laporte (February 25, 1921 - October 1970), was a Canadian politician who was assassinated by members of the FLQ. Pierre Laporte Pierre Laporte was born in Montreal, Quebec. ... Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 - April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and politician. ...


In late December, four weeks after the kidnappers of James Cross were found, Paul Rose and the kidnappers of Pierre Laporte were located in the corner of a country farmhouse basement. They were tried and convicted for kidnapping and murder. See also: Paul Rose (UK politician) Paul Rose, born October 16, 1943 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, is a political scientist and a trade unionist. ...


The events of October 1970 galvanized a loss of support for violent means for Quebec independence that had gone on for nearly ten years, and increased support for the political party, the Parti Québécois, which took power in 1976. The Parti Québécois or PQ is a centre-left political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada. ...


Nevertheless, terrorist activities continue to occur at the hands of isolated members of the organization. In 2001, Rhéal Mathieu, a member who in 1967 was sentenced to 9 years in prison for terrorist activities, was convicted of the attempted firebombing of three Second Cup coffee shops in Montreal. Mathieu targeted Canada's largest specialty coffee retailer because of the company's use of its incorporated English name Second Cup. For this offence, a judge sentenced Rhéal Mathieu to one month in jail. Shortly thereafter, seven McDonald's restaurants were firebombed. According to a spokesperson for company, the bombings resulted in customers being afraid to go to Second Cup coffee shops resulting in a substantial loss of business. The company changed their signs to Les cafés Second Cup, a move seen by some as giving in to terrorism. This follows the example set by many other stores in the past, some of which had even francized their trademark such as The Bay (La Baie) and Staples, Inc. (Bureau en gros). 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Second Cup is a large Canadian-owned chain of cafés, the largest specialty coffee retailer in Canada. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants [1]. Although McDonalds did not invent the hamburger or fast food, its name has become nearly synonymous with both. ... The Bay is a chain of 100 fashion department stores that operate across Canada. ... Categories: Companies traded on NASDAQ | Organization stubs | Retail companies of the United States | Fortune 500 companies | Office supply companies | Companies based in Massachusetts | Corporations with naming rights of indoor arenas ...


External link

  • FLQ Manifesto (http://english.republiquelibre.org/manifesto-flq.html)

 
 

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