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Fronde (16481653) was a civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The word fronde means sling, with which the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin were broken with stones by Paris mobs. The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parlements and the Fronde of the nobles. The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years War was significant. The nucleus of armed bands under aristocratic leaders, which would soon terrorize parts of France, had been hardened in a generation of war in Germany, where the traditional attitudes in decisions, troop movements, and operations, characteristic of sixteenth-century warfare, were still prevalent.[1] Fronde can mean: La Fronde, a French feminist newspaper The Fronde was a civil war in France in 1648–1653 The word fronde, French for sling Fronde Systems Group Ltd, an IT Services company, headquartered in New Zealand, with offices in Wellington, Auckland, London and New York Category: ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Combatants France Spain The Franco-Spanish War was a military conflict between France and Spain. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Home-made sling. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ...

Jules Cardinal Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart.
Jules Cardinal Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart.

The original goal of the insurrection was not revolutionary; its aim was to protect the ancient "liberties" from encroachments by the royal power, to defend the established right of the parlements, which were more like courts of appeals than parliaments in the English sense, and especially the right of the Parlement of Paris to limit the king's power. Rather than modern conceptions of individual liberty, the "liberties" under attack were the feudal liberties, not of individuals, but of chartered towns, the rights of corporations or the prerogatives accorded to offices, the rights of provincial parlements to defend custom against legal encroachment, in the legal patchwork of local interests and provincial identities that was France. The Fronde provided additional incentive in France for the establishment of absolutism, since the disorders eventually discredited these older, feudal senses of "liberty" in France. Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin by Pierre Louis Bouchart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Portrait of Cardinal Mazarin by Pierre Louis Bouchart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Parlements in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ...


The pressure to erode these liberties came from the Crown's need to recoup expenditures in the recent wars, by extending and increasing taxation. The immediate cause for resistance, as so often it is, was the imposition of added taxes amongst various grievances. The costs of the Thirty Years War constrained Mazarin's government to raise funds by traditional means, the impôts, the taille, and the occasional aides. The nobility refused to be so taxed, based on their old "liberties" or privileges, and the brunt fell upon the bourgeoisie. The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... Aides has various meanings: Aides is the god Hades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The movement soon degenerated into factions, some of which were attempting to overthrow Mazarin and reverse the policies of Cardinal de Richelieu. When Louis XIV became king in 1643, he was only a child, and though Richelieu had died the year before, his policies continued to dictate French policy, under his successor Jules Cardinal Mazarin. It is probable that Louis's later insistence on absolutist rule and depriving the nobility of actual power was a result of these events in his childhood. The term frondeur was later used to refer to anyone who suggested that the power of the king should be limited, and has now passed into normal French usage to refer to anyone who will show insubordination or engage in criticism of the powers in place. Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. ... “Louis XIV” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...


==The First Fronde, the Fronde Parlementaire (1648–164) In May 1648 a tax levied on judicial officers of the Parlement of Paris was met by that body not merely with a refusal to pay, but with a condemnation of earlier financial edicts, and even with a demand for the acceptance of a scheme of constitutional reforms framed by a united committee (the Chambre Saint-Louis) of the parlement, composed of members of all the sovereign courts of Paris. This charter was somewhat influenced by contemporary events in the English Civil War. But there is no real likeness between the two revolutions, the French parlement being no more representative of the people than the Inns of Court were in England. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ...


The military record of the first Fronde (the Fronde Parlementaire) is almost blank. In August 1648, strengthened by the news of the Prince of Condé's victory at Lens, Mazarin suddenly arrested the leaders of the parlement, whereupon Paris broke into insurrection and barricaded the streets. The noble faction demanded the calling of an Estates-General; the body had not been convoked since 1615, the possibility remained fresh. The nobles were secure that in an États-général they could continue to control the bourgeois element as they had in the past. The royal faction, having no army at its immediate disposal, had to release the prisoners and to promise reforms, and fled from Paris on the night of October 22. But the signing of the Peace of Westphalia set free Condé's army, and by January 1649 Paris was under siege. The peace of Rueil was signed in March, after little blood had been shed. The Parisians, though still and always anti-cardinalist, refused to ask for Spanish aid, as proposed by their princely and noble adherents, and having no prospect of military success without such aid, submitted and received concessions. Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Spanish army under Archduke Leopold in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). ... In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... The Peace of Rueil (French: Paix de Rueil), signed 11 March 1649, signalled an end to the opening episodes of the Fronde, Frances civil war, after little blood had been shed. ...

Contents

The Second Fronde, the Fronde des nobles (1650–1653)

Thenceforward the Fronde becomes a story of sordid intrigues and half-hearted warfare, losing all trace of its first constitutional phase.


The leaders were discontented princes and nobles: Gaston of Orleans (the king's uncle); the great Louis II, Prince of Condé and his brother Armand, Prince of Conti; Frédéric, the Duke of Bouillon, and his brother Henri, Viscount of Turenne. To these must be added Gaston's daughter, Mademoiselle de Montpensier (La grande Mademoiselle); Condé's sister, Madame de Longueville; Madame de Chevreuse; and the astute intriguer Paul de Gondi, the future Cardinal de Retz. The military operations fell into the hands of war-experienced mercenaries, led by two great, and many second-rate, generals, and of nobles to whom war was a polite pastime. Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608 - February 2, 1660), third son of the French king Henry IV, and his wife Marie de Medici, was born at Fontainebleau. ... Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (1629 - 1666) was the second son of Henry II, Prince of Condé, and brother of Louis, the great Condé and Anne Genevieve, Duchess of Longueville. ... Frédéric Maurice de La Tour dAuvergne, duc de Bouillon (1605-1652) was prince of the independent principality of Sedan, and general in the French royal army. ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... Anne Marie Louise dOrleans, duchesse de Montpensier (May 29, 1627 - April 5, 1693), French memoir-writer, was born at the Louvre. ... Anne Genevieve de Bourbon-Condé, Duchess of Longueville (August 28, 1619 - 1679), was the only daughter of Henri II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, and his wife Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, and the sister of Louis, the great Condé. She was born in the prison of Vincennes, into which her... Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse (1600-1679) was a French aristocrat at the center of all the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. ... Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz (1614 - August 24, 1679), French churchman and agitator, was born at Montmirail. ...


January 1650–December 1651

The peace of Rueil lasted until the end of 1649. The princes, received at court once more, renewed their intrigues against Mazarin. On January 14, 1650, Cardinal Mazarin, having come to an understanding with Monsieur Gondi and Madame de Chevreuse, suddenly arrested Condé, Conti, and Longueville. The war which followed this coup is called the "Princes' Fronde". This time it was Turenne, before and afterwards the most loyal soldier of his day, who headed the armed rebellion. Listening to the promptings of Madame de Longueville, he resolved to rescue her brother Condé, his old comrade of Freiburg and the Nördlingen. It was with Spanish assistance that he hoped to do so; and a powerful Spanish army assembled in Artois under the archduke Leopold Wilhelm, governor-general of the Spanish Netherlands. But the peasants of the countryside rose against the invaders; the royal army in Champagne was in the capable hands of Caesar de Choiseul, comte du Plessis-Praslin, who counted fifty-two years of age and thirty-six of war experience; and the little fortress of Guise successfully resisted the archduke's attack. Rueil-Malmaison is a French town near Paris, part of the Hauts-de-Seine département and within the Parisian conurbation. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Battle of Freiburg, also called the Three Day Battle, took place on August 3, August 5 and August 9, 1644 as part of the Thirty Years War. ... This article is about the second Battle of Nördlingen fought in 1645 in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... Archduke Leopold-William of Habsburg (Wiener Neustadt January 5, 1614 -Vienna November 20, 1662), was a Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, a military commander and a patron of the arts. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... For the wine region, see Champagne (wine region). ... Caesar, duc de Choiseul (1602 - December 23, 1675), French marshal and diplomatist, generally known for the best part of his life as the marshal du Plessis-Praslin, came of the old French family of Choiseul, which arose in the valley of the Upper Marne in the 10th century and divided... Guise is a commune of the Aisne département in northern France. ...


However, Mazarin at this point drew upon Plessis-Praslin's army for reinforcements to be sent to subdue the rebellion in the south, and the royal general had to retire. Then Archduke Leopold Wilhelm decided that he had spent enough of the king of Spain's money and men in the French quarrel. His regular army withdrew into winter quarters, and left Turenne to deliver the princes with a motley host of Frondeurs and Lorrainers. Plessis-Praslin by force and bribery secured the surrender of Rethel on December 13, 1650, and Turenne, who had advanced to relieve the place, fell back hurriedly. But he was a terrible opponent, and Plessis-Praslin and Mazarin himself, who accompanied the army, had many misgivings as to the result of a lost battle. The marshal chose nevertheless to force Turenne to a decision, and the Battle of Blanc-Champ (near Somme-Py) or Rethel was the consequence. Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Both sides were at a standstill in strong positions, Plessis-Praslin doubtful of the trustworthiness of his cavalry, Turenne too weak to attack, when a dispute for precedence arose between the Gardes Françaises and the Picardie regiment. The royal infantry had to be rearranged in order of regimental seniority, and Turenne, seeing and desiring to profit by the attendant disorder, came out of his stronghold and attacked with the greatest vigor. The battle (December 15, 1650) was severe and for a time doubtful, but Turenne's Frondeurs gave way in the end, and his army, as an army, ceased to exist. Turenne himself, undeceived as to the part he was playing in the drama, asked and received the young king's pardon, and meantime the court, with the maison du roi and other loyal troops, had subdued the minor risings without difficulty (March–April 1651). Founded in 1563, the Gardes françaises regiment counted 30 companies en 1635 with 300 fusiliers per company. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Condé, Conti, and Longueville were released, and by April 1651 the rebellion had everywhere collapsed. Then followed a few months of hollow peace and the court returned to Paris. Mazarin, an object of hatred to all the princes, had already retired into exile. His absence left the field free for mutual jealousies, and for the remainder of the year anarchy reigned in France. In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ...


December 1651–February 1653

In December 1651 Cardinal Mazarin returned to France with a small army. The war began again, and this time Turenne and Condé were pitted against one another.


After this campaign the civil war ceased, but in the several other campaigns of the Franco-Spanish War that followed, the two great soldiers were opposed to one another, Turenne as the defender of France, Condé as a Spanish invader.


The début of the new Frondeurs took place in Guyenne (February–March 1652), while their Spanish ally, the archduke Leopold Wilhelm, captured various northern fortresses. On the Loire, where the centre of gravity was soon transferred, the Frondeurs were commanded by intriguers and quarrelsome lords, until Condé's arrival from Guyenne. His bold leadership made itself felt in the Bléneau (April 7, 1652), in which a portion of the royal army was destroyed; but fresh troops came up to oppose him. From the skillful dispositions made by his opponents, Condé felt the presence of Turenne and broke off the action. The royal army did likewise. Condé invited the commander of Turenne's rearguard to supper, chaffed him unmercifully for allowing the prince's men to surprise him in the morning, and by way of farewell remarked to his guest, "Quel dommage que de braves gens comme nous se coupent la gorge pour un faquin" ("It's too bad decent people like us are cutting our throats for a scoundrel")—an incident and a remark that thoroughly justified the iron-handed absolutism of Louis XIV. Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... This article is about the French department. ... The center of gravity (CoG) is a concept developed by Carl von Clausewitz, a Prussian military theorist, in his work On War. ... The Battle of Bléneau was a battle of the Fronde fought on April 7, 1652 near Bléneau in France between the armies of the rebel Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and the Royalist Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ...


After Bléneau, both armies marched to Paris to negotiate with the parlement, de Retz and Mlle de Montpensier, while the archduke took more fortresses in Flanders, and Charles, duke of Lorraine, with an army of plundering mercenaries, marched through Champagne to join Condé. As to the latter, Turenne manoeuvred past Condé and planted himself in front of the mercenaries, and their leader, not wishing to expend his men against the old French regiments, consented to depart with a money payment and the promise of two tiny Lorraine fortresses. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Charles IV (* April 5, 1604 in Nancy – September 18, 1675 in Allenbach), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1661 to 1670 See also: Dukes of Lorraine family tree Categories: French people stubs | Dukes of Lorraine | 1604 births | 1675 deaths ...


A few more maneuvers, and the royal army was able to hem in the Frondeurs in the Faubourg St. Antoine (July 2, 1652) with their backs to the closed gates of Paris. The royalists attacked all along the line and won a signal victory in spite of the knightly prowess of the prince and his great lords, but at the critical moment Gaston's daughter persuaded the Parisians to open the gates and to admit Condé's army. She herself turned the guns of the Bastille on the pursuers. An insurrectional government was organised in the capital and proclaimed Monsieur lieutenant-general of the realm. Mazarin, feeling that public opinion was solidly against him, left France again, and the bourgeois of Paris, quarrelling with the princes, permitted the king to enter the city on October 21, 1652. Mazarin returned unopposed in February 1653. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... This article is about the building. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ...


The Franco-Spanish War (1653–1659)

Main article: Franco-Spanish War (1635)

The Fronde as a civil war was now over. The whole country, wearied of anarchy and disgusted with the princes, came to look to the king's party as the party of order and settled government, and thus the Fronde prepared the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV. The general war continued in Flanders, Catalonia, and Italy wherever a Spanish and a French garrison were face to face, and Condé, with the wreck of his army, openly and definitely entered the service of the king of Spain. This "Spanish Fronde" was almost purely a military affair and, except for a few outstanding incidents, dull to boot. Combatants France Spain The Franco-Spanish War was a military conflict between France and Spain. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...

Louis XIV (1638–1715) by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701
Louis XIV (1638–1715) by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701

In 1653 France was so exhausted that neither invaders nor defenders were able to gather supplies to enable them to take the field till July. At one moment, near Péronne, Condé had Turenne at a serious disadvantage, but he could not galvanize the Spanish general Count Fuensaldana, who was more solicitous to preserve his master's soldiers than to establish Condé as mayor of the palace to the king of France, and the armies drew apart again without fighting. In 1654 the principal incident was the siege and relief of Arras. On the night of August 24August 25 the lines of circumvallation drawn round that place by the prince were brilliantly stormed by Turenne's army, and Condé won equal credit for his safe withdrawal of the besieging corps under cover of a series of bold cavalry charges led by himself as usual, sword in hand. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x824, 90 KB)King Louis XIV of France painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x824, 90 KB)King Louis XIV of France painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... The Battle of Arras, fought on August 25, 1654, was a victory of the French army under Turenne against the Spanish army under Don Fernidand de Salis and Condé. According to the classic French novel Cyrano de Bergerac this famous fictional personnage participated in the 1640 Siege of Arras, not... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with contravallation. ...


In 1655 Turenne captured the fortresses of Landrecies, Condé and St Ghislain. In 1656 the prince of Condé revenged himself for the defeat of Arras by storming Turenne's circumvallation around Valenciennes (July 16), but Turenne drew off his forces in good order. The campaign of 1657 was uneventful, and is only to be remembered because a body of 6,000 British infantry, sent by Cromwell in pursuance of his treaty of alliance with Mazarin, took part in it. The presence of the English contingent and its very definite purpose of making Dunkirk a new Calais, to be held by England forever, gave the next campaign a character of certainty and decision which was entirely wanting in the rest of the war. Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... Landrecies is a commune of the Nord département, in France. ... Condé is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Condé, in the Indre département Condé-sur-lEscaut, in the Nord département Condé-sur-Ifs, in the Calvados département Condé-sur-Marne, in the Ardennes département Condé-sur-Noireau, in the... Saint Ghislain (d. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


Dunkirk was besieged promptly and in great force, and when Don Juan of Austria and Condé appeared with the relieving army from Fumes, Turenne advanced boldly to meet them. The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14, 1658, was the first real trial of strength since the battle of the Faubourg St Antoine. Successes on one wing were compromised by failure on the other, but in the end Condé drew off with heavy losses, the success of his own cavalry charges having entirely failed to make good the defeat of the Spanish right wing amongst the Dunes. Here the "red-coats" made their first appearance on a continental battlefield, under the leadership of Sir W. Lockhart, Cromwell's ambassador at Paris, and astonished both armies by the stubborn fierceness of their assaults, for they were the products of the English Civil War, where passions ran higher and the determination to win rested on deeper foundations than in the degringolade of the feudal spirit in which they now figured after decades of war had sapped the main parties of all belief. Dunkirk fell, and was handed over to England, as promised, so flying the St George's Cross till Charles II sold it to the king of France. Don Juan José de Austria, Count of Oñate (1629 - 17 September 1679) was a Spanish general and political figure. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 and ships 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14 (Gregorian calendar), 1658... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Depiction of a British soldier in 1742 Red coat is a term often used to refer to a soldier of the historical British Army, because of the colour of the military uniforms formerly worn by the majority of regiments. ... St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


A last desultory campaign followed in 1659—the twenty-fifth year of a conflict between France and Spain which had begun during the Thirty Years' War—and the peace of the Pyrenees was signed on November 5. On January 27, 1660 the prince asked and obtained at Aix-en-Provence the forgiveness of Louis XIV. The later careers of Turenne and Condé as great generals were as obedient subjects of their sovereign. Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Louis XIV, with the experience of the Fronde still fresh, would reorganize French fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy, whose leaders were ultimately made and unmade by the King.

Publications

Amable Guillaume Prosper Brugière, baron de Barante (June 10, 1782 - November 22, 1866), French statesman and historian, the son of an advocate, was born at Riom. ... Mathieu Molé (1584 - January 3, 1656) was a French statesman. ... James Breck Perkins (1847-1910) was an American historian and legislator, born at St. ... Julia Pardoe (December 4, 1806 - November 26, 1862), was an English novelist and historian. ... Rev. ...

References

  • Richard Bonney, Society and Government in France under Richelieu and Mazarin, 1624–1661 1988 With 309 original documents

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