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Encyclopedia > Frog
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Frog
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea)
White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Merrem, 1820

Distribution of frogs (in black)
Suborders

Archaeobatrachia
Mesobatrachia
Neobatrachia
-
List of Anuran families The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1812x1194, 749 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Binomial name Litoria caerulea (White, 1790) Whites Tree Frog, Green Tree Frog, or Dumpy Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) is a species of tree frog native to Australia and New Guinea, with introduced populations in New Zealand and the United States. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... Blasius Merrem (February 4, 1761 _ February 23, 1824) was a German naturalist. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) Summary The global distribution of frogs. ... Families Ascaphidae Bombinatoridae Discoglossidae Leiopelmatidae Archaeobatrachia are a suborder of Anura containing various frog and toad like organisms. ... Families Megophryidae Pelobatidae Pelodytidae Scaphiopodidae Rhinophrynidae Pipidae Mesobatrachia is the second largest of the anura suborders. ... Families Allophrynidae Arthroleptidae Astylosternidae Brachycephalidae Bufonidae Centrolenidae Dendrobatidae Heleophrynidae Hemisotidae Hylidae Hyperoliidae Leptodactylidae Limnodynastidae Mantellidae Microhylidae Myobatrachidae Nasikabatrachidae Petropedetidae Ranidae Rhacophoridae Rheobatrachidae Rhinodermatidae Sooglossidae Neobatrachia are a suborder of order Anura, i. ... Suborders See text The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. ...

The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning "tail-less" from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). Adult frogs are characterised by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits, protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Most frogs have a semi-aquatic lifestyle, but move easily on land by jumping or climbing. They typically lay their eggs in puddles, ponds or lakes; and their larvae, called tadpoles, have gills and develop in water. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. Frogs are most noticeable by their call, which can be widely heard during the night or day, mainly in their mating season. Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... // A human eye. ... A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Tadpole of Littlejohns Tree Frog (Litoria littlejohni) A tadpole (also known as a pollywog or polliwog) is a larval amphibian, the juvenile form of a frog, toad, newt, salamander, or caecilian. ... gills of a Smooth Newt Gills inside of a tuna head In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... Subclasses Eogastropoda (True Limpets and relatives) Orthogastropoda The gastropods, gasteropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 known living species comprising the snails and slugs as well as a vast number of marine and freshwater species. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ...


The distribution of frogs ranges from tropic to subarctic regions, but most species are found in tropical rainforests. Consisting of more than 5,000 species described, they are among the most diverse groups of vertebrates. However, populations of certain frog species are significantly declining. A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the sun is almost directly overhead. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... The Golden Toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica was among the first casualties of amphibian declines. ...


A distinction is often made between frogs and toads on the basis of their appearance, caused by the convergent adaptation among so-called toads to dry environments; however, this distinction has no taxonomic basis. The only family exclusively given the common name "toad" is Bufonidae, but many species from other families are also called "toads," and the species within the toad genus Atelopus are referred to as "harlequin frogs." Families At least 9, see article. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Families At least 9, see article. ... Atelopus is a large genus of true toads natively distributed in Costa Rica to Bolivia and French Guiana. ...


The name frog derives from Old English frogga,[1] (compare Old Norse frauki, German Frosch, older Dutch spelling kikvorsch), cognate with Sanskrit plava (frog), probably deriving from Proto-Indo-European praw = "to jump".[2] Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...


The scientific study of study of reptiles and amphibians (including frogs) is called herpetology (Greek ἑρπετόν = "creeping animal" and λόγος = (in this context) "explanation or reason"), a field in zoology that includes the study of both reptiles and amphibians. Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... Herpetology (Greek herpeton = to creep, to ramp and logos = in this context explanation or reason) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Zoology (rarely spelled zoölogy) is the biological discipline which involves the study of non-human animals. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

European Fire-bellied Toad (Bombina bombina)
European Fire-bellied Toad (Bombina bombina)
For more details on this topic, see List of Anuran families.

The order Anura contains 5,250 species in 33 families, of which the Leptodactylidae (1100 spp.), Hylidae (800 spp.) and Ranidae (750 spp.) are the richest in species. About 88% of amphibian species are frogs. Image File history File links Bombina_bombina_1_(Marek_Szczepanek)_tight_crop. ... Image File history File links Bombina_bombina_1_(Marek_Szczepanek)_tight_crop. ... Binomial name Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) The European Fire-bellied Toad Bombina bombina is a fire-bellied toad native to mainland Europe. ... Suborders See text The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. ... Leptodactylidae are a diverse family of frogs in the suborder Neobatrachia. ... Genera see Text Tree frog, in zoology, any individual of the family Hylidae. ... Genera Batacia Opyum Rana - Frog is the common name for amphibians in the order, Anura. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals...


The use of the common names "frog" and "toad" has no taxonomic justification. From a taxonomic perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads". The use of the term "frog" in common names usually refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic with smooth or moist skins, and the term "toad" generally refers to species that tend to be terrestrial with dry, warty skin. An exception is the Fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina): while its skin is slightly warty, it prefers a watery habitat. Species See text. ...


Frogs and toads are broadly classified into three suborders: Archaeobatrachia, which includes four families of primitive frogs; Mesobatrachia, which includes five families of more evolutionary intermediate frogs; and Neobatrachia, by far the largest group, which contains the remaining 24 families of "modern" frogs, including most common species throughout the world. The Neobatrachia is further divided into the Hyloidea and Ranoidea.[3] This classification is based on such morphological features as the number of vertebrae, the structure of the pectoral girdle, and the morphology of tadpoles. While this classification is largely accepted, relationships among families of frogs are still debated. Future studies of molecular genetics should soon provide further insights to the evolutionary relationships among frog families.[4] Families Ascaphidae Bombinatoridae Discoglossidae Leiopelmatidae Archaeobatrachia are a suborder of Anura containing various frog and toad like organisms. ... Families Megophryidae Pelobatidae Pelodytidae Scaphiopodidae Rhinophrynidae Pipidae Mesobatrachia is the second largest of the anura suborders. ... Families Allophrynidae Arthroleptidae Astylosternidae Brachycephalidae Bufonidae Centrolenidae Dendrobatidae Heleophrynidae Hemisotidae Hylidae Hyperoliidae Leptodactylidae Limnodynastidae Mantellidae Microhylidae Myobatrachidae Nasikabatrachidae Petropedetidae Ranidae Rhacophoridae Rheobatrachidae Rhinodermatidae Sooglossidae Neobatrachia are a suborder of order Anura, i. ... The pectoral girdle is the set of bones which connect the upper limb to the axial skeleton on each side. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...


Some species of anurans hybridise readily. For instance, the Edible Frog (Rana esculenta) is a hybrid of the Pool Frog (R. lessonae) and the Marsh Frog (R. ridibunda). Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata similarly form hybrids, although these are less fertile, giving rise to a hybrid zone. // This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Rana kl. ... Binomial name Rana lessonae The Pool Frog Rana lessonae is a European frog. ... Binomial name Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771 The Marsh Frog (Rana ridibunda) is the largest European frog. ... The Hybrid Zone is an overlap range of 2 species that can reproduce effectively producing offspring that are infertile (a hybrid of the 2 species, hence the name). ...


Morphology and physiology

For more details on this topic, see Frog zoology.
Skeleton of Rana
Skeleton of Rana

The morphology (structure) of frogs is unique among amphibians. Compared with the other two groups of amphibians, (salamanders and caecilians), frogs are unusual because they lack tails as adults and their legs are more suited to jumping than walking. The physiology of frogs is generally like that of other amphibians (and differs from other terrestrial vertebrates) because oxygen can pass through their highly permeable skin. This unique feature allows frogs to "breathe" largely through their skin. Because the oxygen is dissolved in an aqueous film on the skin and passes from there to the blood, the skin must remain moist at all times; this makes frogs susceptible to many toxins in the environment, some of which can similarly dissolve in the layer of water and be passed into their bloodstream. This may be cause of the decline in frog populations. // About 400 million years ago, some members of the sarcopterygian group of fish moved onto land. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (723x1069, 262 KB) Summary Skeleton of frog. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (723x1069, 262 KB) Summary Skeleton of frog. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 species of amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Families Rhinatrematidae Ichthyophiidae Uraeotyphlidae Scolecomorphidae Typhlonectidae Caeciliidae The Caecilians are an order (Gymnophiona or Apoda) of amphibians which resemble earthworms or snakes. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... The Golden Toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica was among the first casualties of amphibian declines. ...


Many characteristics are not shared by all of the approximately 5,250 described frog species. However, some general characteristics distinguish them from other amphibians. Frogs are usually well suited to jumping, with long hind legs and elongated ankle bones. They have a short vertebral column, with no more than ten free vertebrae, followed by a fused tailbone (urostyle or coccyx), typically resulting in a tailless phenotype.


Frogs range in size from 10 mm (Brachycepahlus didactylus of Brazil and Eleutherodactylus iberia of Cuba) to 300 mm (Goliath frog, Conraua goliath, of Cameroon). The skin hangs loosely on the body because of the lack of loose connective tissue. Skin texture varies: it can be smooth, warty or folded. Frogs have three eyelid membranes: one is transparent to protect the eyes underwater, and two vary from translucent to opaque. Frogs have a tympanum on each side of the head, which is involved in hearing and, in some species, is covered by skin. Binomial name Conraua goliath (Boulenger, 1906) The Goliath frog is an African frog of genus Conraua. ... Loose connective tissue is the most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates. ... The tympanum is an external hearing structure in frogs and toads, located just behind the eye. ...


Feet and legs

Tyler's Tree Frog (Litoria tyleri) illustrates large toe pads and webbed feet.

The structure of the feet and legs varies greatly among frog species, depending in part on whether they live primarily on the ground, in water, in trees, or in burrows. Frogs must be able to move quickly through their environment to catch prey and escape predators, and numerous adaptations help them do so. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x1008, 477 KB) Summary Tylers Tree Frog (Litoria tyleri) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x1008, 477 KB) Summary Tylers Tree Frog (Litoria tyleri) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Binomial name Litoria tyleri Martin, Watson, Gartside, Littlejohn and Loftus-Hills, 1979 Tylers Tree Frog or the Southern Laughing Tree Frog (Litoria tyleri) is an arboreal tree frog native to eastern Australia. ...


Many frogs, especially those that live in water, have webbed toes. The degree to which the toes are webbed is directly proportional to the amount of time the species lives in the water. For example, the completely aquatic African dwarf frog (Hymenochirus sp.) has fully webbed toes, whereas the toes of White's Tree Frog, an arboreal species, are only a half or a quarter webbed. {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = African Dwarf Frogs | image = Amplexus of ADF.jpg | regnum = Animalia | phylum = Chordata | classis = Amphibia | subclassis = Lissamphibia | superordo = Batrachia ... Binomial name Litoria caerulea (White, 1790) Whites Tree Frog, Green Tree Frog, or Dumpy Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) is a species of tree frog native to Australia and New Guinea, with introduced populations in New Zealand and the United States. ...


Arboreal frogs have "toe pads" to help grip vertical surfaces. These pads, located on the ends of the toes, do not work by suction. Rather, the surface of the pad consists of interlocking cells, with a small gap between adjacent cells. When the frog applies pressure to the toe pads, the interlocking cells grip irregularities on the substrate. The small gaps between the cells drain away all but a thin layer of moisture on the pad, and maintain a grip through capillarity. This allows the frog to grip smooth surfaces, and does not function when the pads are excessively wet.[5] Distribution of Hylidae and Rhacophoridae (in black) Genera See text. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Capillary action. ...


In many arboreal frogs, a small "intercalary structure" in each toe increases the surface area touching the substrate. Furthermore, since hopping through trees can be dangerous, many arboreal frogs have hip joints that allow both hopping and walking. Some frogs that live high in trees even possess an elaborate degree of webbing between their toes, as do aquatic frogs. But in these arboreal frogs, the webs allow the frogs to "parachute" or control their glide from one position in the canopy to another.[6]


Ground-dwelling frogs generally lack the adaptations of aquatic and arboreal frogs. Most have smaller toe pads, if any, and little webbing. Some burrowing frogs have a toe extension—a metatarsal tubercle—that helps them to burrow. The hind legs of ground dwellers are more muscular than those of aqueous and tree-dwelling frogs.


Skin

Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifera) camouflaged against leaf litter.

Many frogs are able to absorb water directly through the skin, especially around the pelvic area. However, the permeability of a frog's skin can also result in water loss. Some tree frogs reduce water loss with a waterproof layer of skin. Others have adapted behaviours that conserve water, including engaging in nocturnal activity and resting in a water-conserving position. This position involves the frog lying with its toes and fingers tucked under its body and chin, respectively, with no gap between the body and substrate. Some frog species will also rest in large groups, touching the skin of the neighbouring frog. This reduces the amount of skin exposed to the air or a dry surface, and thus reduces water loss. These adaptations only reduce water loss enough for a predominantly arboreal existence, and are not suitable for arid conditions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1122x951, 330 KB) Summary Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifera). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1122x951, 330 KB) Summary Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifera). ... Binomial name Crinia signifera Girard, 1853 Common Eastern Froglet range. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


Camouflage is a common defensive mechanism in frogs. Most camouflaged frogs are nocturnal, which adds to their ability to hide. Nocturnal frogs usually find the ideal camouflaged position during the day to sleep. Some frogs have the ability to change colour, but this is usually restricted to shades of one or two colours. For example, White's tree frog (Litoria caerulea) varies in shades of green and brown. Features such as warts and skin folds are usually found on ground-dwelling frogs, where a smooth skin would not disguise them effectively. Arboreal frogs usually have smooth skin, enabling them to disguise themselves as leaves. Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... Binomial name Litoria caerulea (White, 1790) Whites Tree Frog, Green Tree Frog, or Dumpy Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) is a species of tree frog native to Australia and New Guinea, with introduced populations in New Zealand and the United States. ...


Certain frogs change colour between night and day, as light and moisture stimulate the pigment cells and cause them to expand or contract.


Poison

Oophaga pumilio, a poison dart frog, contains numerous alkaloids which deter predators.
Oophaga pumilio, a poison dart frog, contains numerous alkaloids which deter predators.

Many frogs contain mild toxins that make them distasteful to potential predators. For example, all toads have large poison glands—the parotid glands—located behind the eyes on the top of the head. Some frogs, such as some poison dart frogs, are especially toxic. The chemical makeup of toxins in frogs varies from irritants to hallucinogens, convulsants, nerve poisons, and vasoconstrictors (which narrow the blood vessels). Many predators of frogs have adapted to tolerate high levels of these poisons. Others, including humans, may be severely affected. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x709, 300 KB) Summary Dendrobates pumilio (dart poison frog) from Costa Rica, Central America Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Frog Poison dart frog User:Pstevendactylus Talk:Frog/Archive2 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x709, 300 KB) Summary Dendrobates pumilio (dart poison frog) from Costa Rica, Central America Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Frog Poison dart frog User:Pstevendactylus Talk:Frog/Archive2 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Binomial name Oophaga pumilio (Schmidt, 1857) The Strawberry Poison-dart frog, Oophaga pumilio is a type of poison dart frog found in Central America, with a high concentration within the nation of Costa Rica. ... {{Taxobox | color = aqua | name = Poison arrow frogs | image = Dendrobates pumilio. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... {{Taxobox | color = aqua | name = Poison arrow frogs | image = Dendrobates pumilio. ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... Vasoconstriction is the constriction of blood vessels, in other words, when the lumen narrows. ...


Some frogs obtain poisons from the ants and other arthropods they eat;[7] others, such as the Australian Corroboree Frogs (Pseudophryne corroboree and Pseudophryne pengilleyi), can manufacture an alkaloid not derived from their diet.[8] Some native people of South America extract poison from the poison dart frogs and apply it to their darts for hunting,[9] although few species are toxic enough to be used for this purpose. It was previously a misconception that the poison was placed on arrows rather than darts. The common name of these frogs was thus changed from "Poison Arrow Frog" to "Poison Dart Frog" in the early 1980s. Poisonous frogs tend to advertise their toxicity with bright colours, an adaptive strategy known as aposematism. There are at least two non-poisonous species of frogs in tropical America (Eleutherodactylus gaigei and Lithodytes lineatus) that mimic the colouration of dart poison frogs' coloration for self-protection (Batesian mimicry).[10][11] Species Pseudophryne corroboree J. A. Moore 1953 Pseudophryne pengilleyi Wells and Wellington 1985 There are two species of Corroboree frog, the Southern () and the Northern (). Both are classified as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List, but the former is more at risk due to its extremely restricted range. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Look up dart in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ...


Because frog toxins are extraordinarily diverse, they have raised the interest of biochemists as a "natural pharmacy". The alkaloid epibatidine, a painkiller 200 times more potent than morphine, is found in some species of poison dart frogs. Other chemicals isolated from the skin of frogs may offer resistance to HIV infection.[12] Arrow and dart poisons are under active investigation for their potential as therapeutic drugs.[13] Epibatidine is the chemical that Native Americans dipped their arrowheads into. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


The skin secretions of some toads, such as the Colorado River Toad and Cane Toad, contain bufotoxins, some of which, such as bufotenin, are psychoactive, and have therefore been used as recreational drugs. Typically, the skin secretions are dried and smoked. Skin licking is especially dangerous, and appears to constitute an urban myth. See psychoactive toad. Binomial name Bufo alvarius Girard in Baird, 1859 The Colorado River Toad or Bufo alvarius, also known as the Sonoran Desert Toad, is a psychoactive toad found in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Binomial name Bufo marinus Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of the Cane Toad. ... Bufotoxin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Bufotenin, also spelled bufotenine, is also known under the names 5-hydroxy-DMT (5-OH-DMT) or dimethyl-serotonin and is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ... Psychoactive toad is a name used for toads from which psychoactive substances from the family of bufotoxins can be derived. ...


Respiration and circulation

The skin of a frog is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as to water. There are a number of blood vessels near the surface of the skin. When a frog is underwater, oxygen is transmitted through the skin directly into the bloodstream. On land, adult frogs use their lungs to breathe. Their lungs are similar to those of humans, but the chest muscles are not involved in respiration, and there are no ribs or diaphragm to support breathing. Frogs breathe by taking air in through the nostrils (causing the throat to puff out), and compressing the floor of the mouth, which forces the air into the lungs. The human rib cage. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ...


Frogs are known for their three-chambered heart, which they share with all tetrapods except birds and mammals. In the three-chambered heart, oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enter by separate atria, and are directed via a spiral valve to the appropriate vessel—aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary vein for deoxygenated blood. This special structure is essential to keeping the mixing of the two types of blood to a minimum, which enables frogs to have higher metabolic rates, and to be more active than otherwise. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Groups See text. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... Respiration is a term used for the words in both biochemistry and physiology, and may refer to: Cellular respiration, the process in the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ...


Natural history

The life cycle of frogs, like that of other amphibians, consists of four main stages: egg, tadpole, metamorphosis and adult. The reliance of frogs on an aquatic environment for the egg and tadpole stages gives rise to a variety of breeding behaviours that include the well-known mating calls used by the males of most species to attract females to the bodies of water that they have chosen for breeding. Some frogs also look after their eggs—and in some cases even the tadpoles—for some time after laying.


Life cycle

Frogspawn
Frogspawn
Tadpoles
Tadpoles
Froglet
Adult leopard frog

The life cycle of a frog starts with an egg. A female generally lays frogspawn, or egg masses containing thousands of eggs, in water. The eggs are highly vulnerable to predation, so frogs have evolved many techniques to ensure the survival of the next generation. Most commonly, this involves synchronous reproduction. Many individuals will breed at the same time, overwhelming the actions of predators; the majority of the offspring will still die due to predation, but there is a greater chance that some will survive. Another way in which some species avoid the predators and pathogens eggs are exposed to in ponds is to lay eggs on leaves above the pond, with a gelatinous coating designed to retain moisture. In these species the tadpoles drop into the water upon hatching. The eggs of some species laid out of water can detect vibrations of nearby predatory wasps or snakes, and will hatch early to avoid being eaten.[14] Some species, such as the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus), lay poisonous eggs to minimise predation. While the length of the egg stage depends on the species and environmental conditions, aquatic eggs generally hatch within one week. Close-up of frogspawn. ... Close-up of frogspawn. ... Download high resolution version (994x764, 38 KB)The tadpoles from Image:Frogspawn closeup. ... Download high resolution version (994x764, 38 KB)The tadpoles from Image:Frogspawn closeup. ... A frog that looks like a zhe. ... A frog that looks like a zhe. ... Green leopard frog in swamp with duckweed Copyright 1995 Steven J. Dunlop, Nerstrand, MN, USA. Released under the GFDL; all other rights reserved. ... Green leopard frog in swamp with duckweed Copyright 1995 Steven J. Dunlop, Nerstrand, MN, USA. Released under the GFDL; all other rights reserved. ... Species Rio Grande Leopard Frog, Plains Leopard Frog, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, Vegas Valley Leopard Frog, Relict Leopard Frog Northern Leopard Frog, Southern Leopard Frog, Ramsey Canyon Leopard Frog, Lowland Leopard Frog, Leopard frogs, which are also called meadow frogs and grass frogs, are a collection of so-called true frog... A juvenile Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator species kills and eats other organisms, known as prey. ... Binomial name Bufo marinus Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of the Cane Toad. ...


Eggs hatch and continue life as tadpoles (occasionally known as polliwogs). Tadpoles are aquatic, lack front and hind legs, and have gills for respiration and tails with fins for swimming. Tadpoles are typically herbivorous, feeding mostly on algae, including diatoms that are filtered from the water through the gills. Some species are carnivorous at the tadpole stage, eating insects, smaller tadpoles and fish. Tadpoles are highly vulnerable to predation by fish, newts, predatory diving beetles and birds such as kingfishers. Cannibalism has been observed among tadpoles. Poisonous tadpoles are present in many species, such as Cane Toads. The tadpole stage may be as short as a week, or tadpoles may overwinter and metamorphose the following year in some species, such as the Midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) and the Common Spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus). Tadpole of Littlejohns Tree Frog (Litoria littlejohni) A tadpole (also known as a pollywog or polliwog) is a larval amphibian, the juvenile form of a frog, toad, newt, salamander, or caecilian. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... gills of a Smooth Newt Gills inside of a tuna head In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... “Eft” redirects here. ... Genera at least 160, see text The predaceous diving beetles (also spelled predacious) are a family (Dytiscidae) of water beetles. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ... Species Alytes cisternasii Boscá, 1879. ...


At the end of the tadpole stage, frogs undergo metamorphosis, in which they transition into adult form. Metamorphosis involves a dramatic transformation of morphology and physiology, as tadpoles develop hind legs, then front legs, lose their gills and develop lungs. Their intestines shorten as they shift from an herbivorous to a carnivorous diet. Eyes migrate rostrally and dorsally, allowing for binocular vision exhibited by the adult frog. This shift in eye position mirrors the shift from prey to predator, as the tadpole develops and depends less upon a larger and wider field of vision and more upon depth perception. The final stage of development from froglet to adult frog involves apoptosis (programmed cell death) and resorption of the tail. A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ...


After metamorphosis, young adults may leave the water and disperse into terrestrial habitats, or continue to live in the aquatic habitat as adults. Almost all species of frogs are carnivorous as adults, eating invertebrates such as arthropods, annelids and gastropods. A few of the larger species may eat prey such as small mammals, fish and smaller frogs. Some frogs use their sticky tongues to catch fast-moving prey, while others capture their prey and force it into their mouths with their hands. However, there are a very few species of frogs that primarily eat plants.[15] Adult frogs are themselves preyed upon by birds, large fish, snakes, otters, foxes, badgers, coatis, and other animals. Frogs are also eaten by people (see section on uses in agriculture and research, below). This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... Subclasses Eogastropoda (True Limpets and relatives) Orthogastropoda The gastropods, gasteropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 known living species comprising the snails and slugs as well as a vast number of marine and freshwater species. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura The otter (lutrinae) is a carnivorous aquatic or marine mammal part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, as well as others. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Species Nasua nasua Nasua narica Nasua nelsoni The name coati (pronounced ) is applied to any of three species of small neotropical mammals in the genus Nasua, family Procyonidae, ranging from southern Arizona to north of Argentina. ...


Although it is not common knowledge, some species of frog in their tadpole stage are known to be carnivorous. Early developers who gain legs may be eaten by the others, so the late bloomers survive longer. This has been observed in England in the species Rana temporaria (The Common Frog).[citation needed]


Reproduction of frogs

Once adult frogs reach maturity, they will assemble at a water source such as a pond or stream to breed. Many frogs return to the bodies of water where they were born, often resulting in annual migrations involving thousands of frogs. In continental Europe, a large proportion of migrating frogs used to die on roads, before special fences and tunnels were built for them.

Male and female Common toad (Bufo bufo) in amplexus
Male and female Common toad (Bufo bufo) in amplexus

Once at the breeding ground, male frogs call to attract a mate, collectively becoming a chorus of frogs. The call is unique to the species, and will attract females of that species. Some species have satellite males who do not call, but intercept females that are approaching a calling male. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 489 KB) Português dois sapos (bufo bufo) fotografado de de:Benutzer:Janekpfeifer 28. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 489 KB) Português dois sapos (bufo bufo) fotografado de de:Benutzer:Janekpfeifer 28. ... Binomial name Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common toad or European toad Bufo bufo is widespread throughout Europe, with the exception of Ireland and some Mediterranean islands. ... Amplexus is the process when the male frog grasps the female while she lays her eggs. ...


The male and female frogs then undergo amplexus. This involves the male mounting the female and gripping her tightly. Fertilization is external: the egg and sperm meet outside of the body. The female releases her eggs, which the male frog covers with a sperm solution. The eggs then swell and develop a protective coating. The eggs are typically brown or black, with a clear, gelatin-like covering. Amplexus is the process when the male frog grasps the female while she lays her eggs. ... External fertilization is a form of fertilization in which a sperm cell is united with an egg cell external to the body of the female. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless. ...


Most temperate species of frogs reproduce between late autumn and early spring. In the UK, most common frog populations produce frogspawn in February, although there is wide variation in timing. Water temperatures at this time of year are relatively low, typically between four and 10 degrees Celsius. Reproducing in these conditions helps the developing tadpoles because dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water are highest at cold temperatures. More importantly, reproducing early in the season ensures that appropriate food is available to the developing frogs at the right time. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Parental care

Colour plate from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frog species that include two examples of parental care.
Colour plate from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frog species that include two examples of parental care.

Although care of offspring is poorly understood in frogs, it is estimated that up to 20% of amphibian species may care for their young in one way or another, and there is a great diversity of parental behaviours.[16] Some species of poison dart frog lay eggs on the forest floor and protect them, guarding the eggs from predation and keeping them moist. The frog will urinate on them if they become too dry. After hatching, a parent (the sex depends upon the species) will move them, on its back, to a water-holding bromeliad. The parent then feeds them by laying unfertilized eggs in the bromeliad until the young have metamorphosed. Other frogs carry the eggs and tadpoles on their hind legs or back (e.g. the midwife toads, Alytes spp.). Some frogs even protect their offspring inside their own bodies. The male Australian Pouched Frog (Assa darlingtoni) has pouches along its side in which the tadpoles reside until metamorphosis. The female Gastric-brooding Frogs (genus Rheobatrachus) from Australia, now probably extinct, swallows its tadpoles, which then develop in the stomach. To do this, the Gastric-brooding Frog must stop secreting stomach acid and suppress peristalsis (contractions of the stomach). Darwin's Frog (Rhinoderma darwinii) from Chile puts the tadpoles in its vocal sac for development. Some species of frog will leave a 'babysitter' to watch over the frogspawn until it hatches. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2323x3284, 2217 KB) Summary The 68th plate from Ernst Haeckels 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frogs classified as Batrachia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2323x3284, 2217 KB) Summary The 68th plate from Ernst Haeckels 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frogs classified as Batrachia. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Genera See text Bromeliads include epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, and ground plants, such as the Pineapple. ... Species Alytes cisternasii Boscá, 1879. ... Species Assa darligtoni The Pouched Frog (Assa darlingtoni) is a small, terrestrial frog found in Australia. ... Species Rheobatrachus silus Rheobatrachus vitellinus The gastric-brooding frogs are a genus, Rheobatrachus, of frogs from East Australia. ... Gastric acid is the main secretion of the stomach, characterised by H2O, hydrochloric acid and several enzymes (mainly pepsinogen). ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Binomial name Rhinoderma darwinii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Darwins Frog (Rhinoderma darwinii) is a frog native to Chile and Argentina. ...


Call

The call of a frog is unique to its species. Frogs call by passing air through the larynx in the throat. In most calling frogs, the sound is amplified by one or more vocal sacs, membranes of skin under the throat or on the corner of the mouth that distend during the amplification of the call. Some frog calls are so loud, they can be heard up to a mile away.[17] Voicebox redirects here. ... A fully distended vocal sac in an Australian Red-Eyed Tree Frog (Litoria chloris) The vocal sac is the flexible membrane of skin possessed by most male frogs. ...


Some frogs lack vocal sacs, such as those from the genera Heleioporus and Neobatrachus, but these species can still produce a loud call. Their buccal cavity is enlarged and dome-shaped, acting as a resonance chamber that amplifies their call. Species of frog without vocal sacs and that do not have a loud call tend to inhabit areas close to flowing water. The noise of flowing water overpowers any call, so they must communicate by other means. A resonance chamber uses resonance to amplify sound. ...


The main reason for calling is to allow males to attract a mate. Males call either individually or in a group called a chorus. Females of many frog species, for example Polypedates leucomystax, produce calls reciprocal to the males', which act as the catalyst for the enhancement of reproductive activity in a breeding colony.[18] A male frog emits a release call when mounted by another male. Tropical species also have a rain call that they make on the basis of humidity cues prior to a rain shower. Many species also have a territorial call that is used to chase away other males. All of these calls are emitted with the mouth of the frog closed.


A distress call, emitted by some frogs when they are in danger, is produced with the mouth open, resulting in a higher-pitched call. The effectiveness of the call is unknown; however, it is suspected that the call intrigues the predator until another animal is attracted, distracting them enough for its escape.


Many species of frog have deep calls, or croaks. The onomatopoeic spelling is often "crrrrk" in Britain and "ribbit" in the US. This difference is due to the different species within each region (e.g., Common frog (Rana temporaria) in Britain and Leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in the US). The croak of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) is sometimes spelt "jug o' rum". Look up onomatopoeia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Frog, Rana temporaria also known as the European Common Frog or European Common Brown Frog is found throughout much of Europe as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans. ... Species Rio Grande Leopard Frog, Plains Leopard Frog, Chiricahua Leopard Frog, Vegas Valley Leopard Frog, Relict Leopard Frog Northern Leopard Frog, Southern Leopard Frog, Ramsey Canyon Leopard Frog, Lowland Leopard Frog, Leopard frogs, which are also called meadow frogs and grass frogs, are a collection of so-called true frog... Binomial name Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) Bullfrog range Synonyms Rana catesbeiana The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus,[1][2] previously Rana catesbeiana[3]) is an aquatic frog, a member of the family Ranidae, or true frogs, native to much of North America. ...


Distribution and conservation status

Golden toad (Ollotis periglenes) - last seen in 1989
Golden toad (Ollotis periglenes) - last seen in 1989

The habitat of frogs extends almost worldwide, but they do not occur in Antarctica and are not present in many oceanic islands.[citation needed] The greatest diversity of frogs occurs in the tropical areas of the world, where water is readily available, suiting frogs' requirements due to their skin. Some frogs inhabit arid areas such as deserts, where water may not be easily accessible, and rely on specific adaptations to survive. The Australian genus Cyclorana and the American genus Pternohyla will bury themselves underground, create a water-impervious cocoon and hibernate during dry periods. Once it rains, they emerge, find a temporary pond and breed. Egg and tadpole development is very fast in comparison to most other frogs so that breeding is complete before the pond dries up. Some frog species are adapted to a cold environment; for instance the Wood Frog, which lives in the Arctic Circle, buries itself in the ground during winter when much of its body freezes. Download high resolution version (3593x2400, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3593x2400, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 The Golden Toad or Monte Verde Toad (Bufo periglenes) lived in handfulls of places in the Monteverde forest located in Costa Rica, a country in Central America. ... Species Cyclorana is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in most of Australia. ... Species Pternohyla dentata Pternohyla fodiens Pternohyla is a genus of frogs in the Hylidae family, and are found in southern Arizona, USA and Mexico. ... This article is about the process of hibernation in biology. ... Binomial name Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte, 1825 Wood Frog pie Synonyms Rana sylvatica PIE IS FREKING GOOD YOU SUCK GO EAT PIE YOU MORON I HATE YOU ALL is the common name given to Lithobates sylvaticus[1][2], previously Rana sylvatica. ... World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ...


Frog populations have declined dramatically since the 1950s: more than one third of species are believed to be threatened with extinction and more than 120 species are suspected to be extinct since the 1980s.[19] Among these species are the Golden toad of Costa Rica and the Gastric-brooding Frogs of Australia. Habitat loss is a significant cause of frog population decline, as are pollutants, climate change, the introduction of non-indigenous predators/competitors, and emerging infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis. Many environmental scientists believe that amphibians, including frogs, are excellent biological indicators of broader ecosystem health because of their intermediate position in food webs, permeable skins, and typically biphasic life (aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults).[20] The Golden Toad of Monteverde, Costa Rica was among the first casualties of amphibian declines. ... Binomial name Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 The Golden Toad or Monte Verde Toad (Bufo periglenes) lived in handfulls of places in the Monteverde forest located in Costa Rica, a country in Central America. ... Species Rheobatrachus silus Rheobatrachus vitellinus The gastric-brooding frogs are a genus, Rheobatrachus, of frogs from East Australia. ... Chytridiomycosis is a fatal infectious disease that affects amphibians, caused by the chytrid fungus - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to be more specific. ... Indicator species are unique environmental indicators as they offer a signal of the biological condition in a watershed or ecosystem, and are a warning system that pollution has entered the food web. ...


A Canadian study conducted in 2006 proposed that heavy traffic near frog habitats is a large threat to frog populations.[21]


In a few cases, captive breeding programs have been attempted to alleviate the pressure on frog populations, and these have proved successful.[22][23][24] In May 2007, it was reported that the application of certain probiotic bacteria could protect amphibians from chytridiomycosis.[25]


Evolution

A fossilized frog from the Czech Republic, possibly Palaeobatrachus gigas.
A fossilized frog from the Czech Republic, possibly Palaeobatrachus gigas.

The earliest known (proto) frog is Triadobatrachus massinoti, from the 250 million year old early Triassic of Madagascar. The skull is frog-like, being broad with large eye sockets, but the fossil has features diverging from modern amphibia. These include a different ilium, a longer body with more vertebrae, and separate vertebrae in its tail (whereas in modern frogs, the tail vertebrae are fused, and known as the urostyle or coccyx). The tibia and fibula bones are unfused and separate, making it probable that Triadobatrachus was not an efficient leaper. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1732, 966 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frog Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1732, 966 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frog Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Palaeobatrachus (ancient frog) was a primitive frog from the Tertiary period. ... Triadobatrachus is an extinct genus of frog. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The term Illion, Ilium has several meanings, including in legends, in anatomy, and in the arts: Ilion or Ilium is an alternative name for the legendary city of Troy. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ...


Another fossil frog, discovered in Arizona and called Prosalirus bitis, was uncovered in 1985, and dates from roughly the same time as Triadobatrachus. Like Triadobatrachus, Prosalirus did not have greatly enlarged legs, but had the typical three-pronged pelvic structure. Unlike Triadobatrachus, Prosalirus had already lost nearly all of its tail. Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Binomial name Prosalirus bitis Shubin & Jenkins, 1995 Prosalirus bitis is the name given to a fossil proto-frog found in Arizona in 1995, which has primitive features, but has mostly lost the salamander-like traits of its ancestors. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ...


The earliest true frog is Vieraella herbsti, from the early Jurassic (188–213 Mya). It is known only from the dorsal and ventral impressions of a single animal and was estimated to be 33 mm in snout-vent length. Notobatrachus degiustoi from the middle Jurassic is slightly younger, about 155–170 million years old. It is likely that the evolution of modern Anura was completed by the Jurassic period. The main evolutionary changes involved the shortening of the body and the loss of the tail. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...


The earliest full fossil record of a modern frog is that of sanyanlichan, which lived 125 million years ago and had all modern frog features, but bore 9 presacral vertebrae instead of the 8 of modern frogs, apparently still being a transitional species. Sanyanlichan is the name given to the earliest known modern frog, found in the fossil beds of Sihetun, in the western part of Liaoning province, China. ...


Frog fossils have been found on all continents, including Antarctica.


Uses in agriculture and research

For more details on this topic, see Frogs in research.

Frogs are raised commercially for several purposes. Frogs are used as a food source; frog legs are a delicacy in China, France, the north of Greece and in many parts of the American South, especially Louisiana. Dead frogs are sometimes used for dissections in high school and university anatomy classes, often after being injected with coloured plastics to enhance the contrast between the organs. This practice has declined in recent years with the increasing concerns about animal welfare. Frogs have served as important model organisms throughout the history of science. ... A bag of frog legs from Vietnam. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Frogs have served as important model organisms throughout the history of science. Eighteenth-century biologist Luigi Galvani discovered the link between electricity and the nervous system through studying frogs. The African clawed frog or platanna, Xenopus laevis, was first widely used in laboratories in pregnancy assays in the first half of the 20th century. When human chorionic gonadotropin, a hormone found in substantial quantities in the urine of pregnant women, is injected into a female X. laevis, it induces them to lay eggs. In 1952 Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King cloned a frog by somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same technique that was later used to create Dolly the Sheep, their experiment was the first time successful nuclear transplantation had been accomplished in metazoans.[26] Luigi Galvani - Italian physician famous for making frogs legs twitch. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of a human coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Binomial name Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as platanna) is a species of South African aquatic frog of the genus Xenopus. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Robert Briggs was a scientist who, in 1952, cloned a frog by somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same technique that was later used to create Dolly the Sheep, working with Thomas J. King. ... Thomas J. King (1921 - October 25, 2000) was an American biologist. ... In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to therapeutic cloning. ... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), an ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ...


Frogs are used in cloning research and other branches of embryology because frogs are among the closest living relatives of man to lack egg shells characteristic of most other vertebrates, and therefore facilitate observations of early development. Although alternative pregnancy assays have been developed, biologists continue to use Xenopus as a model organism in developmental biology because it is easy to raise in captivity and has a large and easily manipulatable embryo. Recently, X. laevis is increasingly being displaced by its smaller relative X. tropicalis, which reaches its reproductive age in five months rather than one to two years (as in X. laevis),[27] facilitating faster studies across generations. The genome sequence of X. tropicalis will probably be completed by 2015 at the latest.[28] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus). ...


Frogs in popular culture

For more details on this topic, see Frogs in popular culture.

Frogs feature prominently in folklore, fairy tales and popular culture. They tend to be portrayed as benign, ugly, clumsy, but with hidden talents. Examples include Michigan J. Frog, The Frog Prince, and Kermit the Frog. Michigan J. Frog, featured in a Warner Brothers cartoon, only performs his singing and dancing routine for his owner. Once another person looks at him, he will return to a frog-like pose. "The Frog Prince" is a fairy tale of a frog who turns into a handsome prince once kissed. Kermit the Frog, on the other hand, is a conscientious and disciplined character of Sesame Street and The Muppet Show; while openly friendly and greatly talented, he is often portrayed as cringing at the fanciful behaviour of more flamboyant characters. Frogs feature prominently in folklore and fairy tales in many cultures, such as the story of The Frog Prince, up to modern-day popular culture. ... Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, material culture, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Michigan J Frog in the short One Froggy Evening. ... The Frog King (German: Der Froschkönig) is a fairy tale, popularized by the Brothers Grimms written version, of a spoiled princess who reluctantly befriends a frog, who magically transforms into a handsome prince. ... Kermit singing Bein Green in the first season of Sesame Street. ... Warner Bros. ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century. ... Sesame Street is an American educational childrens television series for preschoolers and is a pioneer of the contemporary educational television standard, combining both education and entertainment. ... The Muppet Show was a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand-operated puppets, typically with oversized eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ...


Cited references

  1. ^ http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/frog
  2. ^ Indo-European etymology database
  3. ^ Ford, L.S.; D.C. Cannatella (1993). "The major clades of frogs". Herpetological Monographs 7: 94–117. 
  4. ^ Faivovich, J.; C.F.B. Haddad, P.C.A. Garcia, D.R. Frost, J.A. Campbell, and W.C. Wheeler. "Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294: 1–240. 
  5. ^ Emerson, S.B.; Diehl, D. (1980). "Toe pad morphology and mechanisms of sticking in frogs". Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 13 (3): 199–216. 
  6. ^ Harvey, M. B; A. J. Pemberton, and E. N. Smith (2002). "New and poorly known parachuting frogs (Rhacophoridae : Rhacophorus) from Sumatra and Java". Herpetological Monographs 16: 46–92. 
  7. ^ Saporito, R.A.; H.M. Garraffo, M.A. Donnelly, A.L. Edwards, J.T. Longino, and J.W. Daly (2004). "Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 101: 8045–8050. 
  8. ^ Smith, B. P.; Tyler M. J., Kaneko T., Garraffo H. M., Spande T. F., Daly J. W. (2002). "Evidence for biosynthesis of pseudophrynamine alkaloids by an Australian myobatrachid frog (pseudophryne) and for sequestration of dietary pumiliotoxins". J Nat Prod 65 (4): 439–47. 
  9. ^ Myers, C.W.; J.W. Daly (1983). "Dart-poison frogs". Scientific American 248: 120–133. 
  10. ^ Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
  11. ^ Duellman, W. E. (1978). "The Biology of an Equatorial Herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador". University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 65: 1–352. 
  12. ^ VanCompernolle, S. E.; R. J. Taylor, K. Oswald-Richter, J. Jiang, B. E. Youree, J. H. Bowie, M. J. Tyler, M. Conlon, D. Wade, C. Aiken, and T. S. Dermody (2005). "Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin potently inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and transfer of virus from dendritic cells to T cells". Journal of Virology 79: 11598–11606. 
  13. ^ Phillipe, G.; Angenot L. (2005). "Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons". J Ethnopharmacol 100(1–2): 85–91. 
  14. ^ Warkentin, K.M. (1995). "Adaptive plasticity in hatching age: a response to predation risk trade-offs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92: 3507–3510. 
  15. ^ Silva, H. R.; Britto-Pereira M. C., & Caramaschi U. (1989). "Frugivory and Seed Dispersal by Hyla truncata, a Neotropical Treefrog". Copeia 1989(3): 781–783. 
  16. ^ Crump, M.L. (1996). "Parental care among the Amphibia". Advances in the Study of Behavior 25: 109–144. 
  17. ^ Exploratorium: Frogs: The Amazing Adaptable Frogs
  18. ^ Roy, Debjani (1997). "Communication signals and sexual selection in amphibians". Current Science 72: 923–927. 
  19. ^ Stuart, S.N.; J.S. Chanson, N.A. Cox, B.E. Young, A.S.L. Rodrigues, D.L. Fischman, and R.W. Waller (2004). "Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide". Science 306: 1783–1786. 
  20. ^ Phillips, Kathryn (1994). Tracking the Vanishing Frogs. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024646-0. 
  21. ^ New Scientist (July 7, 2006). "Frog population decrease mostly due to traffic". New Scientist. 
  22. ^ http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/Content/dec_media_070109_01
  23. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4298050.stm
  24. ^ http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/p-corroboree/part4.html
  25. ^ http://www.physorg.com/news99134333.html
  26. ^ Robert W. Briggs Biographical Memoir. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  27. ^ Developing the potential of Xenopus tropicalis as a genetic model. Retrieved on 2006-03-09.
  28. ^ Joint Genome Institute - Xenopus tropicalis Home. Retrieved on 2006-03-03.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ...

General references

  • Cogger, H.G.; R.G. Zweifel, and D. Kirschner (2004). Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians Second Edition. Fog City Press. ISBN 1-877019-69-0. 
  • Estes, R., and O. A. Reig. (1973). "The early fossil record of frogs: a review of the evidence." pp. 11–63 In J. L. Vial (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans: Contemporary Research on Major Problems. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.
  • Gissi, Carmela; Diego San Mauro, Graziano Pesole and Rafael Zardoya (February 2006). "Mitochondrial phylogeny of Anura (Amphibia): A case study of congruent phylogenetic reconstruction using amino acid and nucleotide characters". Gene 366: 228–237. 
  • Holman, J. A (2004). Fossil Frogs and Toads of North America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34280-5. 
  • San Mauro, Diego; Miguel Vences, Marina Alcobendas, Rafael Zardoya and Axel Meyer (May 2005). "Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea". American Naturalist 165: 590–599. 
  • Tyler, M. J. (1994). Australian Frogs A Natural History. Reed Books. ISBN 0-7301-0468-0. 

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Chordata - Amphibia - Families of Anura

Allophrynidae - Amphignathodontidae - Arthroleptidae - Ascaphidae - Bombinatoridae - Brachycephalidae - Bufonidae - Centrolenidae - Dendrobatidae - Discoglossidae - Heleophrynidae - Hemisotidae - Hylidae - Hyperoliidae - Leiopelmatidae - Leptodactylidae - Mantellidae - Megophryidae - Microhylidae - Myobatrachidae - Nasikabatrachidae - Pelobatidae - Pelodytidae - Pipidae - Ranidae - Rhacophoridae - Rhinodermatidae - Rhinophrynidae - Scaphiopodidae - Sooglossidae Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Suborders See text The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. ... Image File history File linksMetadata White-Lipped-small. ... Binomial name Allophryne ruthveni Gaige, 1926 The Tukeit Hill Frog (Allophryne ruthveni) is the only species in the genus Allophryne and the family Allophrynidae of order Anura. ... Genus Gastrotheca Flectonotus The Marsupial Frogs are a family (Amphignathodontidae) in the order Anura. ... Genera Arthroleptis Cardioglossa Schoutedenella Arthroleptidae is a family of order Anura. ... Species Ascaphus montanus Ascaphus truei Ascaphidae are a family of tailed frogs. ... Species Genus Barbourula     Barbourula busuangensis     Barbourula kalimantanensis Genus Bombina     Bombina bombina     Bombina fortinuptialis     Bombina lichuanensis     Bombina maxima     Bombina microdeladigitora     Bombina orientalis     Bombina pachypus     Bombina variegata Bombinatoridae are often referred to as fire belly toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides which show that they are highly toxic. ... Species Brachycephalus didactylus Brachycephalus ephippium Brachycephalus hermogenesi Brachycephalus nodoterga Brachycephalus pernix Brachycephalus vertebralis The saddleback toads are a family (Brachycephalidae) in the order Anura. ... For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... Genera Centrolene Cochranella Hyalinobatrachium Glass Frogs, Centrolenidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Genera Many, about 150+ species within 8 genus Poison Dart Frog is the common name given to the group of Dendrobatid frogs belonging to the family of Dendrobatidae. ... Species Genus Alytes     Alytes cisternasii     Alytes dickhilleni     Alytes muletensis     Alytes obstetricans Genus Discoglossus     Discoglossus hispanicus     Discoglossus jeanneae     Discoglossus montalenti     Discoglossus nigriventer     Discoglossus pictus     Discoglossus sardus Discoglossidae, common name Disc-Tongued Frogs or Painted Frogs, is a family that contains two genera, alytes and discoglossus. ... Species Heleophryne hewitti Heleophryne natalensis Heleophryne orientalis Heleophryne purcelli Heleophryne regis Heleophryne rosei Ghost Frogs, Heleophrynidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Species Hemisus barotseensis Hemisus brachydactylus Hemisus guineensis Hemisus guttatus Hemisus marmoratus Hemisus microscaphus Hemisus olivaceus Hemisus perreti Hemisus wittei The shovelnose frogs are nine species of frog in the genus, Hemisus, the only genus in the family Hemisotidae. ... Genera see Text Tree frog, in zoology, any individual of the family Hylidae. ... Genera Subfamily Hyperoliinae   Callixalus   Chrysobatrachus   Cryptothylax   Heterixalus   Hyperolius   Opisthothylax   Tachycnemis Subfamily Kassininae   Afrixalus   Kassina   Kassinula   Phlyctimantis   Tornierella Subfamily Leptopelinae   Acanthixalus   Leptopelis Sedge and Bush Frogs are the members of the Hyperoliidae family; these frogs are found in Africa, Madagascar, and the Seychelles islands. ... Species Leiopelma archeyi Leiopelma hamiltoni Leiopelma hochstetteri Leiopelma pakeka Leiopelmatidae, or New Zealand Primitive Frogs as is their common name, belong to suborder archaeobatrachia. ... Leptodactylidae are a diverse family of frogs in the suborder Neobatrachia. ... Subfamilies Boophinae Laliostominae Mantellinae Mantellidae is a family of order Anura. ... Genera Atympanophrys Brachytarsophrys Leptobrachella Leptobrachium Leptolalax Megophrys Ophryophryne Oreolalax Scutiger Vibrissaphora Xenophrys Megophryidae are a large family of order anura (commonly known as frogs and toads). ... Subfamilies Asterophryinae Brevicipitinae Cophylinae Dyscophinae Genyophryninae Melanobatrachinae Microhylinae Phrynomerinae Scaphiophryninae Microhylidae is a family of order Anura. ... Distribution of Myobatrachidae (in black) Subfamilies See text Myobatrachidae is a family of frogs, of the order Anura. ... Binomial name Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Bijui, Bossuyt, 2003 Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis is a frog species from the Western Ghats, India. ... Archaic Frogs, Pelobatids and Spadefoots. ... Species Pelodytes caucasicus Pelodytes ibericus Pelodytes punctatus Parsley Frogs, Pelodytidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Subfamilies Pipinae Xenopodinae The Pipidae are a family of primative, tongueless frogs. ... Genera Batacia Opyum Rana - Frog is the common name for amphibians in the order, Anura. ... subfamilies Buergeriinae Rhacophorinae Moss Frogs are the members of the Rhacophoridae family; these frogs are found in tropical areas of Asia and Africa. ... Species R. darwinii The Darwins frogs or Rhinodermatidae are a family of small South American frogs. ... Binomial name Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841 The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. ... Genera Scaphiopus Spea American Spadefoot Toads, Scaphiopodidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Genera Nesomantis Sooglossus The Seychelles Frogs (Sooglossidae) are a family of frogs only found on the Seychelles Islands. ...

It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Range map of Chinchilla species Species Chinchilla lanigera Chinchilla brevicaudata Chinchillas are rabbit-sized, crepuscular rodents native to the Andes mountains in South America. ... Binomial name Octodon degus (Molina, 1782) The Degu (Octodon degus) is a small, caviomorph rodent that is native to Chile. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec Fox range Synonyms Fennec zerda Zimmermann, 1780 The Fennec fox is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) which has distinctive oversized ears. ... Trinomial name Mustela putorius furo (Linnaeus, 1758) In general use, a ferret is a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). ... Genera Gerbillus Microdillus Meriones Rhombomys Psammomys Sekeetamys Brachiones Desmodilliscus Pachyuromys Tatera Taterillus Desmodillus Gerbillurus Ammodillus A gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia, originally indigenous to the Andes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The most common species of domesticated hedgehog is a hybrid of the White-bellied or Four-toed Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the Algerian Hedgehog (). It is smaller than the European Hedgehog, and thus is sometimes called African Pygmy Hedgehog. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... White fancy mouse Fancy mice (fancy, in this context, means hobby) are domesticated versions of the common or house mouse (Mus musculus). ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sus domesticus The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... A Netherland dwarf breed domestic rabbit. ... Species The fancy rat or pet rat is a domesticated breed of the Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) or, more rarely, of the Black Rat (R. rattus). ... A good-quality skunk will be bright, alert, and curious, with a full shiny coat. ... Genera Many, see the article Sciuridae. ... Binomial name Petaurus breviceps Waterhouse, 1839 Sugar Glider natural range: Red: Blue: Darkgreen: Yellow: Violet: Lightgreen: Black: The Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps), sometimes called the Flying Sugar, is a small gliding possum native to eastern and northern mainland Australia, New Guinea, and the Bismarck Archipelago, and introduced to Tasmania. ... Binomial name Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae), which may be correct, in which the budgerigar is... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Nymphicus hollandicus (Kerr, 1792) Cockatiel range (in red; all-year resident) Synonyms Psittacus hollandicus Kerr, 1792 Leptolophus hollandicus The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) is a diminutive cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. ... Subfamily Microglossinae Calyptorhynchinae Cacatuinae A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Domestic Canary The Canary is a domesticated form of the Wild Canary, (Serinus canaria) a small songbird in the finch family originating from Madeira and the Canary Islands. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... // Domesticated ducks Domesticated ducks are raised for meat, eggs and down. ... Genera Many, see text Finches are passerine birds, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Primolius Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca For other uses, see Macaw (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 The Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa, is a member of the starling family. ... It has been suggested that True parrots be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Bradypodion Calumma Chamaeleo Furcifer Kinyongia Nadzikambia Brookesia Rieppeleon Rhampholeon Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best-known lizard families. ... Subfamilies Aeluroscalabotinae Eublepharinae Gekkoninae Teratoscincinae Diplodactylinae Geckos are small to average sized lizards belonging to the family Gekkonidae which are found in warm climates throughout the world. ... Binomial name Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is a large, arboreal lizard from Central and South America. ... Families Many, see text. ... blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... blue: sea turtles, black: land turtles Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... “Eft” redirects here. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 species of amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Families At least 9, see article. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ant farm. ... Orders and Families See text Centipedess (Class Chilopoda) are fast-moving venomous, predatory, terrestrial arthropods that have long bodies and many jointed legs. ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (order Orthoptera). ... Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infra-order Paguroidea, distinct from the true crabs in the infra-order Brachyura. ... Binomial name Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum, 1853) Hissing roaches kept as pets. ... Subclasses, orders and families See text. ... Genera Lepidurus Triops The order Notostraca (colloquially referred to as notostracans, called Triops, tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp) are small crustaceans in the class Branchiopoda. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is the common name for an insect of the order Mantodea. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... External link The Official Sea Monkey Website What are they? Categories: Animal stubs ... Ctenomorpha Chronus Ctenomorpha Chronus Medauroidea Extradentata Stick insects are members of the one of the two insect families Phasmatidae and Phylliidae. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... Binomial name Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821) The East African Land Snail, Achatina fulica, is a terrestrial pulmonate snail species that has been widely introduced to Asia, to Pacific and Indian Oceans islands, and to the West Indies. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


 
 

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