FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fritz Zwicky
Fritz Zwicky

Born February 14, 1898
Varna, Bulgaria
Died February 8, 1974
Pasadena, California, USA
Residence USA
Citizenship Swiss
Field Astronomy
Institutions California Institute of Technology
Alma mater ETH Zürich
Academic advisor   Peter Debye and Paul Scherrer
Known for Dark Matter, Supernovae, Galaxies, Neutron stars
Notable prizes President's Medal of Freedom (1949)
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1972)
Religion none

Fritz Zwicky (February 14, 1898February 8, 1974) was an American-based Swiss astronomer. He was an original thinker, with many important contributions in theoretical and observational astronomy. Image File history File links Zwicky1. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Varna The Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre Varna (Bulgarian: ) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 91st-largest in the European Union, with a population of 357,752 ([1]). Commonly referred to... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Pasadena may refer to: Cities in the United States: Pasadena, Texas Pasadena, California Pasadena, Maryland Cities in Canada: Pasadena, Newfoundland Other place names called Pasadena: Pasadena, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide South Pasadena, California South Pasadena, Florida Pasadena Hills, Missouri Pasadena Park, Missouri Other: USS Pasadena (SSN-752), a... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch physical chemist. ... Paul Scherrer (1890-1969) was a Swiss physicist. ... In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... This article is about a celestial body. ... This article is about the celestial body. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the highest civilian award in the United States. ... Gold Medal awarded to Asaph Hall The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ...

Contents

Biographical sketch

Fritz Zwicky was born in Varna, Bulgaria, to Swiss parents. His father was the Bulgarian ambassador to Norway. He received an advanced education in mathematics and experimental physics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, located in Zürich, Switzerland and in 1925 emigrated to the United States to work with Robert Millikan at California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Zwicky had a reputation of being simultaneously brilliant and difficult to work with. He was responsible for positing numerous cosmological theories that have a profound impact on understanding of our universe today. He was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Caltech in 1942 and also worked as a research director/consultant for Aerojet Engineering Corporation (1943-1961) and staff member of Mount Wilson Observatory and Palomar Observatory for most of his career. The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Varna The Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre Varna (Bulgarian: ) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 91st-largest in the European Union, with a population of 357,752 ([1]). Commonly referred to... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist who won the 1923 Nobel Prize for his measurement of the charge on the electron and for his work on the photoelectric effect. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... Palomar Observatory is a privately-owned observatory located in San Diego County, California, 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Mount Wilson Observatory, on Palomar Mountain. ...


In April 1932, the Pasadena Star News reported that, "Pasadena Society and science circles were given a big surprise yesterday in the form of little announcement from Mrs. Egbert James Gates, a member of one of Pasadena's first families." The announcement revealed that Fritz Zwicky and Dorothy Vernon Gates were married in Santa Cruz, with family and very close friends attending. Dorothy Vernon Gates was the daughter of State Senator, Egbert Gates, secretary to Colonel Green on Wall Street and a successful businessman and railroad man. She was an alumna of Miss Porter's School for Girls and Stanford. Extremely intelligent, independent, private, rich and beautiful, she dropped out of Pasadena Society after her marriage to Zwicky, never to return. Her money was instrumental in the funding of Palomar in the Depression. Zwicky and Dorothy divorced amicably in 1941, and she admired his intellect until her death in 1988[1]. Zwicky was the brother-in-law of Nicholas Roosevelt, who married Dorothy's sister, Tirzah Gates.


In 1947 Zwicky was married in Switzerland to Anna Margaritha Zurcher, and had three daughters, Margrit, Franziska, and Barbarina. His grandchildren are Christian Thomas Pfenninger, Ariella Frances Pfenninger, and Christian Alexander Fritz Zwicky. He is interred in Switzerland in his home canton of Glarus. The Zwicky Museum at the Landesbibliothek, Glarus, houses many of his papers and scientific work. The Fritz Zwicky Foundation in Switzerland represents and encompasses the work of this great visionary.


He died in Pasadena on February 8, 1974, just six days before his 76th birthday, and was buried in Mollis, Switzerland, the village where he grew up. Mollis is a municipality in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland. ...


Scientific Work

Fritz Zwicky was a prolific scientist and made important contributions in many areas of astronomy.


Supernovae and Neutron Stars

Together with colleague Walter Baade, Zwicky pioneered and promoted the use of the first Schmidt telescopes used in a mountain-top observatory in 1935. In 1934 he and Baade coined the term "supernova" and hypothesized that they were the transition of normal stars into neutron stars, as well as the origin of cosmic rays[2][3]. It was a prescient insight that had tremendous impact in determining the size and age of the universe in subsequent decades. Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 - June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who emigrated to the USA in 1931. ... Optical ray paths inside Schmidt camera 2m Schmidt Camera (Alfred-Jensch-Telescope Tautenburg, Thuringia, Germany A Schmidt camera is an astronomical camera designed to provide wide fields of view with limited aberrations. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... This article is about the celestial body. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


In support of this hypothesis, Zwicky started hunting for supernovae, and found a total of 120 by himself (and one more, SN 1963J, in concert with P. Wild) over a stretch of 52 years (SN 1921B through SN 1973K)[4], a record which still stands as of 2006 (the current runner-up is Jean Mueller, with 98 discoveries and 9 co-discoveries). Prof. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Jean Mueller is an American astronomer. ...


Standard candles

In 1938, Zwicky's colleague Walter Baade proposed using supernovae as standard candles to estimate distances in deep space[5]. Because light curves of many type Ia supernovae show a common peak luminosity, they establish a cosmological distance scale by a well known intrinsic brightness. Zwicky had been working closely with Baade in supernova investigations at this same time, but their relationship was strained by Zwicky's irascibility[6]. By the time Baade's paper was written, Zwicky had already been accusing him of taking too much credit for their joint work, and Baade had moved to distance himself a bit from Zwicky, although they did continue to produce some other publications together. Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 - June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who emigrated to the USA in 1931. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... A standard candle is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity. ...


Distant Type IA supernovae show a non linear Hubble relationship and scientists have explained this in terms of an acceleration in the expansion rate for the universe[7]. Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ...


Gravitational Lenses

In 1937, Zwicky posited that galaxy clusters could act as gravitational lenses by the previously discovered Einstein effect[8]. It was not until 1979 that this effect was confirmed by observation of the so-called "Twin Quasar" Q0957+561[9]. 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Einstein effect may mean: Gravitational redshift (Einstein shift) Gravitational lensing There are also: The Bose-Einstein effect The Einstein-de Haas effect Category: ... The Twin Quasar (Double Quasar) or Old Faithful is also known as Q0957+561, or QSO 0957+561. ... The Twin Quasar (Double Quasar) or Old Faithful is also known as Q0957+561, or QSO 0957+561. ...


Dark matter

While examining the Coma galaxy cluster in 1933, Zwicky was the first to use the virial theorem to infer the existence of unseen matter, what is now called dark matter[10]. He was able to infer the average mass of galaxies within the cluster, and obtained a value about 160 times greater than expected from their luminosity, and proposed that most of the matter was dark. The same calculation today shows a smaller factor, based on greater values for the mass of luminous material; but it is still clear that the great majority of matter is dark[11]. The Coma Cluster is an huge galaxy cluster and the prototypical rich cluster with over a thousand member galaxies known. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... In mechanics, the virial theorem provides a general equation relating the average total kinetic energy of a system with its average total potential energy , where angle brackets represent the average of the enclosed quantity. ... In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. ...


His suggestion was not taken very seriously at first, until some forty years later when studies of motions of stars within galaxies also implied the presence of a large halo of unseen matter extending beyond the visible stars. Zwicky's dark matter proposal is now confirmed also by studies of gravitational lensing and cosmological expansion rates. Rotation curve of a typical spiral galaxy: predicted (A) and observed (B). ...


Tired Light

When Edwin Hubble discovered a linear relationship between the distance to a galaxy and and its redshift expressed as a velocity[12], Zwicky immediately speculated that the effect was due not to motions of the galaxy, but to some inexplicable phenomena that mysteriously caused photons to lose energy as they traveled through space. He considered the most likely candidate process to be a drag effect in which photons transfer momentum to surrounding masses though gravitational interactions; and proposed that an attempt be made to put this effect on a sound theoretical footing with general relativity. However in the total absence of any experimental or theoretical support, Tired Light was dismissed by the scientific community. [13]. Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ...


Zwicky was skeptical of the expansion of space in 1929, because the rates measured at that time seemed too large. It was not until 1956 that Walter Baade corrected the distance scale based on Cepheid variable stars, and ushered in the first accurate measures of the expansion rate, effectively falsifying Tired Light explanations.[14]. Cosmological redshift is now conventionally understood to be a consequence of the expansion of space; a feature of Big Bang cosmology[15]. Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 - June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who emigrated to the USA in 1931. ... Cepheid in the Spiral Galaxy M100 A Cepheid variable or Cepheid is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute luminosity. ... According to the Big Bang model, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state. ...


Morphological Analysis

Zwicky developed a generalised form of morphological analysis, which is a method for systematically structuring and investigating the total set of relationships contained in multi-dimensional, usually non-quantifiable, problem complexes[16]. He wrote a book on the subject in 1969[17], and claimed that he made many of his discoveries using this method. Morphological analysis (or General Morphological Analysis) is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified problem complex. ...


Catalog of Galaxies and Clusters

Zwicky devoted considerable time to the search for galaxies and the production of catalogs. From 1961 to 1968 he and his colleagues published a comprehensive six volume Catalogue of galaxies and of clusters of galaxies. They were all published in Pasadena, by the California Institute of Techology.

  1. Zwicky, F.; E. Herzog & P. Wild (1961), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 1)
  2. Zwicky, F. & E. Herzog (1963), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 2)
  3. Zwicky, F. & E. Herzog (1966), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 3)
  4. Zwicky, F. & E. Herzog (1968), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 4)
  5. Zwicky, F.; M. Karpowicz & C.T. Kowal (1965), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 5)
  6. Zwicky, F. & C.T. Kowal (1968), Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies (vol 6)

Galaxies in the original catalog are called Zwicky galaxies, and the catalog is still maintained and updated today[18]. Zwicky with his wife Margaritha also produced an important catalog of compact galaxies, sometimes called simply The Red Book.

Zwicky, F. & M.A. Zwicky (1971), Catalogue of selected compact galaxies and of post-eruptive galaxies

Guns and Goblins

Zwicky was an extraordinarily original thinker, and his contemporaries frequently had no way of knowing which of his ideas would work out and which would not. In a retrospective look at Zwicky's life and work, Stephen Maurer said[19]:

When researchers talk about neutron stars, dark matter, and gravitational lenses, they all start the same way: “Zwicky noticed this problem in the 1930s. Back then, nobody listened . . .”

He is celebrated for the discovery of neutron stars. He also went on to consider nuclear goblins, which he proposed as "a body of nuclear density ... only stable under sufficient external pressure within a massive and dense star". He considered that goblins could move within a star, and explode violently as they reach less dense regions towards the star's surface, and serve to explain eruptive phenomena, such as flare stars[20]. This idea has never caught on.


An anecdote often told of Zwicky concerns an informal experiment to see if he could reduce problems with turbulence hindering an observation session one night at Mount Wilson observatory. He told his assistant to fire a gun out through the telescope slit, in the hope it would help to smooth out the turbulence. No effect was noticed, but the event shows the kind of lateral thinking for which Zwicky was famous[21].


He was also very proud of his work in producing the first artificial meteors[22]. He placed explosive charges in the nose cone of a V2 rocket, to be detonated at high altitude and fire high velocity pellets of metal through the atmosphere. The first attempts appeared to be failures, and Zwicky sought to try again with the Aerobee rocket. His requests were denied, until the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1. Twelve days later, on 16 October 1957, Zwicky launched his experiment on the Aerobee, and successfully fired pellets visible from the Mount Palomar observatory. It is thought that one of these pellets may have escaped the gravitational pull of the Earth and become the first object lauched into a solar orbit[19]. Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ...


Zwicky also considered the possibility of rearranging the universe to our own liking. In a lecture in 1948[23] he spoke of changing planets, or relocating them within the solar system. In the 1960s he even considered how the whole solar system might be moved like a giant spaceship to travel to other stars. He considered this might be achieved by firing pellets into the Sun to produce asymmetrical fusion explosions, and by this means he thought that the star Alpha Centauri might be reached within 2500 years[24].


Humanitarian

Although Zwicky had difficulties in personal relationships with his peers and had few formal students, he was a generous humanitarian with a great concern for wider society. These two sides of his nature came together in the aftermath of the second World War, when Zwicky worked hard to collect tons of books on astronomy and other topics, and shipped them to the war ravaged scientific libraties in Europe and Asia—with the aid of departmental funds that he spent without any consultion[25][26].


He also had a longstanding involvement with the charitable Pestalozzi Foundation of America, supporting orphanages. Zwicky received their gold medal in 1955, in recognition of his services[25].


Zwicky loved the mountains, and was an accomplished alpine climber[19].


He was a strong critic of religion, and of nationalism, and was critical of political posturing by all sides in the Middle East, and of the use of nuclear weapons in World War 2. He considered that hope for the world lay with free people of good will who work together as needed, without institutions or permanent organizations[27][28].


Honors

In 1949, Truman awarded Zwicky the Presidential Medal of Freedom, for work on rocket propulsion during World War II[25]. In 1968, Zwicky was made professor emeritus at California Institute of Technology. The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...


In 1972, Zwicky was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, their most prestigious award, for "distinguished contributions to astronomy and cosmology"[29]. This award noted in particular his work on neutron stars, dark matter, and cataloging of galaxies. Gold Medal awarded to Asaph Hall The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society. ...


The asteroid 1803 Zwicky, the Zwicky lunar crater, and the galaxy I Zwicky 18 were all named in his honour. 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... Zwicky is a lunar crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 17,000 parsecs in diameter and approximately 20 million parsecs distant. ... I Zwicky 18 is a galaxy 45 million light years away. ...


Publications

Zwicky produced hundreds of publications over a long career, covering a great breadth of topics. This brief selection, with comments, gives a taste of his work.

  • Zwicky, F. (1929), "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 15: 773–779. This is the article that proposes a tired light model to explain Hubble's law.
  • Baade, W. & F. Zwicky (1934), "On Super-novae", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 20 (5): 254–259, and Baade, W. & F. Zwicky (1934), "Cosmic Rays from Super-novae", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 20 (5): 259–263. These consecutive articles introduce the notion of a supernova and a neutron star respectively.
  • Zwicky, F. (1938), "On Collapsed Neutron Stars", Astrophysical Journal 88: 522–525. The idea of a neutron star, previously introduced in the supernova paper, is explained along with the idea of critical stellar mass and black holes.
  • Zwicky, F. (1939), "On the Formation of Clusters of Nebulae and the Cosmological Time Scale", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 25: 604–609. Zwicky argues that the shape of nebulae indicate a universe far older than can be accounted for by an expanding universe model.
  • Zwicky, F. (1941), "A Mosaic Objective Grating for the 18-inch Schmidt Telescope on Palomar Mountain", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 53: 242–244. Zwicky was a great advocate for the use of the wide angle Schmidt telescope, which he used to great effect to make many discoveries.
  • Zwicky, F. (1945), Report on certain phases of war research in Germany, Aerojet Engineering Corp. Zwicky did work on jet propulsion and other matters with Aerojet corporation during and after the war.
  • Zwicky, F. (1957), Morphological astronomy, Springer-Verlag. In this book Zwicky gives free reign to his ideas on morphological research as a tool for making discoveries in astronomy.
  • Zwicky, F. (1958), "Nuclear Goblins and Flare Stars", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 70: 506–508. As well as proposing neutron stars, Zwicky also proposed unstable aggregations of neutron density matter within larger stars.
  • Zwicky, F. (1969), Discovery, invention, research through the morphological approach, MacMillan. Zwicky also proposed that the morphological approach could be applied to all kinds of issues in disciplines going far beyond basic science.

Tired light is a class of hypothetical redshift mechanisms that were proposed as an alternative explanation for the redshift-distance relationship. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... A neutron star is one of the few possible endpoints of stellar evolution. ... A neutron star is one of the few possible endpoints of stellar evolution. ...

Notes and References

  1. ^ Muller, R. (1986), Fritz Zwicky: Leben und Werk des grossen Schweizer Astrophysikers, Raketenforschers und Morphologen (1898-1974), Verlag Baeschlin (also Excerpt of the biography of Fritz Zwicky by Roland Mueller. Retrieved on 2007-07-14)
  2. ^ Baade, W. & F. Zwicky (1934), "On Super-Novae", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 20: 254–259
  3. ^ Baade, W. & F. Zwicky (1934), "Cosmic Rays from Super-novae", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 20 (5): 259–263
  4. ^ List of Supernovae. Retrieved on 2007-07-10 (provided by [CBAT])
  5. ^ Baade, W. (1938), "The Absolute Photographic Magnitude of Supernovae", Astrophysical Journal 88: 285–304
  6. ^ Miller, A.I. (2005), Empire of the Stars: Obsession, Friendship, and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes, ISBN 061834151X, at 155
  7. ^ Perlmutter, S. (2003), "Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Universe", Physics Today 56 (4): 53–60
  8. ^ Zwicky, F. (1937), "Nebulae as Gravitational Lenses", Physical Review 51 (4): 290
  9. ^ Walsh, D.; R.F. Carswell & R.J. Weymann (1979), "0957 + 561 A, B - Twin quasistellar objects or gravitational lens", Nature 279 (5712): 381–384
  10. ^ Zwicky, F. (1933). "Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln". Helvetica Physica Acta 6: 110–127.  See also Zwicky, F. (1937). "On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae". Astrophysical Journal 86: 217. 
  11. ^ Some details of Zwicky's calculation and of more modern values are given in Using the virial theorem: the mass of a cluster of galaxies. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  12. ^ Hubble, E. (1929). "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15 (3): 168–173. 
  13. ^ Zwicky, F. (1929). "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15 (10): 773–779. 
  14. ^ Baade, W. (1956). "The Period-Luminosity Relation of the Cepheids". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 68 (400): 5–16. 
  15. ^ Singh, S. (2004). Big Bang. Fourth Estate. 
  16. ^ Ritchey, T. (2002), General Morphological Analysis: A General Method for Non-Quantified Modelling. Retrieved on 2007-07-10
  17. ^ Zwicky, F. (1969), Discovery, Invention, Research Through the Morphological Approach, Toronto: The Macmillian Company
  18. ^ The Updated Zwicky Catalog of Galaxies (UZC). Retrieved on 2007-07-10 at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
  19. ^ a b c Maurer, S.M. (2001), "Idea Man", Beamline 31 (1). Retrieved on 2007-07-10
  20. ^ Zwicky, F. (1958), "Nuclear Goblins and Flare Stars", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 70: 506–508
  21. ^ Knill, O. (1998), Supernovae, an alpine climb and space travel (biographical notes). Retrieved on 2007-07-10
  22. ^ Zwicky, F. (1946), "On the Possibility of Earth-Launched Meteors", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 58: 260–261
  23. ^ Zwicky, F. (1948), "Morphological astronomy", The Observatory 68: 121–143
  24. ^ Zwicky, F. (1966), Entdecken, Erfinden, Forschen im morphologischen Weltbild, Muenchen: Droemer (page 237). This reference was identified from a footnote provided in an online essay: Knill, Oliver (1997), Moving the Solar System. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  25. ^ a b c Greenstein, J.L. (1974), "Fritz Zwicky - Scientific Eagle (obituary)", Engineering and Science: 15–19. Retrieved on 2007-07-14
  26. ^ Fritz Zwicky's Extraordinary Vision. Retrieved on 2007-07-16, an extract from Soter, S. (2000), Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, New Press
  27. ^ Zwicky, F. (1949), "Free World Agents of Democracy", Engineering and Science 13 (2)
  28. ^ Wilson, A. (1975), "Fritz Zwicky (obituary)", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 16: 106–108
  29. ^ Meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1972. Retrieved on 2007-07-14

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fritz Zwicky at AllExperts (823 words)
Fritz Zwicky was born in Varna, Bulgaria, to Swiss parents.
Fritz Zwicky believed that the cosmic red shift is caused by photons gradually losing energy over distance, possibly due to resisting the gravitational fields between the source and the detector.
The asteroid 1803 Zwicky, the Zwicky lunar crater, and the galaxy I Zwicky 18 were all named in his honour.
Fritz Zwicky - Biography (2554 words)
Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974), whose 100'th birthday would have been celebrated in 1998, is considered both as one of the most brilliant astrophysisist as well as one of the most unusual personalities in the 20'th century.
Zwicky has been brought to Caltech in 1925 by Millikan Millikan, (1868-1953) who got in 1923 the nobel prize for his work on the electric elementary charge with the (Millikan oil experiment) expected from Zwicky first rank theoretical research in the topic of quantum mechanics of atoms and metals.
Zwicky was proud of having contributed essentially to the 1957 shot of the first human bullet into space, an object manufactured on earth which should leave the gravity of earth for ever.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m