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Encyclopedia > Frisian language
Frisian
Frysk / Fräisk / Frasch /
Fresk / Freesk / Friisk
 
Sign in Frisian in Nordstrand: You're now driving through New Koog.:
Spoken in: Netherlands, Germany 
Region: Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, Fryslân (Friesland), Groningen http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gronings
Total speakers: 500,000
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   Anglo-Frisian
    Frisian 
Writing system: Latin alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Netherlands
Regulated by: Fryske Akademy
Language codes
ISO 639-1: fy
ISO 639-2: fry
ISO 639-3: variously:
fry — West Frisian
frs — Saterland Frisian
frr — North Frisian 
21st century distribution of Frisian (without the islands of Pellworm, Nordstrand (extinct) and Rømø (Danish language))
21st century distribution of Frisian (without the islands of Pellworm, Nordstrand (extinct) and Rømø (Danish language))

  Nordstrand / Noordströön Nordstrand (Frisian Noordströön) is one of the North Frisian Islands on the North Sea coast of Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1363 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frisian language Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages  Low Saxon-Low Franconian (Dutch)  High German (standard German, Schwyzerdütsch)  Insular Anglo-Frisian (English, Scots)  Continental Anglo-Frisian (Frisian)  East North Germanic (Danish, BokmÃ¥l Norwegian, Swedish)  West North Germanic (Nynorsk Norwegian... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Fryske Akademy, founded in 1938, is the scientific center for research and education concerning Friesland and its people, language and culture, this in the broadest sense of those words. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (652x652, 28 KB) Summary Map of the spread of the Frisian language, taken from the German Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (652x652, 28 KB) Summary Map of the spread of the Frisian language, taken from the German Wikipedia. ... Pellworm Lighthouse Pellworm (Danish Pelvorm Frisian Pälweerm) is one of the North Frisian Islands on the North Sea coast of Germany. ... Nordstrand is: A district of Oslo, Norway, see Nordstrand, Norway An island of Germany, see Nordstrand, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rømø Church Rømø is a Danish island in the Wadden Sea. ...

Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about half a million members of Frisian ethnic groups, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. Frisian languages are the most closely related living European languages to Old English, but modern English and Frisian are mostly unintelligible to each other. There have been reports that people from northern Britain who concentrate very hard would be able to understand some Frisian.[citation needed] It has also been asserted that fishermen from Great Yarmouth could understand fishers from Harlingen in Friesland. There are similarities to both Dutch, as many Frisian words are borrowed from Dutch, and Danish, as Danish speakers are able to understand some spoken Frisian. There are three languages within the Frisian language family: West Frisian language, spoken in the Netherlands East Frisian language, spoken in Germany North Frisian language, spoken in Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Harlingen is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. ...

Contents

Division

There are three varieties of Frisian: West Frisian, Saterland Frisian, and North Frisian. Some linguists consider these three varieties, despite their mutual unintelligibility, to be dialects of one single Frisian language, while others consider them to be three separate languages, as do their speakers. Of the three, the North Frisian language especially is further segmented into several strongly diverse dialects. Stadsfries is a mixed language (West Frisian mixed with Dutch). Frisian is called Frysk in West Frisian, Fräisch in Saterland Frisian, and Frasch, Fresk, Freesk, and Friisk in the dialects of North Frisian. The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stadsfries is a language spoken in some of the Frisian Towns in The Netherlands. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ...


The situation in the Dutch province of Groningen is more complex: The local Low Saxon dialect of Gronings is a mixture of Frisian and Low Saxon dialects, though it is believed that Frisian was spoken here at one time and has been gradually replaced by the town language of Groningen City, which in turn is now being replaced by standard Dutch.


Speakers

Most Frisian speakers live in the Netherlands, primarily in the province of Friesland, since 1997 officially using its West Frisian name of Fryslân, where the number of native speakers is about 350,000. An increasing number of Dutch native speakers in the province of Friesland are able to speak the language. In Germany, there are about 2,000 speakers of Saterland Frisian in the Saterland region of Lower Saxony; the Saterland's marshy fringe areas have long protected Frisian speech there from pressure by the surrounding Low German and standard German. Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Saterland (Saterland Frisian: Seelterlound) is a municipality in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


In the Nordfriesland (North Frisia) region of the German province of Schleswig-Holstein, there are 10,000 North Frisian speakers. While many of these Frisians live on the mainland, most are found on the islands, notably Sylt, Föhr, Amrum, and Helgoland. The local corresponding North Frisian dialects are still in use. Nordfriesland (literally Northern Frisia) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... North Frisia is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The German island of Sylt is located in the North Sea off the west coast of Germany and Denmark. ... Föhr (Danish: Før, Frisian: Fering) is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German coast of the North Sea. ... Amrum, Germany. ... Heligoland during World War I. Heligoland (in German, Helgoland and in North Frisian, Lun, Hålilönj) is a small, German, triangular-shaped island approximately 2 km long, though a smaller island east of it is usually also included. ...


Status

Saterland and North Frisian are officially recognised and protected as minority languages in Germany, and West Frisian is one of the two official languages in the Netherlands, together with Dutch. ISO 639-1 code fy and ISO 639-2 code fry were assigned to the collective Frisian languages, but are as of 2006 used only for West Frisian. A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ...


The new ISO 639 code frs is used for the Saterland Frisian language also known as Eastern Frisian, but is not to be confused with East Frisian Low Saxon, a West Low German dialect. The new ISO 639 code frr is used for the North Frisian language variants spoken in parts of Schleswig-Holstein. ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... East Frisian Low Saxon, is a West Low German dialect spoken in the Eastern Friesland peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony. ... West Low German (also known as Low Saxon, especially in the Netherlands) is a group of Low German dialects spoken in Northwest Germany and East Netherlands. ... The following list of ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2 codes is sorted by language name in the third column. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ...


Saterland Frisian and most dialects of North Frisian are seriously endangered.


History

Old Frisian

Main article: Old Frisian

In the early Middle Ages the Frisian lands stretched from the area around Bruges, in what is now Belgium, to the river Weser, in northern Germany. At that time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast. Today this region is sometimes referred to as Great Frisia or Frisia Magna, and many of the areas within it still treasure their Frisian heritage, even though in most places the Frisian languages have been lost. Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Frisian is the language most closely related to English apart from Scots, but after at least five hundred years of being subjected to the influence of Dutch, modern Frisian in some aspects bears a greater similarity to Dutch than to English; one must also take into account the centuries-long drift of English away from Frisian. Thus the modern languages are unintelligible to each other today, partly due to the marks which Dutch and Low German have left on Frisian, and partly due to the vast influence some languages (in particular French) have had on English throughout the centuries. Monolingual English-speakers newly exposed to the language would not only not understand it at all, except for some simple sentences, but would likely mistake it for Dutch, or possibly Norwegian. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to...


Old Frisian, however, did bear a striking similarity to Old English. This similarity was reinforced in the late Middle Ages by the Ingaevonic sound shift, which affected Frisian and English, but only affected the other West Germanic varieties slightly, if at all. Historically, both English and Frisian are marked by the suppression of the Germanic nasal in a word like us (ús), soft (sêft) or goose (goes): see Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law. Also, when followed by some vowels, the Germanic k softened to a ch sound; for example, the Frisian for cheese and church is tsiis and tsjerke, whereas in Dutch it is kaas and kerk, whereas in German the respective words are käse and kirche. Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... In historical linguistics, the Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law is a description of a philological development in some dialects of West Germanic, which is attested in Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. ...


One rhyme demonstrates the palpable similarity between Frisian and English: "Butter, bread, and green cheese is good English and good Fries," which is pronounced more or less the same in both languages (Frisian: "Bûter, brea, en griene tsiis is goed Ingelsk en goed Frysk.")


One major difference between Old Frisian and modern Frisian is that in the Old Frisian period (c.1150-c.1550) grammatical cases still existed. Some of the texts that are preserved from this period are from the twelfth or thirteenth, but most are from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Generally, all these texts are restricted to legalistic writings. Although the earliest definite written examples of Frisian are from approximately the 9th century, there are a few examples of runic inscriptions from the region which are probably older and possibly in the Frisian language. These runic writings however usually do not amount to more than single- or few-word inscriptions, and cannot be said to constitute literature as such. The transition from the Old Frisian to the Middle Frisian period (c.1550-c.1820) in the sixteenth century is based on the fairly abrupt halt in the use of Frisian as a written language. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Middle Frisian

Main article: Middle Frisian

Up until the fifteenth century Frisian was a language widely spoken and written, but from 1500 onwards it became an almost exclusively oral language, mainly used in rural areas. This was in part due to the occupation of its stronghold, the Dutch province of Friesland (Fryslân), in 1498, by Duke Albert of Saxony, who replaced Frisian as the language of government with Dutch. Middle Frisian evolved from Old Frisian from the 16th century and was spoken until ca. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ...


Afterwards this practice was continued under the Habsburg rulers of the Netherlands (the German Emperor Charles V and his son, the Spanish King Philip II), and even when the Netherlands became independent, in 1585, Frisian did not regain its former status. The reason for this was the rise of Holland as the dominant part of the Netherlands, and its language, Dutch, as the dominant language in judicial, administrative and religious affairs. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with a population of 6. ...


In this period the great Frisian poet Gysbert Japiks (1603-66), a schoolteacher and cantor from the city of Bolsward, who largely fathered modern Frisian literature and orthography, was really an exception to the rule. Gysbert Japicx Gysbert Japicx (Bolsward, Friesland 1603-1666) was a writer in Frisian. ... A cantus (Latin for singing, derived from canere), is an activity organised by Flemish and Dutch and Baltic student organisations and fraternities. ... Bolsward (Frisian: Boalsert) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands. ...


His example was not followed until the nineteenth century, when entire generations of Frisian authors and poets appeared. This coincided with the introduction of the so-called newer breaking system, a prominent grammatical feature in almost all West Frisian dialects, with the notable exception of Southwest Frisian. Therefore, the Modern Frisian period is considered to have begun at this point in time, around 1820.


Family tree

Each of the Frisian languages has several dialects. Between some, the differences are such that they rarely hamper understanding; only the number of speakers justifies the denominator of 'dialect'. In other cases, even neighbouring dialects may hardly be mutually intelligible.


It is interesting to identify a migration from German to English via Dutch and Frisian: zurück (German) -> terug (Dutch) -> tebek (Frisian) -> back (English); Schafe (German) -> schapen (Dutch) -> skiep (Frisian) -> sheep (English). It is interesting that the plural of sheep in Frisian and English (and also several German dialects) is identical to the singular form.

The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dialect spoken in the eastern part of the dutch part of Friesland, wich is called the wâlden (english: the woods), the dialect is also spoken in parts of Groningen. ... Categories: Language stubs | Frisian language ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... Mooring or Bökingharde Frisian (Böökinghiirder frasch) is a dialect of the North Frisian language spoken in Niebüll and the amt of Bökingharde in the German region of North Frisia. ... Wiedingharde Frisian (Wiringhiirder freesk) is a dialect of the North Frisian language spoken in the amt of Wiedingharde in the German region of North Frisia. ... Halligen Frisian (Freesk) is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the Halligen islands, primarily Langeneß and Hooge, in the German region of North Frisia. ... Sölring is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the island of Sylt in the German region of North Frisia. ... Föhr is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German coast of the North Sea. ... Öömrang is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the island of Amrum in the German region of North Frisia. ... Heligolandic (Halunder) is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the North Sea island of Heligoland. ...

See also

Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Frisian Islands (without the islands in the german district Dithmarschen and in Denmark) The Frisian Islands form an archipelago in northwestern Europe that spreads across the coasts of three countries, from west to east, The Netherlands and Germany. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Frisian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Modern Germanic languages
Afrikaans | Alemannic | Danish | Dutch | English | Faroese | Frisian | German | Icelandic |
Limburgish | Low German | Luxembourgish | Norwegian | Scots | Swedish | Yiddish

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frisian (1152 words)
Frisian is a West Germanic language (see characterisation of the Germanic language family) which is spoken by about 400,000 people in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands.
Alongside the national language (Dutch) and the regional language (Frisian) a number of dialects are also spoken, viz the dialects of Stellingwerf (a Saxon dialect), the area of Het Bildt (in the north west) and Town Frisian or Stedsk in the towns (see map).
Frisian today, as can be seen from the studie van Gorter en Jonkman (1994), is the first language of 54.8% of the inhabitants of the province, and about 94% have a passive knowledge of the language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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