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Encyclopedia > Frisia
Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast).
Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast).

Frisia (West Frisian: Fryslân; North Frisian: Fraschlönj, Freesklöön, Freeskluin, Fresklun, and Friislön’; Saterfrisian (East Frisian): Fräislound; East Frisian Low Saxon: Freesland; Gronings: Fraislaand; German and Dutch: Friesland; Danish: Frisland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea, i.e. the German Bight. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people who speak Frisian, a language closely related to the English language. Frisia extends from the northwestern Netherlands across northwestern Germany and into a little part of southwestern Denmark. Image File history File links German_Bight. ... Image File history File links German_Bight. ... Satellite view of the German Bight, Jutland to the right (east). ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... East Frisian Low Saxon, is a West Low German dialect spoken in the Eastern Friesland peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony. ... Gronings can equally be defined as a Low Saxon dialects spoken in the Netherlands province of Groningen and in some adjoining areas: one in Groningen city, four in the outlands (or Ommelanden), and Westerwolds. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Satellite view of the German Bight, Jutland to the right (east). ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by about half a million members of Frisian ethnic groups living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Divisions

Frisia is commonly divided into three sections:

  1. West Frisia in North Holland, Friesland and Groningen
  2. East Frisia in Lower Saxony
  3. North Frisia in Schleswig-Holstein and South Denmark

The three groups of the Frisian Archipelago (the West, East and North Frisian Islands) stretch more or less correspondingly along these three sections of the German Bight coast. West Frisia (Dutch: Westfrisia) is a histrorical area now the northern Netherlands, including areas/ provinces suchs as South Holland, North Holland, Friesland and Noordoostpolder. ... Capital Haarlem Queens Commissioner Mr. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... North Frisia is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Region Syddanmark (English: Region South Denmark) is a future administrative region created under the Danish Municipal Reform, which replaces the traditional counties (amter) with five larger regions. ... Frisian Islands The Frisian Islands form an archipelago in northwestern Europe that spreads across the coasts of three countries, from west to east, The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... The West Frisian Islands (Dutch: Waddeneilanden) are a chain of islands in the North Sea off the Dutch coast. ... The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Map of North Frisian Islands The North Frisian Islands are a group of islands in the Wadden Sea, a part of the North Sea, off the western coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and Jutland, Denmark. ... Satellite view of the German Bight, Jutland to the right (east). ...


West Frisia is roughly identical with the Dutch province of Friesland, the northern part of North Holland province (the historical region of West Friesland, the westernmost portion of the traditional region of West Frisia) and also modern Groningen province, though the Western Frisian language is only spoken in Friesland proper. In West Frisia, dialects with strong Frisian substrates are spoken (Low German and Low Franconian dialect variants, respectively). In the northern province of Groningen people speak Gronings, a Saxon dialect, which also has a strong Frisian substrate. A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Capital Haarlem Queens Commissioner Mr. ... The historical region of West Friesland West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian language: West-Fryslân) is a historical region in the northern part of The Netherlands, in the province Noord-Holland. ... West Frisia is the Dutch part of Frisia. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ... In linguistics, a substratum (lat. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Gronings can equally be defined as a Low Saxon dialects spoken in the Netherlands province of Groningen and in some adjoining areas: one in Groningen city, four in the outlands (or Ommelanden), and Westerwolds. ... Map showing the Saxons homeland in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe Src: Freemans Historical Geographys. The Saxons or Saxon people are (nowadays) part of the German people with its main areas of settlements in the German States of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Saxony...


East Frisia includes areas located in the northwest of the German state of Lower Saxony, including the districts of Aurich, Leer, Wittmund and Friesland, as well as the district-free cities of Emden and Wilhelmshaven/Rüstringen. With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Aurich is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Leer is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Wittmund is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Friesland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ... Wilhelmshaven is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


The portions of North Frisia within the German state of Schleswig-Holstein are part of the district of Nordfriesland and stretch along the coast, and including also the coastal islands from the Eider River to the border of Denmark in the north. The North Sea island of Heligoland, while not part of Nordfriesland district, is also part of traditional North Frisia. Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Nordfriesland (literally Northern Frisia) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... The Eider (-German; Danish: Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Heligoland (in German, Helgoland and in North Frisian, Lun, HÃ¥lilönj) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea. ...


A half million Frisians of Friesland province in the Netherlands speak West Frisian. Several thousand more Frisian language speakers, speaking a collection North Frisian dialects often unintelligible with each other and certainly unintelligible with forms spoken beyond North Frisia, are to be found in Nordfriesland and Heligoland in Germany, while a small number of speakers of the Saterland Frisian language live in four villages of Lower Saxony in the Saterland region of Cloppenburg county, just beyond the boundaries of traditional East Frisia. The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Saterland (Saterland Frisian: Seelterlound) is a municipality in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... Cloppenburg is a town in Lower Saxony, capital of the district Cloppenburg. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ...


History

Frisia changed dramatically throughout time, both by floods and by a change in identity.


Roman times

The Frisians had settled in Frisia from about 500 BC. According to Pliny the Younger, in Roman times, the Frisians (or, as it may be, their close neighbours, the Chauci) lived on terps, man-made islands. According to other sources, the Frisians lived along a broader expanse of the coast of the North Sea (or "Frisian Sea"). Terp (plural terpen) is a Frisian term for a hillock, mound or knoll used for refuge from floods. ...


Frisia at this time comprised the present provinces of Friesland and North Holland. A large part of the population of the present Netherlands lived in present Friesland, because of the fertile grounds there. Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Capital Haarlem Queens Commissioner Mr. ...


Kingdom of Frisia

East Anglian sources called the inhabitants of 'Frisia' Warnii instead of Frisians. In the AD 7th and 8th centuries, the Frankish chronologies mention this area as the kingdom of the Frisians. However, these were probably not the Frisians of Roman times. This kingdom comprised the then coastal provinces of the Netherlands and the German North Sea coast. During this time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast and, today, this region is sometimes referred to as Greater Frisia or Frisia Magna. The Franks conquered the western part in 689-719 and the eastern part at the end of the 8th century. This Frisia was partly conquered by vikings in the 840s, who were expelled between 885 and 920. It has also been suggested that the vikings didn't conquer Frisia, but settled in certain parts (such as the island Wieringen) where they built simple forts and cooperated and traded with the native Frisians. The Varni (Procopius), Varini (Tacitus), Varinnae (Pliny the Elder), Wærne/Werne (Widsith) and Warnii (the Thuringian Law) probably refer to a little known Germanic tribe. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Loss of territory

Frisians made polders in West Friesland, which moved further and further away from Friesland due to floods. The western part of Frisia became the county of Holland in 1101 after a few centuries of a different history than the other parts. Frisia began to identify itself as a country with free folk in the Middle Ages. The bishopric of Utrecht did not belong to this Frisia anymore. There were many floods in the 11th and 12th centuries, which led to the deaths of many, and the forming of the Zuiderzee. The largest flood was in 1322. Satellite image of Noordoostpolder, Netherlands (595. ... The historical region of West Friesland West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian language: West-Fryslân) is a historical region in the northern part of The Netherlands, in the province Noord-Holland. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The origin of the diocese dates back to 695 when St. ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline...


Opstalboom League

The free Frisians (actually petty noblemen) and the city of Groningen founded the Opstalboom League to counter feudalism. It consisted of modern Friesland, Groningen (province), East Frisia and the German and parts of the Danish North Sea coast. But the Opstalboom league didn't only consist of Frisians. The area Zevenwouden was Saxon and the city of Groningen as well. Some Frisians lived under the rule of the counts of Holland in West Friesland. The Opstalboom League was not a success. It collapsed after a few years due to continuous internal strife. Boroughs of Groningen Groningen is the capital city of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Boroughs of Groningen Groningen is the capital city of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... The historical region of West Friesland West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian language: West-Fryslân) is a historical region in the northern part of The Netherlands, in the province Noord-Holland. ...


15th century

The 15th century saw the end of the free Frisians. The city of Groningen started to dominate Groningen (province). A petty nobleman in East Frisia managed to defeat the other petty noblemen and became count of East Frisia. The archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg and the king of Denmark conquered large areas of Frisia. Only Friesland remained for the Frisian Freedom. Friesland was conquered in the 1490s by duke Albert of Saxony-Meissen. Boroughs of Groningen Groningen is the capital city of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ...


Frisian territories

  • West Friesland remained a part of Holland and became a part of North Holland around 1800. The current region of West Friesland is smaller than historical West Friesland and there is also an official constitutional region (samenwerkingsregio) of West Friesland for coast protection, the police, and agriculture.
  • Friesland got its independence back (with constitutionalized farmer representation) in 1581 and gave it up for good in 1795. It is a Dutch province nowadays.
  • East Frisia became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was formerly a district of the federal state of Lower Saxony in the Federal Republic of Germany.
  • Groningen is a province of the Netherlands since the 16th century.
  • North Frisia was a part of the Danish duchy of Schleswig (also: South Jutland) and belongs now to the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
  • The Frisian islands of the coast of the Netherlands and Germany are the leftovers of the dunes of flooded lands.

The historical region of West Friesland West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian language: West-Fryslân) is a historical region in the northern part of The Netherlands, in the province Noord-Holland. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Capital Haarlem Queens Commissioner Mr. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... The contemporary region of West Friesland highlighted on a map of North Holland West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland) is a contemporary region in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... North Frisia is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county in southern Denmark, on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lenen doe je bij de nummer 1 | Frisia Financieringen (258 words)
Kies dan voor een lening bij Frisia Financieringen.
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Vanaf en tot welke leeftijd kan ik lenen?
East Frisia - GenWiki (2712 words)
This historical and geographical area of East Frisia borders the North Sea and the surrounding contiguous marshlands of the coast.
The rest of the area under the rule of the Cirksena, the Grafs (Counts) of East Frisia and later Dukes and Princes, was Lutheran.
The Count of Frisia was ordered by the ruling Emperor, Friedrich, to relinquish the power of his family class to one of the dukes in Saxony.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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