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Encyclopedia > Frigg
"Frigga Spinning the Clouds" by J. C. Dollman.
"Frigga Spinning the Clouds" by J. C. Dollman.

Frigg (or Frigga) is a major goddess in Norse paganism, a subset of Germanic paganism. She is said to be the wife of Odin, and is the "foremost among the goddesses".[1] Frigg appears primarily in Norse mythological stories as a wife and a mother. She is also described as having the power of prophecy yet she does not reveal what she knows [2]. And Frigg is the only one other than Odin who is permitted to sit on his high seat Hlidskjalf and look out over the universe. Image File history File links The goddess Frigg spinning. ... Image File history File links The goddess Frigg spinning. ... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... In Norse mythology, Hlidskjalf (also spelt Hlidhskjalf) is Odins throne where none may sit save Odin himself and his wife Frigg. ...


Frigg also participates in the Wild Hunt (Asgardreid) along with her husband[citations needed]. Frigg's children are Baldr, Höðr and, in an English source[citations needed], Wecta; her stepchildren are Hermóðr, Heimdall, Tyr, Vidar, Váli, and Skjoldr. Thor is either her brother or a stepson. Frigg's companion is Eir, the gods' doctor and goddess of healing. Frigg's attendants are Hlín, Gná, and Fulla. The wild hunt: Ã…sgÃ¥rdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern, Western and Central Europe. ... The wild hunt, by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Britain. ... Balder redirects here. ... Loki tricks Höðr into shooting Baldr. ... Wecta is mentioned in Historia Britonum, and was a reputed king of Kent. ... Hermóðr the Brave (Old Norse Hermóðr Courage-Battle) appears, in Norse mythology, clearly among the gods only in Snorri Sturlusons Gylfaginning where Hermóðr is the messenger sent by Odin to find out what ransom Hel would accept to return Baldr to Ásgarðr. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Vidar (Víðar, Viðarr, Widar) is the son of Odin and the giantess Grid (Jotun) in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Váli is a son of the god Odin and the giantess Rindr. ... Mother Fucking, Shit pissing, Dick licking, Ass wiping piece of Fuck. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Eir (help or mercy) is, in Norse mythology, a goddess of the Æsir; she knew the medicinal properties of herbs and was capable of resurrection. ... Hlín is, in Norse mythology, one of the three handmaids of Frigg, together with Fulla and Gna. ... (The term may also refer to Gna. ... Fulla or Fylla is, in Norse mythology, an ásynja. ...


In the Poetic Edda poem Lokasenna 26, Frigg is said to be Fjörgyns mær (etymologically "Fjörgynn's maiden"). The problem is that in Old Norse mær means both "daughter" and "wife", so it's not fully clear if Fjörgynn is Frigg's father or another name for her husband Odin, but Snorri Sturluson interprets the line as meaning Frigg is Fjörgynn's daughter (Skáldskaparmál 27), and most modern translators of the Poetic Edda follow Snorri. The original meaning of fjörgynn was the earth, cf. feminine version Fjorgyn, a byname for Jörð, the earth.[3] The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Lokasenna (Lokis flyting, Lokis wrangling, Lokis quarrel) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... The second part of the Younger Edda of Snorri Sturluson the Skáldskaparmál or language of poetry is effectively a dialogue between the Norse god of the sea, Ægir and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. ... In Norse mythology, Jord was the goddess of the Earth. ...

Contents

Etymology

Old Norse Frigg (genitive Friggjar), Old Saxon Fri, and Old English Frig are derived from Common Germanic Frijō.[4] Frigg is cognate with Sanskrit prīyā́ which means "wife".[4] The root also appears in Old Saxon fri which means "beloved lady", in Swedish as fria ("to propose for marriage") and in Icelandic as frjá which means "to love".[4] Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Old English redirects here. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Swedish, Norwegian... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Attributes

The asterism Orion's Belt was known as "Frigg's Distaff/spinning wheel" (Friggerock) or "Freyja's Distaff" (Frejerock)[5]. Some have pointed out that the constellation is on the celestial equator and have suggested that the stars rotating in the night sky may have been associated with Frigg's spinning wheel[6]. In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars seen in Earths sky which is not an official constellation. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, one of the largest and perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky[1]. Its brilliant stars are found on the celestial equator and are visible throughout the world, making this constellation globally recognized. ... Spinning Flax from a distaff As a noun, a distaff is a tool used in spinning. ... A spindle (sometimes called a drop spindle) is a wooden spike weighted at one end with a wheel and an optional hook at the other end. ...


Frigg's name means "love" or "beloved one" (Proto-Germanic *frijjō, cf. Sanskrit priyā "dear woman") and was known among many northern European cultures with slight name variations over time: e.g. Friggja in Sweden, Frīg (genitive Frīge) in Old English, and Frika in Wagner's operas.[7] Modern English translations have sometimes altered Frigg to Frigga. It has been suggested that "Frau Holle" of German folklore is a survival of Frigg.[8] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Frige (Anglo-Saxon, Friia (Germany) or Frea (Langobard)) was the love goddess of Germanic mythology, and the wife of Wotan (Odin). ... In Germanic folklore Holda is the supernatural patron of the mystery of spinning with its links to the other world (See weaving (mythology)). She is well known throughout northern Europe (see Huld in Scandinavian mythology). ... German folklore shares many characteristics with Scandinavian folklore due to origins in a common Germanic mythology. ...

Frigg's hall in Asgard is Fensalir, which means "Marsh Halls." [9] This may mean that marshy or boggy land was considered especially sacred to her but nothing definitive is known. The goddess Saga, who was described as drinking with Odin from golden cups in her hall "Sunken Benches," may be Frigg by a different name.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Galium_verum01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Galium_verum01. ... Binomial name Galium verum L. Galium verum (Ladys Bedstraw or Yellow Bedstraw) is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to Europe and Asia. ... In Norse mythology, Fensalir (water falls) was Friggs hall in Asgard. ... Saga is, in Norse mythology, a goddess of the Æsir, and may be another name for Frigg. ...


Frigg was a goddess associated with married women. She was called up by women to assist in giving birth to children, and Scandinavians used the plant Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum) as a sedative, they called it Frigg's grass)[11]. Binomial name Galium verum L. Galium verum (Ladys Bedstraw or Yellow Bedstraw) is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to Europe and Asia. ...


Myths

Death of Baldr

"Baldr's Death" by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg.
"Baldr's Death" by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg.

Frigg plays a major role in section 49 of the 13th century Prose Edda book Gylfaginning written by Snorri Sturluson, where a version of a story relating the death of Baldr is recorded by Snorri. After Baldr has had a series of ominious dreams and felt that his life as in danger. Baldr was popular amongst the Æsir and after Baldr told the Æsir about his dreams, they met together at the thing and decided it wise to provide a truce for Baldr that would maintain his safety. Frigg, his mother, here takes an oath from all things, which includes disease, poisons, the elements, objects and all living beings that none will harm Baldr. Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg (January 2, 1783-July 22, 1853) was a Danish painter. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ...


After the oaths were taken, the Æsir, aware of Baldr's newly gained invincibility, had Baldr stand in front of the thing. There, the Æsir hit Baldr with blows, shot objects at him, and some would hit him with stones. Nothing harmed him and everyone felt it was remarkable.


Loki witnessed this and was angered by Baldr's invulnerability. Loki changed himself into a woman and visited Frigg at her hall Fensalir. There, Frigg asked the woman if she knew what was happening at the thing. The woman told her that the Æsir were shooting at Baldr and yet he remained unharmed. Frigg responded that nothing could harm Baldr, as she had taken oaths from all things.


The woman asked Frigg if all things had indeed promised not to hurt Baldr, to which Frigg reveals that:

"A shoot of wood grows west of Valhalla. It is called mistletoe, and it seemed too young for me to demand its oath."[12] For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe is a plant parasitic on the branches of a tree or shrub. ...

Immediately after Frigg revealed this, the woman vanished. Loki then took hold of the mistletoe, broke it off and went to the thing.


There, Höðr, since he was blind, stood at the edge of the circle of people. Loki offered to help Höðr in honoring Baldr by shooting things at him. Höðr took the mistletoe from Loki and, following Loki's directions, shot at Baldr. The mistletoe went directly through Baldr and he fell to the ground. Baldr was dead.


The gods were speechless and devastated, unable to react due to their grief. After the gods gathered their wits from the immense shock and grief of Baldr's death, Frigg asked the Æsir who amongst them wished "to gain all of her love and favor"[12] by riding the road to Hel. Whomever agreed was to offer Hel a ransom in exchange for Baldr's return to Asgard. Hermóðr agrees to this and set off with Sleipnir to Hel. In Norse mythology, Hel (sometimes Anglicized or Latinized as Hela) is the queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ...


While Hermóðr rides to Hel, Frigg arrives at the cremation with Odin, Hugin and Munin, and the Valkyries. With them came various other gods and beings during which a grand funeral for Baldr was held. After a long journey, Hermóðr arrives in Hel, meets with Hel and pleads for the return of Baldr on behalf of Frigg. Hel gives the condition that all things must weep for Baldr if Baldr will be returned to Asgard. Nanna, the wife of Baldr (whose heart burst upon seeing the corpse of Baldr and was placed upon the pyre with Baldr), gives gifts to Hermóðr to return to Asgard with. "Along with other gifts"[12], only two gifts are specifically mentioned: a white linen robe for Frigg and a golden ring for Fulla. Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ... Fulla or Fylla is, in Norse mythology, an ásynja. ...


The Æsir then sent forth messengers to all things to have them weep for Baldr, so that he may return from Hel. All things did but a giantess by the name of Þökk, regarding whom Snorri writes that "people believe that the giantess was Loki".[12] Afterwards, in sections 50 and 51, a series of events occur where the gods take revenge upon Loki by binding him and thus furthering the onset of Ragnarök, though Frigg is not mentioned further in these sections. Þökk (Thanks) is a giantess in Norse mythology, presumed to be Loki in disguise, who refuses to weep for the slain Baldr, thus forcing him to stay in Hel. ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ...


Vili and Ve

The story of Frigg and Odin's brothers, Vili and Ve, has survived in very brief form. In the Ynglinga Saga of Snorri Sturluson the entire story is told as follows: Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ...

"Othin [Odin] had two brothers. One was called Ve, and the other Vili. These, his brothers, governed the realm when he was gone. One time when Othin was gone to a great distance, he stayed away so long that the Æsir thought he would never return. Then his brothers began to divide his inheritance; but his wife Frigg they shared between them. However, a short while afterwards, Othin returned and took possession of his wife again."[13] Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ...

The same story is referenced in one stanza of the poem, Lokasenna, in which Loki insults Frigg by accusing her of infidelity with Odin's brothers: Lokasenna (Lokis flyting, Lokis wrangling, Lokis quarrel) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. ...

Hush thee, Frigg, who art Fjorgyn's daughter:
Thou hast ever been mad after men.
Vili and Ve, thou, Vithrir's spouse, [Vithrir=Odin]
Didst fold to thy bosom both. [14]

Modern scholars such as Lee Hollander explain that Lokasenna was intended to be humorous and that the accusations thrown by Loki in the poem are not necessarily to be taken as "generally accepted lore" at the time it was composed. Rather they are charges that are easy for Loki to make and difficult for his targets to disprove, or which they do not care to refute. [15]


Comparisons have been proposed regarding Frigg's role in this story to that of sacred queens during certain periods in ancient Egypt, when a king was king by virtue of being the queen's husband.[16]


Historia gentis Langobardorum

The Langobard historian Paul the Deacon, who died in southern Italy in the 790s, was proud of his tribal origins and related how his people once had migrated from southern Scandinavia.[17] In his work Historia gentis Langobardorum, Paul relates how Odin's wife Frea (Frigg/Freyja) had given victory to the Langobards in a war against the Vandals.[17] She is depicted as a wife who knows how to get her own way even though her husband thinks he is in charge. The Vinnili and the Vandals were two warring tribes. Odin favored the Vandals, while Frea favored the Vinnili. After a heated discussion, Odin swore that he would grant victory to the first tribe he saw the next morning upon awakening-- knowing full well that the bed was arranged so that the Vandals were on his side. While he slept, Frea told the Vinnili women to comb their hair over their faces to look like long beards so they would look like men and turned the bed so the Vinnili women would be on Odin's side. When he woke up, Odin was surprised to see the disguised women first and asked who these long bearded men were, which was where the tribe got its new name, the Langobards. Odin kept his oath and granted victory to the Vinnili (now known as the Lombards), and eventually saw the wisdom of Frea's choice. Paul the Deacon (c. ... The Historia gentis Langobardorum (history of the Lombards) is the chief work by Paul the Deacon, written in the late 8th century. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...


Gesta Danorum

Saxo Grammaticus wrote in his Gesta Danorum another story about Frigg: Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ...

"At this time there was one Odin, who was credited over all Europe with the honour, which was false, of godhead, but used more continually to sojourn at Upsala; and in this spot, either from the sloth of the inhabitants or from its own pleasantness, he vouchsafed to dwell with somewhat especial constancy. Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ...

The kings of the North, desiring more zealously to worship his deity, embounded his likeness in a golden image; and this statue, which betokened their homage, they transmitted with much show of worship to Byzantium, fettering even the effigied arms with a serried mass of bracelets. Odin was overjoyed at such notoriety, and greeted warmly the devotion of the senders. But his queen Frigg, desiring to go forth more beautified, called smiths, and had the gold stripped from the statue.

Odin hanged them, and mounted the statue upon a pedestal, which by the marvellous skill of his art he made to speak when a mortal touched it. But still Frigg preferred the splendour of her own apparel to the divine honours of her husband, and submitted herself to the embraces of one of her servants; and it was by this man's device she broke down the image, and turned to the service of her private wantonness that gold which had been devoted to public idolatry. Little thought she of practicing unchastity, that she might the easier satisfy her greed, this woman so unworthy to be the consort of a god; but what should I here add, save that such a godhead was worthy of such a wife? So great was the error that of old befooled the minds of men.

Thus Odin, wounded by the double trespass of his wife, resented the outrage to his image as keenly as that to his bed; and, ruffled by these two stinging dishonours, took to an exile overflowing with noble shame, imagining so to wipe off the slur of his ignominy. At home, Frigg went with a certain Mith-Othin and took over Odin's properties, until Odin came back and drove them away. Frigg's death later cleared Odin's name and he regained his reputation." (Gesta Danorum, Book I)[18] Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ...

In Saxo's Gesta Danorum, however, the gods and goddesses are heavily euhemerized, and Saxo's view on pagan deities is extremely biased, therefore most stories related to pagan gods written in it might not exist in ancient lore. Georges Dumézil linked Saxo's account of Frigg's infidelity and the stolen gold with the burning of Gullveig.[citation needed] Euhemerus (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Faroe Islands postage stamp - Gullveigs Execution Gullveig (seemingly gold drink or gold might) is, in Norse mythology, a mysterious goddess or giantess who became the igniting source for the War of the Gods. ...


Connection between Frigg and Freyja

Frigg is the highest goddess of the Æsir, while Freyja is the highest goddess of the Vanir. Many arguments have been made both for and against the idea that Frigg and Freyja are really the same goddess, avatars of one another. [19] Some arguments are based on linguistic analysis, others on the fact that Freyja wasn't known in southern Germany, only in the north, and in some places the two goddesses were considered to be the same, while in others they were considered to be different. [20] There are clearly many similarities between the two: both had flying cloaks of falcon feathers and engaged in shape-shifting, Frigg was married to Odin while Freyja was married to Óðr, both had special necklaces, both had a personification of the Earth as a parent, both were called upon for assistance in childbirth, etc. In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... Ódr (ON: Óðr) is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ...


There is also an argument that Frigg and Freyja are part of a triad of goddesses (together with a third goddess such as Hnoss or Iðunn) associated with the different ages of womankind.[21] The areas of influence of Frigg and Freyja don't quite match up with the areas of influence often seen in other goddess triads. This may mean that the argument isn't a good one, or it may show something interesting about northern European culture as compared to Celtic and southern European culture. A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... Óðr is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ... Idun and the Apples (1890) by J. Doyle Penrose. ...


Finally, there is an argument is that Frigg and Freyja are similar goddesses from different pantheons who were first conflated into each other and then later seen as separate goddesses again (see also Frige). This is consistent with the theological treatment of some Greek, Roman, and Egyptian deities in the late classical period. Frige (Anglo-Saxon, Friia (Germany) or Frea (Langobard)) was the love goddess of Germanic mythology, and the wife of Wotan (Odin). ...


Toponyms

Toponyms that are named after Frigg are rare, but in Västergötland, Sweden, there is a place called Friggeråker.[4]   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ...


An English charter from 936 AD displays the name "Frigedun", which means "Valley of Frig". Friden, in Derbyshire, England, is further named after Frig.[22] Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


References and footnotes

  1. ^ Sturluson, Snorri. Prose Edda, Gylfaginning.
  2. ^ Sturluson, Snorri. Prose Edda, Skáldskaparmál. "She will tell no fortunes, yet well she knows the fates of men."
  3. ^ Turville-Petre, E.O.G. (1964). Myth and Religion of the North. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York. p. 189.
  4. ^ a b c d Hellquist, E. (1922). Svensk etymologisk ordbok p. 244
  5. ^ Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo. p. 228.
  6. ^ Krupp, E. C. (Jan. 1996). The thread of time. Sky and Telescope. 91(1), 60.
  7. ^ Claims of a connection between Frau Holle and Frigg can be traced back at least to Jacob Grimm. However, some recent scholarship suggests that the linguistic evidence connecting Frau Holle with Frigg is based on a mistaken translation from Latin. Smith, John B. (Aug. 2004). Perchta the Belly-Slitter and Her Kin: A View of Some Traditional Threatening Figures, Threats and Punishments. Folklore. 115(2), 167, 169.
  8. ^ Simek, Rudolf (1993). Dictionary of Northern Mythology, page 81. Trans. Angela Hall. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.
  9. ^ Simek, pages 93-94. Also: Lindow, John (2001). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs, pages 128-130. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. ^ Thorsson, Edred (1998). Northern Magic: Rune Mysteries and Shamanism, page 38. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications. (Stating that Saga is "likely an active aspect of Frigg.")
  11. ^ Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo. p. 228.
  12. ^ a b c d Byock, Jesse. Trans. The Prose Edda (2006) Penguin Classics ISBN 0140447555
  13. ^ Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, by Snorri Sturlson, Lee Hollander, trans. The American-Scandinavian Foundation by the University of Texas Press, 1964. "The Saga of the Ynglings," Chapter 3, page 7.
  14. ^ The Poetic Edda (2nd edition), Lee Hollander, trans. University of Texas Press, 1990. Lokasenna, stanza 26, page 96.
  15. ^ The Poetic Edda (2nd edition), Lee Hollander, trans. University of Texas Press, 1990. Introduction to "Lokasenna", page 90.
  16. ^ Gundarsson, Kveldulf Hagan, ed. Our Troth, Volume 1 (Second Edition), Chapter 17, "Frigg," page 327-328. The Troth, 2006. See also [1] for Egyptian heiress theory.
  17. ^ a b Harrison, D. & Svensson, K. (2007). Vikingaliv Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 978-91-27-35725-9 p. 74
  18. ^ The Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus, translated by Oliver Elton (Norroena Society, New York, 1905) Available online: [2]
  19. ^ Davidson, Hilda Ellis. (1998). Roles of the Northern Goddess, page 10. London: Routlege. Also: Grundy, Stephen, Freyja and Frigg, pages 56-67; Nasstrom, Brit-Mari. Freyja, a goddess with many names, pages 68-77. Billington, Sandra & Green, Miranda (Eds.) (1996) The Concept of the Goddess. London: Routlege.
  20. ^ Welsh, Lynda. (2001). Goddess of the North, page 75. York Beach: Weiser Books.
  21. ^ Welsh, Lynda. (2001). Goddess of the North, pages 107-126. York Beach: Weiser Books. (Chapter, "Putting together the fragments," which speculates on possible components of a triple goddess.)
  22. ^ Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess (1998) ISBN 0415136113
A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... The second part of the Younger Edda of Snorri Sturluson the Skáldskaparmál or language of poetry is effectively a dialogue between the Norse god of the sea, Ægir and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. ... Stephen Edred Flowers Ph. ... Hilda Roderick Ellis Davidson, British antiquarian. ... Dr. Stephan Downs (born 1967 in New York, USA) is an American author. ... Miranda Jane Aldhouse-Green is a professor of archaeology at the University of Wales, Newport. ... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including the jötnar (giants), the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... In Norse mythology, the Light Elves (Old Norse: Liósálfar) live in Álfheim. ... ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... In Norse religion the einherjar or einheriar were spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... Balder redirects here. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript in the care of the Árni Magnússon Institute, shows Ullr on his skis and with his bow. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap (seeming emptiness or gaping gap) was a vast chasm that existed before the ordering of the world. ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Mjollnir_icon. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... The Volsung Cycle is the name of a series of Germanic legends based on the same matter as Niebelungenlied, and which were recorded in medieval Iceland. ... The Tyrfing Cycle is a collection of legends united by the magic sword Tyrfing. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The orthography of the Old Norse language since the introduction of the Latin alphabet in Iceland is a thorny subject. ... Norse mythology provides a rich and diverse source which many later writers have borrowed from or built upon. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... Numbers are significant in Norse mythology although not to the extent which they are in some traditions e. ... // Places Asgard Bifröst Bilskirnir Breidablik Elivagar Fyris Wolds Gandvik Ginnungagap Helgardh Hlidskjalf Hvergelmir Jötunheimr Leipter River Kormet Midgard Muspelheim Nastrond Nidavellir Niflheim Ormet Reidgotaland Slidr River Svartalfheim Utgard Valhalla Vanaheim Vimur Yggdrasil Events Fimbulwinter Ragnarök Artifacts Balmung Brisingamen Draupnir Dromi Eitr Mjolnir Skíðblaðnir Gram Gungnir...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frigg - MSN Encarta (77 words)
Frigg or Frigga, in Scandinavian mythology, goddess of the sky and wife of Odin, the chief of the gods.
Frigg had two sons, Balder, the god of light, and Hoder, the blind god of darkness, who killed Balder with a sprig of mistletoe.
In German mythology, Frigg was sometimes identified with Freya, the goddess of love.
Frigg (148 words)
In Norse mythology, Frigg or Frigga was the mother goddess and the wife of Odin.
Indeed strong parallels exist between Frigg and Freya of whom she may be a different form.
Frigg was reputed to have the ability to foresee everyone's destiny without revealing it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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