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Encyclopedia > Frigate
Rating system of the Royal Navy
Ships of the line
Frigates
Unrated
For the bird, see Frigatebird.

Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. It has referred to a variety of ship roles and sizes. From the 18th century, it referred to a ship smaller and faster than a ship-of-the-line, used for patrolling and escort work rather than fighting fleet actions. In modern military terminology, the definition of a frigate is a warship intended to protect other warships and merchant marine ships and as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, and merchant convoys. However, many ships known as frigates have more closely resembled other classes of ship, including everything ranging from a corvette to a destroyer, cruiser or even a battleship. The variation comes from a number of sources, such as the era, the particulars of battlefield roles, and the standards of a given country The rating system of the Royal Navy was used by the Royal Navy between the 1670s and early 19th century to categorise sailing warships according to their ability to stand in a line of battle and according to their number of guns. ... Download high resolution version (604x728, 34 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... In the British Royal Navy, a second-rate was a ship of the line mounting 90 to 98 guns, typically built with three gun decks. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... In the British Royal Navy, a fifth-rate was a sailing frigate mounting 32 to 40 guns on a single deck. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... The Brig Lady Washington For other uses, see Brig (disambiguation). ... An American-looking gaff cutter with a genoa jib set This French yawl has a gaff topsail set. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five Derek Jeter in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... Diagrams of first and third rate warships, England, 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The first-rate HMS Victory in 1884 In the age of sail, after the development of the line of battle tactic in the mid 17th century, and up to the mid 19th century, a ship of the line (of battle) was a warship powerful enough to take a place in... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992. ... HMS Victory in 1884 Battleship was the name given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ...

Contents

Origin

La Rieuse, a 30-gun oar frigate (1674-1698)
La Rieuse, a 30-gun oar frigate (1674-1698)
Sailing frigate and its rigging
Sailing frigate and its rigging

The term "frigate" was used in the seventeenth century, initially to describe a type of small, long, warship with small armament and a large crew used by Dunkirk for short-range raiding in the channel. The terms was soon adopted for any relatively fast and lightly built warships, the first in British service being the Constant Warwick of 1645. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811) Louis-Antoine de Bougainville Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 – August 20, 1811) was a French navigator and military commander. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... OAR is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: An abbreviation of the term Original Aspect Ratio. ... Image File history File links For the rigging article Public domain image from: http://susning. ... Image File history File links For the rigging article Public domain image from: http://susning. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Location within France Dunkirks seafront Map of Dunkirk courtesy of the Calgary Highlanders. ...


Because the British navy required greater endurance than the Dunkirk frigates could provide, the term 'frigate' was soon applied less excusively to any relatively fast and elegant ship. Even the mighty Sovereign of the Seas was described as 'a delicate frigate' after modifications to her in 1651. Sovereign of the Seas HMS Sovereign of the Seas was a 17th century British Royal Navy first-rate ship of the line of 100 guns, later known as just Sovereign and then Royal Sovereign. ...


The fleets built by the Commonwealth in the 1650s generally consisted of ships described as 'frigates', the largest of which were two-decker 'great frigates' of the third rate. Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as big and capable as 'great ships' of the time; however, most other frigates at the time were used as 'cruisers'; independent fast ships. The term 'frigate' implied a long hull design, which in turn helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ...


In French, the term 'frigate' became a verb, meaning 'to build long and low', and an adjective, adding further confusion. [1]


The classic sailing frigate as we know it from the Napoleonic wars can be traced back to French developments in the second quarter of the 18th century. These ships were full rigged and carried all their main guns on a single gun deck, what had used to be the upper gun deck on similarly-sized two-decked ships earlier. The lower 'gun' deck now carried no armament and functioned as "berth deck" where the crew lived, and was in fact placed below the waterline of the new frigates. The new sailing frigates were able to fight with all their guns when the seas were so rough that comparable two-deckers had to close the gun-ports on their lower decks. Like the larger 74 which was developed at the same time, the new frigates sailed very well and were good fighting vessels due to a combination of long hulls and low upperworks compared to vessels of comparable size and firepower. A full rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a square rigged sailing vessel with three or more masts, all of them square rigged. ...


The Royal Navy captured a handful of the new French frigates during the early stages of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) and were duly impressed by them, particularly for their inshore handling capabilities. They soon built copies and started to adapt the type to their own needs, setting the standard for other frigates as a superpower. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Combatants Prussia Great Britain Hanover Ireland Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763), some of the theatres of which are called the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War (see below), was a war in the mid-18th...


Early frigates were armed with 9-pounder guns, development soon led to 12- and 18-pounder (5 and 8 kg) armed frigates, and at the turn of the century the biggest ones (most notably the American "super frigates") even carried 24 pounder main batteries.


Royal Navy frigates of the late 18th century were based on the 1780-vintage Perseverance class, which displaced around 900 tons and carried 36 guns; this successful class was followed by the Tribune class batch of fifteen ships starting in 1801 that displaced over 1,000 tons and carried 38 guns.


The age of sail

Enlarge
L'Astrolabe, of Dumont d'Urville
The fictitious, but representative, ironclad frigate USS Abraham Lincoln, from the novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
The fictitious, but representative, ironclad frigate USS Abraham Lincoln, from the novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

A frigate was a medium-sized sailing warship with one gun deck, plus guns on the spar deck. It was faster than the larger ship of the line and larger than a sloop-of-war. British sailing frigates during the period 1640-1860 were rated fourth-rate, fifth-rate and sixth-rate according to the rating system of the Royal Navy. Download high resolution version (600x844, 36 KB)In: Voyage au pole sud et dans lOceanie . ... Download high resolution version (600x844, 36 KB)In: Voyage au pole sud et dans lOceanie . ... Rear Admiral Jules Sébastien César Dumont dUrville (May 23, 1790 – May 8, 1842) was a French explorer and naval officer, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. ... Download high resolution version (490x700, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (490x700, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Front page of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (or Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... In the British Royal Navy, a fifth-rate was a sailing frigate mounting 32 to 40 guns on a single deck. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... The rating system of the Royal Navy was used by the Royal Navy between the 1670s and early 19th century to categorise sailing warships according to their ability to stand in a line of battle and according to their number of guns. ...


Frigates were perhaps the hardest-worked of warship types during the age of sail. They scouted for the fleet, went on commerce-raiding missions and patrols, conveyed messages and dignitaries, and filled in places in the line of battle if there was a shortage of battleships (from the term "line of battle" ship, but more commonly referred to as "ships of the line" or referred to by the number of guns they carried—for example, "74s"). Usually frigates would fight in small numbers or singly against other frigates. Unlike larger ships that were placed in ordinary, frigates were kept in service in peacetime both as a cost-saving measure and to provide quality experience to frigate captains and officers which would be useful in wartime. Frigates could also carry marines or naval infantry for boarding enemy ships or for operations on shore. The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ... HMS Victory in 1884 Battleship was the name given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ...


In the 17th century, frigates were masterpieces of engineering and design; the British added more sails and weapons, the Dutch made frigates with a shallow draft and the French added bow and stern weapons and Baroque designs. Frigate armament ranged from 22 guns on one deck to up to even 70+ guns on two decks. Common armament was 32 to 44 long guns, from 8 to 24 pounders (3.6 to 11 kg), plus a few carronades (large bore short range guns), which weren't counted in the rating of the ship. In the early steam age (1840-60) steam frigates were the fastest ships around, finally evolving into the cruisers of the 20th century. Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The carronade was a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, similar to a mortar, developed for the Royal Navy by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland. ...


The oldest commissioned warship in the US Navy is USS Constitution, better known as "Old Ironsides", a frigate launched 21 October 1797. It is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world; HMS Victory, although older, is maintained in drydock. The US Navy's 44-gun frigates (or "super-frigates"), which actually carried fifty-six to sixty 24-pounder long guns and 36-pounder or 48-pounder carronades, were exceptionally powerful and tough. These ships were so well-respected that they were often seen as equal to 4th-rate ships of the line, and RN fighting instructions ordered British frigates (usually of 38-guns or less) to never engage American frigates at any less than a 2:1 advantage. USS Constitution, known as Old Ironsides, is a wooden-hulled, three-masted frigate of the United States Navy. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ...


In the late 1800s, the term "frigate" fell out of naval fashion; ships that had been designated frigates were redesignated "cruising-ships" and from there to cruisers. The term "frigate" would lie unused until the Second World War, when it would be reappropriated to describe a new type of convoy escort vessel. Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992. ...


Modern frigates

HMS Swale of the River-class, the original modern frigates
HMS Swale of the River-class, the original modern frigates
HMAS Darwin, an Australian Adelaide-class frigate
HMCS Regina, a Canadian Halifax-class frigate
Surcouf, a French La Fayette-class frigate
Surcouf, a French La Fayette-class frigate
F220 Hamburg, a German Sachsen-class frigate
F220 Hamburg, a German Sachsen-class frigate
HNLMS Van Speijk, a Dutch Karel Doorman-class frigate
HMS Chatham, a British Type 22 frigate
USS Vandegrift, an American Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate
USS Vandegrift, an American Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2192x1199, 467 KB) Photo of warship from authors own collection. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2192x1199, 467 KB) Photo of warship from authors own collection. ... HMS Swale (K217) was a Royal Navy frigate of the River class, built by Smith’s Dock Co Ltd on the Tees in north-east England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1500, 1026 KB) Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) The Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) underway in the waters of the Persian Gulf alongside the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS (CVN 75). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1500, 1026 KB) Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) The Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) underway in the waters of the Persian Gulf alongside the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS (CVN 75). ... HMAS Darwin operating in support of Operation Enduring Freedom HMAS Darwin (04), named for the capital city of the Northern Territory, is an Adelaide class guided missile armed frigate laid down by Todd Shipyards at Seattle in Washington on 2 July 1981, launched on 26 March 1982 and commissioned on... HMAS Canberra The Adelaide class is the name given to the Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates in service in the Royal Australian Navy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 345 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) Canadian frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) heads out to sea to participate in exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 345 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) Canadian frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) heads out to sea to participate in exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ... HMCS Regina (FFH 334) is the fifth of the Halifax-class line of frigates. ... The Halifax-class Multi-Role Patrol Frigate (hull designation FFH) is a class of Canadian Navy frigates launched between 1992 and 1996 to replace the aging Restigouche-class fleet of Destroyer Escorts (DDEs). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Surcouf (F711) is a La Fayette-class frigate of the French Navy. ... The La Fayette class units are light multi-mission frigates built by DCN and operated by France (Marine Nationale), Saudi Arabia, Singapore (Republic of Singapore Navy) and Taiwan (Republic of China Navy). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (709x690, 52 KB) Summary The German Sachsen-class frigate F220 Hamburg in Hamburg Harbour Shamelessly stolen from de:Bild:F_220_Fregatte_Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (709x690, 52 KB) Summary The German Sachsen-class frigate F220 Hamburg in Hamburg Harbour Shamelessly stolen from de:Bild:F_220_Fregatte_Hamburg. ... F220 Hamburg in Hamburg Harbour The F124 Sachsen class is Germanys latest class of frigates. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x2048, 373 KB) Use of this image is free provided the source (Koninklijke Marine) is mentioned. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x2048, 373 KB) Use of this image is free provided the source (Koninklijke Marine) is mentioned. ... The Karel Doorman class is a class of eight multi-purpose frigates of the Royal Netherlands Navy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1416x939, 176 KB) © John Choffee http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1416x939, 176 KB) © John Choffee http://www. ... HMS Chatham (F87) is a Type 22 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... A group of Type 22s, with HMS Coventry in the foreground HMS Chatham, the last of the Batch 3 Type 22s, at the International Fleet Review, 2005 The Type 22 Broadsword class frigates are a class of warships built for the Royal Navy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1701, 1189 KB) USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate USS Vandegrift is 445 feet in length, has a beam of 45 feet, and displaces 4,100 tons fully loaded. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1701, 1189 KB) USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate USS Vandegrift is 445 feet in length, has a beam of 45 feet, and displaces 4,100 tons fully loaded. ... The USS McInerney (FFG 8), an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate. ...

Genesis

Modern frigates are only related to earlier frigates by name. The term "frigate" passed out of use in the mid-19th century and was readopted during World War II by the British Royal Navy to describe a new type of anti-submarine escort vessel that was larger than a corvette, but smaller than a destroyer. The frigate was introduced to remedy some of the shortcomings inherent in the corvette design, namely limited armament, a hull form not suited to open ocean work, a single shaft which limited speed and manouverability, and a lack of range. The frigate was designed and built to the same mercantile construction standards as the corvette - allowing manufacture by yards unused to warship construction. The first frigates of the River class (1941) were essentially two sets of corvette machinery in one larger hull, armed with the latest Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon. The frigate possessed less offensive firepower and speed than a destroyer, but such qualities were not requisite in anti-submarine warfare (for instance, ASDIC sets did not operate effectively at speeds of over 20 knots). Rather, the frigate was an austere and weatherly vessel suitable for mass-construction and fitted with the latest innovations in anti-submarine warfare. As the frigate was intended purely for convoy duties, and not to deploy with the fleet, it had limited range and speed. It was not until the Bay class of 1944 that a frigate design was produced for fleet use (although it still suffered from limited speed). These frigates were similar to the United States Navy's (USN) destroyer escorts (DE), although the latter had greater speed and offensive armament to better suit it to fleet deployments. American DEs serving in the British Royal Navy were rated as frigates, and British-influenced Tacoma class frigates serving in the USN were classed as patrol frigates (PF). Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Cardan driveshaft with universal joints A driveshaft or driving shaft or Cardan shaft is a mechanical device for transferring power from the engine or motor to the point where useful work is applied. ... The River class frigates were 151 frigates launched in 1941–1944. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon An anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy during World War II, the Hedgehog was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers to supplement the depth charge. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The F70 type frigates (here, Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C tugged sonars Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation under water to navigate or to detect other watercraft. ... A knot is a unit of speed, abbreviated kt or kn. ... Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ... whitesand bay bigbury bay ... USN redirects here. ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in WWII. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller attack vessels... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... External links PF-1 Tacoma at GlobalSecurity. ...


Guided missile frigates

Modern Frigates
Modern Frigates

The development of the surface-to-air missile after the Second World War conferred anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) to the frigate mission, in the form of the "guided missile frigate". . In the USN these vessels were called "Ocean Escorts" and designated "DE" or "DEG" until 1975 - a holdover from the World War II Destroyer Escort or DE. Other navies maintained the use of the term "frigate". Image File history File links Frigate_Class_Ships. ... Image File history File links Frigate_Class_Ships. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Ocean escort was a United States Navy warship. ... The United States Navy uses hull classification symbols (sometimes called hull codes) to identify the types of its ships. ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in WWII. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller attack vessels...


From the 1950s to the 1970s, the USN commissioned ships classed as guided missile frigates which were actually AAW cruisers built on destroyer-style hulls. Some of these ships - the Bainbridge-, Truxtun-, California- and Virginia- classes - were nuclear-powered. These were larger than any previous frigates and the use of the term frigate here is much more analogous to the its original use. All such ships were reclassified as guided missile cruisers (CG / CGN) or, in the case of the smaller Farragut-class, as guided missile destroyers (DDG) in 1975. The last of these particular frigates were struck from the Naval Vessel Register in the 1990s. USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... USS Bainbridge (DLGN/CGN-25) was a nuclear-powered version of the Leahy-class guided missile frigate/cruiser (DLG/CG-16 class). ... The Truxtun class cruiser was a nuclear-powered version of the Belknap class guided missile cruiser. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Virginia-class nuclear guided missile cruisers (CGN-38 class) were a series of four guided missile cruisers commissioned in the late 1970s, which served in the US Navy through early to mid 1990s. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A guided missile destroyer is, as the name suggests, a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. ... The Naval Vessel Register (NVR), official inventory of ships and service craft in custody or titled by the United States Navy, traces its origin back to the 1880s. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the late 1980s and shortly after the year 2000. ...


Nearly all modern frigates are equipped with some form of offensive or defensive missiles, and as such are rated as guided missile frigates (FFG). Improvements in surface-to-air missiles (like the Eurosam Aster 15) has meant that the modern frigate can increasingly be used as a fleet defence platform, negating the need for such specialised AAW frigates, and form the core of many modern navies. Eurosam GIE was established in June 1989 for the development of the Famille de missiles Sol-Air Futurs (Future Surface-to-Air Family of missiles or FSAF). ... Aster is a surface-to-air missile manufactured by the European firm MBDA. The missile comes in two variants, the medium range Aster 15 and the longer range Aster 30. ...


Anti-submarine warfare frigates

At the opposite end of the spectrum, some frigates are specialised for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Increasing submarine speeds towards the end of the Second World War (see German Type XXI submarine) meant that the margin of speed superiority of frigate over submarine was greatly reduced. The frigate could therefore no longer be a relatively slow vessel powered by mercantile machinery, and as such postwar frigate construction was of fast vessels, such as the Whitby class. Such ships carry improved sonar equipment, such as the variable depth sonar or towed array, and specialised weapons such as torpedoes, ahead-throwing weapons such as Limbo and missile-carried anti-submarine torpedoes like ASROC or Ikara. They can retain defensive and offensive capabilities by the carriage of surface-to-air and to-surface missiles (such as Sea Sparrow or Exocet, respectively.) The Royal Navy's original Type 22 frigate is an example of such a specialised ASW frigate. Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ... The Type-12 Whitby class were a six-ship class of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) frigates of the Royal Navy. ... // The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C tugged sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” (the British used Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee (ASDIC) until 1948) is a technique that uses sound propagation under water to navigate... A Towed array sonar is a sonar array that is towed behind a submarine or surface ship. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Limbo was the name for the final development of allied anti-submarine weapon during World War 2. ... An older Matchbox ASROC launcher, phased out in the 1990s ASROC (for Anti-Submarine ROCket) is an antisubmarine missile system, developed by the United States Navy, and installed on over 200 surface ships, generally cruisers and destroyers. ... The Ikara missile was an Australian ship-launched anti-submarine missile, named after an Australian Aborigine word for a throwing stick. The missile concept is quite Disimilar to the American RUM-139 ASROC. It was powered by a two stage solid-fuel rocket engine and guided by radio until it... A RIM-7 Sea Sparrow being launched from the USS Essex (LHD-2). ... In older English literature there are some uses of exocet to mean flying fish. There is also a typeface known as Exocet. ... A group of Type 22s, with HMS Coventry in the foreground HMS Chatham, the last of the Batch 3 Type 22s, at the International Fleet Review, 2005 The Type 22 Broadsword class frigates are a class of warships built for the Royal Navy. ...


Especially for ASW, most modern frigates have a landing deck and hangar aft to operate helicopters. This negates the need for the frigate to close unknown sub-surface contacts it has detected, and thus risking attack and is especially pertinant as modern submarines are often nuclear powered and faster than surface warships. The helicopter is utilised for this purpose instead, allowing the parent ship to stand off at a safe distance. For this tasking the helicopter is equipped with sensors such as sonobuoys, wire-mounted dipping sonar and magnetic anomaly detectors, to identify possible threats and combat confirmed targets with torpedoes or depth-charges. With their onboard radar, helicopters can also be used to reconnoiter targets over-the-horizon and, if equipped with anti-ship missiles such as Penguin or Sea Skua, to engage in anti-surface warfare as well. The helicopter is also invaluable for search and rescue operation and has largely replaced the use of small boats or the jackstay rig for such duties as transferring personnel, mail and cargo between ships or to shore. With helicopters, these tasks can be accomplished faster and less dangerously, and without the need for the frigate to deviate from its course. A helipad is a landing area for a helicopter. ... Hangars can be used to hold airplanes, airships and helicopters. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors. ... Sonarbuoy loaded on aircraft A sonobuoy (a portmanteau of sonar and buoy) is a relatively small (typically 4 7/8 inches, or ~124 mm, in diameter and 36 inches, or ~914 mm, long) expendable sonar system that is dropped/ejected from aircraft or ships conducting anti-submarine warfare or underwater... A RNZAF P-3K Orion; the magnetic anomaly dectector protrudes from the tail to minimise interference from the aircrafts avionics. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Beast Wars Depth Charge is a character in the Beast Wars: Transformers universe. ... RBS-15 missile launched from a Sisu missile carriage. ... The Penguin anti-ship missile (U.S. designation AGM-119), made by Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA)[1] [2] of Norway from the early 1970s and continually upgraded since, is a passive-IR seeker based short-to-medium range naval cruise missile. ... Sea Skua Type air-to-surface Nationality United Kingdom Era 1980-Present Launch platform Helicopted launched Target shipping History Builder British Aerospace Dynamics (now MBDA) Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Brazil, Germany, Malaysia Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type anti-shipping Diameter 0. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... Dinghy of the schooner Adventuress A dinghy is a small utility boat attached to a larger boat. ...


Modern developments

Modern times have seen the arrival of stealth technology in frigate design. Their shapes are configured to offer a minimal radar cross section, which also lends them good air penetration; the manoeuverability of these frigates has been compared to that of sailing ships. A good example is the French La Fayette-class with the Aster 15 missile for anti-missile capabilities, or the German F125 class and Sachsen class frigates. F-117 Stealth Fighter Stealth technology covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar and other detection methods. ... Radar cross section (RCS) is a description of how an object reflects an incident electromagnetic wave. ... The La Fayette class units are light multi-mission frigates built by DCN and operated by France (Marine Nationale), Saudi Arabia, Singapore (Republic of Singapore Navy) and Taiwan (Republic of China Navy). ... Aster is a surface-to-air missile manufactured by the European firm MBDA. The missile comes in two variants, the medium range Aster 15 and the longer range Aster 30. ... F125 is the project name for the Type 125 class of frigates, currently in development for the German Navy by ARGE F125, a joint-venture of Thyssen-Krupp and Lürssen. ... F220 Hamburg in Hamburg Harbour The F124 Sachsen class is Germanys latest class of frigates. ...


The modern French Navy applies the term frigate to both frigates and destroyers in service. Pennant numbers remain divided between F-series numbers for those ships internationally recognized as frigates and D-series pennant numbers for those more traditionally recognized as destroyers. This can result in some confusion as certain classes are referred to as frigates in French service while similar ships in other navies are referred to as destroyers. This also results in some recent classes of French ships being among the largest in the world to carry the rating of frigate. The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military and the largest Western European navy in terms of personnel. ...


Also in the German Navy frigates were used to replace aging destroyers; however in size and role the new German frigates exceed the former class of destroyers. The German Navy (German: Deutsche Marine  ) is the navy of Germany and part of the Bundeswehr. ...


Some new classes of frigates are optimized for high-speed deployment and combat with small craft ahead of the usual idea of sea combat between equal opponents, an example of this school of thought is the American Littoral Combat Ship, as exemplified by the first ship of the type, USS Freedom. The Littoral Combat Ship is the first of the U.S. Navys planned next-generation surface combatants. ... USS Freedom (LCS 1), a Freedom-class littoral combat ship, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be so named. ...


References

  1. ^ Rodger, N.A.M: "The Command of the Ocean - a Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815". Allen Lane, London, 2004. ISBN 0-713-99411-8

See also

This list of frigate classes includes all frigate classes listed alphabetically. ... The list of frigates by country includes all frigates organized by the country they were in service of. ... This is a list of frigates of the Royal Navy in chronological order. ... This is a list of frigates of the United States Navy, sorted by hull number. ... This is a list of sailing frigates of the United States Navy. ... The United States Navy reclassified many of its surface vessels in 1975, changing terminology and hull classification symbols for aircraft carriers, cruisers, frigates, and ocean escorts. ... Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a politician and naval adventurer. ...

Further reading

  • Gresham, John D., "The swift and sure steeds of the fighting sail fleet were its dashing frigates", Military Heritage magazine, (John D. Gresham, Military Heritage, February 2002, Volume 3, No.4, pp. 12 to 17 and p. 87).
  • Royal Navy Frigates 1945-1983 Leo Marriot, Ian Allan, 1983, ISBN 0-7110-1322-5

External links

  • Frigates from battleships-cruisers.co.uk - history and pictures of United Kingdom frigates since World War II
  • Frigates from Destroyers OnLine - pictures, history, crews of United States frigates since 1963
  • "So Uneasy a Ship: The Unfortunate Career of the Frigate Chesapeake" by Joseph C. Mosier
  • The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger

Lists of frigates

Note that Algerian, Tripolitan and Tunisian sail frigates are listed under Turkey. All Italian city-state frigates are listed under Italy.

Sail frigates
(1640-1860)
Steam frigates
(1830-1880)
Modern frigates
(1940-present)
Current frigates
Australia Australia
Austria Austria
Canada Canada
Denmark Denmark
Egypt Egypt
France France France France
Germany Germany Germany Germany
Greece Greece Greece
Italy Italy Italy Italy
Netherlands Netherlands
Norway
Peru Peru Peru
Portugal
Russia Russia Russia
Singapore
Spain Spain Spain
Sweden
Turkey Turkey
United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom
United States United States United States United States

Partially from: http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/factfile/ships/ship-ffg.html

Types of sailing vessels and rigs
Barque | Barquentine | Bermuda rig | Bilander | Brig | Brigantine | Caravel | Carrack | Catamaran | Catboat | Clipper | Dutch Clipper | Cog | Corvette | Cutter | Dhow | Fifie | Fluyt | Fore & Aft Rig | Frigate | Full Rigged Ship | Gaff Rig | Galleon | Gunter Rig | Hermaphrodite Brig | Junk | Ketch | Longship | Mersey Flat | Multihull | Nao | Norfolk Wherry | Pink | Pocket Cruiser | Polacca | Pram | Proa | Sailing hydrofoil | Schooner | Ship of the Line | Sloop | Smack | Snow | Square Rig | Tall Ship | Thames Sailing Barge | Trimaran | Wherry | Windjammer | Windsurfer | Xebec | Yacht | Yawl

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