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Encyclopedia > Friendly fire

Friendly fire or non-hostile fire, a term originally adopted by the United States military, is fire from allied or friendly forces, as opposed to fire coming from enemy forces or enemy fire. A friendly fire incident (fratricide), is when friendly forces or materiel are attacked and damaged by friendly fire [1] which may be deliberate (e.g. incorrectly identifying the target as the enemy), or accidental (e.g. missing the enemy and hitting "friendlies"). Friendly fire is one kind of collateral damage. The term friendly fire is frequently used as a euphemism in military culture and frequently seen as an oxymoron. Friendly Fire may mean: Friendly Fire (album), a 2006 album by Sean Lennon Friendly Fire (film version), a 2006 film by Sean Lennon & Michele Civetta Friendly Fire (record label) Friendly Fire (film), a 1979 television film starring Timothy Hutton, Carol Burnett, Dan Shor, and Hilly Hicks Friendly Fire (book), by... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The British military refer to these incidents as blue on blue,[2] which derives from military exercises where NATO forces were identified by blue pennants, hence "blue", and Warsaw Pact forces were identified by orange pennants. Unofficially, the term 'own goal' is also used. The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ... USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) kicks off Exercise Valiant Shield, the largest war games of the United States Navy since the Vietnam War. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...

Contents

Fratricide versus Friendly Fire

Some prefer the term fratricide over friendly fire, because they deem the latter to be an unfitting euphemism exemplified by the aphorism "there's nothing friendly about getting shot by your own side."[1] However, the origin and purpose of the term is as a simple distinction to enemy fire. Both terms serve only to identify the source of an attack as coming from enemy (hostile) or friendly forces and not the nature of an attack. Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ...


The term amicicide (killing of a friend) has also been used in the same manner as fratricide (Shrader 1982).


Classification

Friendly fire incidents fall roughly into two categories. The first classification is fog of war which generically describes friendly fire incidents in unintentional circumstances due to the confusion inherent in warfare. The second classification is murder where friendly fire incidents are premeditated. During the Vietnam War, this was known as “fragging.”[1] The fog of war is a term used to describe the level of ambiguity in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Frag is a term from the Vietnam War, used primarily by U.S. military personnel, most commonly meaning to assassinate an unpopular officer of ones own fighting unit, often by means of a fragmentation grenade (hence the term). ...


Fog of war incidents fall roughly into two classes:[1]

Errors of position
Where fire aimed at enemy forces accidentally ends up hitting one's own. Such incidents were relatively common during the First and Second World Wars, where troops fought in proximity to each other and targeting was relatively inaccurate. As weapons have become more accurate in recent times, this class of incidents has become less common but still occurs, the most recent and highly publicized example being Operation Enduring Freedom, wherein a laser-guided bomb was mistakenly called in on friendly forces, causing heavy casualties.
Errors of identification
Where friendly troops are mistakenly attacked in the belief that they are enemy. Highly mobile battles, and battles involving troops from many nations are more likely to cause this kind of incident as evidenced by incidents in the first Gulf War, or the shooting down of a British aircraft by a U.S. Patriot battery during the Invasion of Iraq.[3] According to CNN, the best-known case of such an accident was the death of Pat Tillman[4]

“The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... The Tarnak Farm incident refers to the accidental killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the Third Battalion of Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (3PPCLI) on the night of April 18, 2002 by an American F-16 fighter jet. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... Operation (or Op) TELIC is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ... Patrick Daniel Tillman (November 6, 1976 – April 22, 2004) was an American football player who left his professional sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in May 2002, along with his brother Kevin Tillman. ...

History

Two French regiments accidentally attacking each other during the Battle of Fleurus led to the habit of attaching a white scarf to the flags of the regiments from 1690 - white being the colour of the kings of France.[citation needed] Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Holy Roman Empire Commanders Duc de Luxembourg Prince of Waldeck Strength 35,000 38,000 Casualties 3,000 dead 3,000 wounded 6,000 dead 5,000 wounded 8,000 captured The Battle of Fleurus took place on July 1, 1690. ...


Friendly fire in the U.S. military

Pentagon estimates of U.S. friendly fire deaths, as a percentage of total U.S. deaths: This article is about the United States military building. ...

Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Stonewall Jackson For the 1960s country music artist, see Stonewall Jackson (musician); for the submarine, see USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lesley James McNair (died July 25, 1944) was a general of the United States Army, who was killed by friendly fire during World War II. As Commandant of the Command and General Staff College, McNair initiated changes that prepared the Colleges graduates to meet the upcoming challenges of World... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS Dorado (SS-248), a Gato-class submarine, was the first submarine of the United States Navy to be named for the dorado, also known as the dolphinfish or mahi-mahi. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... The third USS Atlanta (CL-51) of the United States Navy was the lead ship of her class of light cruisers. ... See USS San Francisco for other ships of the same name. ... Historically, a fast battleship was a battleship of which the design featured an emphasis on speed which was unusual, compared to the normal practice of the time. ... USS Iowa (BB-61), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy, but second to be commissioned, to be named in honor of the 29th state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... USS (DD-579), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was a ship of the United States Navy named for Commodore William D. Porter (1808–1864). ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... The Tarnak Farm incident refers to the accidental killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the Third Battalion of Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (3PPCLI) on the night of April 18, 2002 by an American F-16 fighter jet. ... Patrick Daniel Tillman (November 6, 1976 – April 22, 2004) was an American football player who left his professional sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in May 2002, along with his brother Kevin Tillman. ... Combatants Canada, Afghan National Army support from United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Taliban insurgents Strength 2,000 1,200+ Casualties Canada: 12 killed, 44 wounded U.S.: 1 killed U.K.: 14 killed (MR-2 crash) 517 killed, 85 captured[2] Operation Medusa was a Canadian-led offensive by... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... Strafing (adaptation of German strafen, to punish, specifically from the World War I humorous adaptation of the German catchphrase Gott strafe England), is the practice of firing on a static target from a moving platform. ... National Guard may refer to: A military force: Cypriot National Guard United States National Guard National Guard (France), active during the French Revolution Saudi Arabian National Guard A part of the Military of Kuwait Iraqi National Guard A part of the Military of Venezuela Portuguese Republican National Guard National Guard... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...

Use in British culture

Due to the number of UK personnel killed by U.S. forces, in Britain the term 'friendly fire' is used in a semi-ironic way to imply U.S. Military incompetence [6] [7][8] It is a frequent source of satirical humour. Examples include Military incompetence refers to failures of members of the military. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

  • The third (2005) series of Monkey Dust, in which a British military vehicle in Afghanistan is targeted by an American pilot, despite a large Union Flag on its roof (the sole surviving soldier then runs through a series of British stereotypes, such as pouring a cup of tea and donning a bowler hat, but is bombed again, anyway)
  • 19 October 2006 edition of Mock the Week, host Dara Ó Briain noted that British soldiers in Iraq were being, "shot at on a daily basis, although obviously it'll get much safer when the Americans leave and it's only the Iraqis firing at them."
  • In a 2007 edition of the motoring programme Top Gear, presenter Jeremy Clarkson said he was quite safe during a simulated "duel" between a Lotus Exige and a Westland WAH-64 Apache attack helicopter because the pilots, "being British, not American, don't shoot their allies."
  • A "joke" in the dialogue of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas - developed by Rockstar North, based in Scotland - the main character, CJ, is assigned by a government agent Mike Toreno to steal a military jet off an aircraft carrier. The player is soon pursued by other jet planes, aimed at shooting him down. Mike Toreno hearing this mocks the remark that the enemy pilots make and tries to reassure that they will not shoot CJ down, remarking you're not a British tank.

In Iraq, many friendly Iraqis have also been killed and injured in a similar manner, but the US military has stated that it collects no statistics on these outcomes. Monkey Dust is a British animated TV series that satirises the darker side of life in the United Kingdom. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... The bowler hat is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created for Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, in 1850. ... Mock the Week is a British topical panel game, hosted by Dara Ó Briain. ... Dara Ó Briain (IPA: , February 4, 1972- ) is an Irish comedian and television presenter. ... For the original series, see Top Gear (original format). ... Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson (born 11 April 1960) is an English broadcaster and writer who specialises in motoring. ... The Lotus Exige (pronounced: ex-seej) is a two-door, two-seat sports car made by Lotus Cars. ... The WAH-64 is a licence-built version of the Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow attack helicopter, for the British Army. ... Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is the fifth video game in the Grand Theft Auto series. ... Rockstar North Limited (formerly DMA Design Limited) is a Scottish developer of computer and video games founded by David Jones in Dundee and presently located in Leith Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


Incidents and persons

  • 1461War of the Roses: At the Battle of Towton, wind conditions often resulted in arrows falling amongst friendly troops as well as the enemy.
  • 1471 - Battle of Barnet: The ‘radiant star’ battle standard used by the troops commanded by the Earl of Oxford was misidentified as an enemy standard (which depicted a ‘brilliant sun’) and were fired on by their own archers.
  • 1809 - Battle of Wagram: French troops mistakenly fired on their allies from the Kingdom of Saxony. The uniforms of the Saxons were grey and misidentified as white, the colour of uniform worn by their Austrian enemy.
  • 1815Battle of Waterloo: Famously, Marshal Blücher’s Prussians came to the aid of the British, and defeated Napoleon decisively. Lesser known is that Prussian artillery mistakenly fired on British artillery causing many casualties, and British artillery returned fire at the Prussians.
  • 1863 - Lt. Gen. T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson, famous Confederate Civil War general accidentally mortally wounded by his own troops at Chancellorsville, VA.
  • 1914-1918World War I: The French have estimated that more than 75,000 French soldiers were casualties of friendly artillery in the four years of World War I[9].
  • 1939
    • 6 September - Just days after the start of World War II, in what was dubbed the Battle of Barking Creek, an RAF Spitfire squadron shot down two reserve Hurricane aircraft. One of the Hurricane pilots was killed.
    • 10 September British submarine HMS Triton sank another British submarine, HMS Oxley, mistaking it for a German U-boat and having received no responses to challenges. Oxley was the first Royal Navy vessel to be sunk and also the first vessel to be sunk by a British vessel in the war.
  • 1940
  • 1941
  • 1942 - Polish submarine ORP Jastrząb was mistakenly sunk by British destroyer HMS St. Albans and minesweeper HMS Seagull.
  • 1943Operation Husky (Allied Invasion of Sicily): 144 C-47 transport planes passed over Allied lines shortly after a German air raid, and were mistakenly fired upon by ground and naval forces, 33 planes were shot down and 37 damaged, resulting in 318 casualties.
  • 1944
    • British flotilla attacked by RAF Hawker Typhoons, off Cap d'Antifer, Le Havre. HMS Britomart and HMS Hussar sunk. HMS Salamander damaged beyond repair and scrapped. HMS Jason escaped major damage.
    • Operation Wintergewitter (Winter Storm) - Italian Front: American forward observer John R. Fox called down fire on his own position to stop a German advance on the town of Sommocolonia, Italy. In 1997 he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for this action.
    • In October 1944 Soviet troops with help of Yugoslav partisan's movement has oust German Nazi forces from city of Nis, in southern Serbia. While in Nis liberation celebration was underway, Soviet troops consisted of tanks were gaining toward Serbian capital Belgrade. In the same time about 50 km west, American air force were bombing German-Albanian unit which were entraining from Kosovo. Somehow, US air-forces probably uninformed about fast gaining of Soviet army have identified them as Germans and attack them. Soviet troops unable to defend, has called up for help, and soon from Nis airport has arrived Soviet air planes. Fight between US air forces and Red army airplanes took places above Nis itself, and last only 5 minutes, when both Russian and US command has ordered to their own plains to retreat.[citation needed]
  • 1945Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate): 900 German fighters and fighter-bombers launched a surprise attack on Allied airfields, approximately 300 aircraft were lost, 237 pilots killed, missing, or captured, and 18 pilots wounded - the largest single-day loss for the Luftwaffe, many losses were due to friendly anti-aircraft guns.
  • 1956 - Suez: Attacks from British Royal Navy carrier-borne aircraft caused heavy casualties to UK 45 Commando and HQ.
  • 1967 - During the Six-Day War conflict between Israel and the Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Iraq, the U.S. Navy signals intelligence ship, USS Liberty was attacked by Israeli fighter planes and torpedo boats in international waters about 12.5 nautical miles (23 km) from the coast of the Sinai Peninsula, north of the Egyptian town of El Arish, on June 8.
  • 1968 - USS Boston, USS Edson, USCGC Point Dume, HMAS Hobart and two U.S. Swift Boats, PCF-12 and PCF-19 are attacked by US aircraft on June 17 in the Vietnam War.[12] Several sailors were killed and PCF-19 was sunk. [13]
  • 1969 - U.S. Helicopters attack U.S. 3/187th Infantry Battalion CP during the Battle of Hamburger Hill, killing two and wounding thirty-five, including Lt. Col. Weldon Honeycutt.
  • 1974 - Turkish Destroyer Kocatepe was sunk by Turkish aircraft during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
  • 1982
  • 1991 - American A-10 during Operation Desert Storm attacks British armoured personnel carriers killing nine British soldiers (the same number as were killed by enemy fire in the whole war).
  • 1992 - USS Saratoga during a no-notice exercise that included a simulated RIM-7 launch; confusion ensued, and a sailor launched into the bridge of the Turkish destroyer Muavenet killing 5.
  • 1994 - In the Black Hawk Incident, two U.S. Air Force F-15Cs involved with Operation Provide Comfort shot down two U.S. Army UH-60 Black Hawks over northern Iraq, killing 29 military and civilian personnel.
  • 2001 - American F/A-18 dropped 3 Mk-82 bombs on a friendly observation post killing six and wounding 11 at Al Udairi Range, Kuwait.
  • 2002 - American F-16 pilot dropped a 500 lb (228 kg) bomb on Canadian soldiers performing a live-fire exercise, killing four and injuring another 8 in the Tarnak Farm incident.
  • 2003
    • American aircraft attacked a friendly Kurdish & U.S. Special Forces convoy, killing 15. BBC translator Kamaran Abdurazaq Muhamed was killed and BBC reporter Tom Giles and World Affairs Editor John Simpson were injured. The incident was filmed. [14]
    • American Patriot missile shot down in error F/A-18C Block 46 Hornet 164974 of VFA-195 50 mi from Karbala, Iraq, killing the pilot.
    • American Patriot missile shot down a British Panavia Tornado GR.4A ZG710 'D' of 13 Squadron killing the pilot and navigator, Flight Lieutenant David Rhys Williams and Flight Lieutenant Kevin Barry Main, both from 9 Squadron
    • British Royal Marine Christopher Maddison killed when his river patrol boat was hit by missiles after being wrongly identified as an enemy vessel approaching a Royal Engineers checkpoint on the Al-Faw Peninsula, Iraq.[15]
    • British Challenger 2 tank came under fire from another British tank in a nighttime firefight, blowing off the turret and killing two crew members, Corporal Stephen John Allbutt and Trooper David Jeffrey Clarke [16]
    • 190th Fighter Squadron, Blues and Royals friendly fire incident - March 28, 2003 when a pair of American A-10s from the 190th Fighter Squadron attack four British armoured reconnaissance vehicles of the Blues and Royals, killing Lance-Corporal of Horse Matty Hull, during the invasion of Iraq.
  • 2004 - Pat Tillman, famous American football player and friendly fire victim in Afghanistan.
  • 2005
    • American soldier Mario Lozano is suspected of killing Italian intelligence officer Nicola Calipari and wounding Italian journalist Giuliana Sgrena in Baghdad. Sgrena had been kidnapped and subsequently rescued by Calipari; however, it is claimed that the car they were escaping in failed to stop at an American checkpoint, and U.S. soldiers opened fire.
    • American troops opened fire on a Bulgarian convoy. Junior Sergeant Gardi Gardev was killed.
  • 2006
    • During Operation Medusa, two U.S. A-10 Thunderbolt IIs strafed their own NATO forces in southern Afghanistan, killing Canadian Private Mark Anthony Graham, and seriously wounding five others when soldiers were trying to seize a Taliban stronghold along the Arghandab River. Graham was a former Canadian Olympic athlete who competed on the Canadian 4x400 Men's Relay Team at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics.
    • A U.S. machine gunner accidentally shot (from behind) and killed Canadian Pvt. Robert Costall and Vermont National Guard Sgt. John Thomas near Kandahar, in Afghanistan.
    • British Marine Jonathan Wigley, 21, is killed during an intense battle in Helmand province possibly by American fire. [17]
  • 2007
    • An American airstrike kills eight Kurdish Iraqi soldiers. [18]
    • U.S. forces kill seven Afghan police officers. [19]
    • An USAF F-15s called in to support British ground forces in Afganistan drops a bomb on those forces, killing Privates Aaron McClure and Robert Foster, both 19, and John Thrumble, 21, of the 1st Battalion, the Royal Anglian Regiment, and severely injuring two others.[20]

Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... The War or Wars of the Roses may refer to, or have been referred to by: The historical Wars of the Roses, the civil war that took place in Mediæval Britain between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. ... The Battle of Towton in the Wars of the Roses was the bloodiest ever fought on British soil, with casualties believed to have been in excess of 20,000 (perhaps as many as 30,000) men. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... The Battle of Barnet, which took place on April 14, 1471, was a decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, near the town of Barnet, 10 miles north of London. ... Earl of Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the town of Deutsch-Wagram, 15 km north-east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... The name Blücher can refer to, depending on context: Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, a Napoleonic Era Prussian general, and the three ships named after him: German corvette Blücher of the Imperial era German armoured cruiser SMS Blücher of World War I German heavy cruiser Blücher... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Barking Creek was an incident that happened on September 6, 1939, resulting in the first death of a British fighter pilot in World War II. An air raid siren prompted a squadron of Royal Air Force Hurricanes to take off from North Weald Airfield, followed by two... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... HMS Triton (N15) was a submarine of the Royal Navy named for the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, the personification of the roaring waters, was the lead ship of her class. ... HMS Oxley was an O class submarine built by Vickers-Armstrong Limited at Barrow-in-Furness in England, launched on 29 June 1926 and commissioned on 1 April 1927 for the Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Oxley. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Marshal Italo Balbo Italo Balbo (June 6, 1896 - June 28, 1940) was an Italian aviator, blackshirt leader and possible successor of Mussolini. ... Operation Wikinger was a sortie into the North Sea by the 1st Destroyer Flotilla of the Kriegsmarine, in February 1940. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... HMS Sheffield (24) was a Southampton class cruiser in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... Fighter Ace is an online multiplayer computer game in which one flies World War II fighter and bomber planes in combat against other players and virtual pilots. ... A Wing Commanders sleeve/shoulder insignia A Wing Commanders command flag Wing Commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader, CBE, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar, FRAeS, DL, RAF (21 February 1910–5 September 1982); surname pronounced IPA: ) was a successful fighter pilot in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... ORP JastrzÄ…b (Hawk) was a Holland-type S-class submarine, originally of the United States Navy, in Polish service between 1941 and 1942, when she was lost to friendly fire. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The first USS Thomas (DD–182) was a Wickes class destroyer in the United States Navy following World War I. She was later transferred to the Royal Navy as HMS St Albans (I-15), as a Town class destroyer. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... HMS Seagull was a Halcyon class minesweeper, and the first Royal Navy ship to be built entirely without rivets. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Typhoon was a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft starting in 1941. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... A Forward Observer is responsible for directing artillery fire and aircraft onto enemy positions. ... John Robert Fox (7 December 1917 - 26 December 1944) was killed in action by friendly fire in northern Italy during World War II. He was belatedly awarded the Medal of Honor in 1997. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1st January 1945, was an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries of Europe. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a Belmont-class technical research ship. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... El Arish (alternate spelling Al Arish) is an Egyptian city on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The sixth USS Boston (CA-69, ex-CAG-1, ex-CA-69) was launched 26 August 1942 by Bethlehem Steel Company, Fore River, Massachusetts; sponsored by Mrs. ... USS Edson (DD-946) was a Forrest Sherman-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Colonel Merritt “Red Mike” Edson USMC (1897–1955), who was awarded the Medal of Honor while serving as Commanding Officer of the First Marine Raider Battalion. ... HMAS Hobart (D-39) was a Perth class guided missile armed destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy. ... Swift Boat PCF71 in Vietnam Fast Patrol Craft (PCF), also known as Swift boats, were small, shallow draft water vessels operated by the United States Navy for counterinsurgency (COIN) operations during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Melvin Zais Unknown Strength estimated at 1,800 estimated at 1,500 Casualties 70 killed, 372 wounded 630+ dead The Battle of Hamburger Hill was one of the most controversial battles of the Vietnam War. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... There have been three warships of the Royal Navy to bear the name HMS Cardiff, after the capital of Wales. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... USS Saratoga (CV-60), formerly CVB-60 and CVA-60, is the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the American Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga, was a Forrestal-class supercarrier. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other ships of the same name, see Muavenet. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Black Hawk Incident, sometimes referred to as the Black Hawk Shootdown Incident, was a friendly fire incident over northern Iraq that happened on April 14, 1994 during Operation Provide Comfort in which two United States Air Force F-15s fired on a pair of United States Army MH-60... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... An F-15 executing a zoom-climb takeoff in afterburner The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) F-15 Eagle is an American-built, all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Operation Provide Comfort was a military operation by the United States, starting on 24 July 1991, to defend Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather fighter and attack aircraft. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The Mark 82 (Mk 82) is an unguided, low-drag general-purpose bomb (dumb bomb), part of the U.S. Mark 80 series. ... A M4 Carbine is in the forground and the M16A2 in the background in the hands of these two Marines during a live fire exercise in 2003 A live fire exercise is any exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is simulated. ... The Tarnak Farm incident refers to the accidental killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the Third Battalion of Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (3PPCLI) on the night of April 18, 2002 by an American F-16 fighter jet. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. Special Operations Force. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... John Simpson has been World Affairs Editor for BBC News since 1998. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... Strike Fighter Squadron 195 (VFA-195), also known as the Dambusters, are a United States Navy F/A-18C Hornet fighter squadron stationed at Naval Air Facility Atsugi. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ... The British FV4034 Challenger 2 is an advanced new generation main battle tank (MBT) currently in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. ... Two A-10 Thunderbolt jets FV107 Scimitar armoured reconnaissance vehicle The 190th Fighter Squadron, Blues and Royals friendly fire incident was a friendly fire incident involving two United States Air Force Air National Guard 190th Fighter Squadron attack aircraft and vehicles from the United Kingdoms D Squadron, The Blues... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... The 190th Fighter Squadron is a squadron of the 124th Wing of the Idaho Air National Guard. ... A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) are a cavalry regiment of the British Army, part of the Household Cavalry. ... Lance-Corporal of Horse (LCoH) is an appointment unique to the Household Cavalry of the British Army, equivalent to Lance Sergeant in the Foot Guards. ... Matty Hull Lance-Corporal of Horse Matty Hull (31 March 1976 - 28 March 2003) was a British soldier from D Squadron, The Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick Daniel Tillman (November 6, 1976 – April 22, 2004) was an American football player who left his professional sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in May 2002, along with his brother Kevin Tillman. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mario Lozano is a soldier in the US Army, who acquired notoriety after killing Nicola Calipari in an incident on Route Irish. ... Nicola Calipari Nicola Calipari (June 23, 1953, Reggio Calabria - March 4, 2005, Iraq) was an Italian SISMI military intelligence officer with the rank of Major General. ... Giuliana Sgrena Giuliana Sgrena (born December 20, 1948) is a well-known Italian journalist and author who works for the Italian communist newspaper Il Manifesto and the German weekly Die Zeit. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Canada, Afghan National Army support from United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Taliban insurgents Strength 2,000 1,200+ Casualties Canada: 12 killed, 44 wounded U.S.: 1 killed U.K.: 14 killed (MR-2 crash) 517 killed, 85 captured[2] Operation Medusa was a Canadian-led offensive by... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Mark Anthony Graham (born May 17, 1973 in Gordon Town, Jamaica; died September 4, 2006 in Panjwaii, Afghanistan ) was a Canadian Olympic athlete and soldier who died while participating in the NATO mission in Afghanistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, and the United Kingdom. ... Arghandab is a river of Afghanistan, about 250 mi. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... National Guard may refer to: A military force: Cypriot National Guard United States National Guard National Guard (France), active during the French Revolution Saudi Arabian National Guard A part of the Military of Kuwait Iraqi National Guard A part of the Military of Venezuela Portuguese Republican National Guard National Guard... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the easternmost part of the country. ... The Royal Anglian Regiment (R ANGLIAN) is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Queens Division. ...

Distinction

Friendly fire is fire that was intended to do harm to the enemy: a death resulting from a negligent discharge is not considered "friendly fire". A negligent discharge(ND) is the Canadian Armys official term for the accidental discharging of a weapon. ...


See also

Frag is a term from the Vietnam War, used primarily by U.S. military personnel, most commonly meaning to assassinate an unpopular officer of ones own fighting unit, often by means of a fragmentation grenade (hence the term). ... A Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) is a radar device installed in air traffic control facilities to allow the precise identification of aircraft. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Regan, G. Backfire: a history of friendly fire from ancient warfare to the present day. Robson Books, 2002.
  2. ^ http://www.publications.parliament.uk/cgi-bin/newhtml_hl?DB=semukparl&STEMMER=en&WORDS=blue%20on%20friendly%20fire&ALL=%22friendly%20fire%22&ANY=&PHRASE=%22blue%2don%2dblue%22%20%22%22friendly%22%20%22fire%22%22&CATEGORIES=&SIMPLE=&SPEAKER=&COLOUR=red&STYLE=s&ANCHOR=muscat_highlighter_first_match&URL=/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmpubacc/uc990-i/uc99002.htm#muscat_highlighter_first_match
  3. ^ The Economist Closing in on Baghdad March 25 2003
  4. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/07/01/afghan.probe/index.html U.S. military probes soldier's death
  5. ^ http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/central/04/18/afghanistan.canada/
  6. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,926237,00.html] [http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,931992,00.html
  7. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/06/nirq06.xml
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/6468391.stm
  9. ^ This figure comes from a 1921 book by an artillery expert, General Percin, called Le massacre de notre infanterie, 1914-1918. The book claims 75,000 French soldiers were casualties of their own artillery. Percin supports his claim with hundreds of battlefield correspondence from all parts of the Western Front.
  10. ^ http://www.german-navy.de/kriegsmarine/articles/feature4.html
  11. ^ http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/bader.html
  12. ^ http://www.gunplot.net/vietnam/hobartvietnam.html
  13. ^ http://www.gunplot.net/vietnam/hobartvietnamandpcf19.html
  14. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/photo_gallery/3244305.stm
  15. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/north_yorkshire/6187414.stm
  16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2886715.stm
  17. ^ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article2062516.ece
  18. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6346901.stm
  19. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070612/ap_on_re_as/afghan_violence
  20. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6962071.stm

References

  • Shrader, Charles R. Amicicide: the problem of friendly fire in modern war, University Press of the Pacific, 2005. ISBN 1-4102-1991-7
  • Regan, G. More Military Blunders. Carlton Books, 2004.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amicicide: the problem of friendly fire in modern war (19274 words)
Friendly fire incidents often disrupt the close and continuous combined arms cooperation so essential to success in modern combat, especially when that combat is conducted against a well-armed, well-trained, and numerically superior opponent.
This was the result of a transposition of the target grid coordinates during telephonic transmission of the fire mission between the tactical operations center (TOC) of the infantry division artillery and the operations center of the firing artillery battalion and a subsequent failure to double-check the elements-of the fire request.
The 1st Division Fire Support Element (FSE), however, failed to coordinate with the 25th Infantry Division, in whose sector the target lay, and consequently the firing unit was unaware of the presence of friendly troops in the area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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