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Encyclopedia > Friedrich Paulus
Friedrich Paulus.
Friedrich Paulus.

Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (23 September 18901 February 1957) was a German general, later promoted to Generalfeldmarschall, during World War II. Image File history File linksMetadata Friedrich_Paulus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Friedrich_Paulus. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33...

Contents

Early life

Paulus was born in Breitenau, Province of Hesse-Nassau, the son of a school teacher. Breitenau is a municipality in Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate, in western Germany. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


He tried, unsuccessfully, to secure a cadetship in the Kaiserliche Marine, and briefly studied law at Marburg University, but later abandoned. The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... The University of Marburg, officially called Philipps-Universität Marburg after its founder, the Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous), was founded in 1527 and is the worlds first and oldest Protestant university. ...


Military career

After leaving university without a degree, he joined the 111th Infantry Regiment as an officer cadet in February 1910. He married Elena Rosetti-Solescu on 4 July 1912. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


When World War I began, Paulus's regiment was part of the thrust into France, and he saw action in the Vosges and around Arras in the autumn of 1914. After a leave of absence due to illness, he joined the Alpenkorps as a staff officer, serving in Macedonia, France, and Serbia. By the end of the war, he was a captain. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Vosges is a French department, named after the Vosges mountain range. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Captain is a nautical term, an organizational title, and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ...


After the Armistice Paulus fought with the Freikorps in the east as a brigade adjutant. He remained in the scaled-down Reichswehr that came into being after the Treaty of Versailles and was assigned to the 13th Infantry Regiment at Stuttgart as a company commander. He served in various staff positions for over a decade (1921 - 1933) and then briefly commanded a motorized battalion (1934 - 1935) before being named chief of staff for the Panzer headquarters in October 1935, a new formation under Lutz that directed the training and development of the army’s three panzer divisions. The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 591,528 (as of April 2006) in the city, and 2. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In February 1938 Paulus was appointed Chef des Generalstabes to Guderian’s new XVI Armeekorps (Motorisiert), which replaced Lutz’s command. Guderian described him as ‘brilliantly clever, conscientious, hard working, original and talented’ but already had doubts about his decisiveness, toughness and lack of command experience. He remained in that post until May 1939, when he was promoted to Generalmajor and became Chief of Staff for the German Tenth Army, with which he saw service in Poland, the Netherlands, and Belgium (by the latter two campaigns, the army had been renumbered as the Sixth Army). 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The German Tenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The 6. ...


Paulus was promoted to Generalleutnant in August 1940 and the following month he was named deputy chief of the German General Staff (OQu I). In that role he helped draft the plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Stalingrad

Paulus became commander of the German Sixth Army in January 1942 and led the drive on Stalingrad. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad...


During his command of the Sixth Army, Paulus also rescinded the Commissar Order and the Severity Order within his sector. The commissar order was an order given by Adolf Hitler prior to Operation Barbarossa that any captured Soviet political officer be immediately shot. ...


Paulus followed Adolf Hitler's orders to hold the Army's position in Stalingrad under all circumstances, despite the fact that the army had been encircled by strong Russian formations. A relief effort by Army Group Don under Field Marshal von Manstein failed, inevitably, as insufficient force was available to challenge the Soviet forces encircling the German 6th Army, and because by the time of this rescue attempt, Paulus' remaining armour had only sufficient fuel remaining for a 12 mile advance anyway. In any event, Paulus was refused permission to break out of the encirclement, and the 6th Army was consequently overrun together with its Romanian allies and Russian auxiliary troops when the lack of ammunition, equipment attrition and the physical health of the German troops prevented them from defending effectively against the Red Army in late January 1943. The battle was fought with terrible losses on both sides and the most unimaginable suffering, scarring the Russian and German nations for generations. Hitler redirects here. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Paulus was expected to hold Stalingrad to the death. On 30 January 1943, Hitler promoted Paulus to the rank of field marshal, after the Sixth Army's fate was sealed. Since no German field marshal in history had ever surrendered, the implication was clear. If Paulus surrendered, he would shame Germany's military history.


Despite this, and to the disgust of Hitler, Paulus surrendered on January 31, 1943. Speaking about the surrender of Paulus, Hitler told his staff:

What hurts me the most, personally, is that I still promoted him to field marshal. I wanted to give him this final satisfaction... a man like that besmirches the heroism of so many others at the last moment. He could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow.

Paulus became a vocal critic of the Nazi regime while in Soviet captivity, joining the Russian-sponsored National Committee Free Germany and appealing to Germans to surrender. He later acted as a witness for the prosecution at the Nuremberg trials. He was released in 1953, two years before the repatriation of the remaining German POWs (mostly other Stalingrad veterans) who had been designated war criminals by the Soviets. National Committee Free Germany (German: Nationalkomitee Freies Deutschland; NKFD) was a German anti-Nazi organization that operated in the Soviet Union during WWII. The NKFD HQ // The rise of the Nazi Party to power in 1933 led to the outlaw of the Communist Party of Germany and the persecutions against... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Friedrich Paulus died in Dresden, East Germany, as an inspector of police. For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... GDR redirects here. ...


References

  • Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad, The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943. New York: Penguin Books. 
  • Craig, William (1974). Enemy at the Gates. The Battle for Stalingrad. Victoria: Penguin Books. 
  • von Mellenthin, Friedrich (2006). Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War. United States: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1-56852-578-8. 

Friedrich Wilhelm von Mellenthin (30 August 1904 - 28 June 1997) was a Generalmajor in the German Army during World War II. A participant in most of the major campaigns of the war, he became well-known afterwards for his memoirs Panzer Battles, first published in 1956 and regularly reprinted since...

Links

Sovetika.ru - site about Soviet era Articles about and by Paulus

 
German Field Marshals (Generalfeldmarschall) of World War II (in alphabetical order)

Werner von Blomberg | Fedor von Bock | Walther von Brauchitsch | Ernst Busch | Hermann Göring | Robert Ritter von Greim | Wilhelm Keitel | Albert Kesselring | Ewald von Kleist | Günther von Kluge | Georg von Küchler | Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb | Wilhelm List | Erich von Manstein |Erhard Milch | Walter Model | Friedrich Paulus | Walther von Reichenau | Wolfram von Richthofen | Erwin Rommel | Gerd von Rundstedt | Ferdinand Schörner | Hugo Sperrle | Maximilian von Weichs | Erwin von Witzleben Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Werner von Blomberg. ... Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Küstrin, Germany. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... Ernst Busch (6 July 1885 - 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Essen-Steele, Germany, and was educated at the Groß Lichterfelde Cadet Academy. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Robert Ritter von Greim Robert Ritter von Greim or Robert Greim (June 22, 1892 - May 24, 1945) was a German pilot and army officer. ... Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia... Albert Kesselring Albert Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a German Generalfeldmarschall who commanded Army Group C during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful German generals, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or smiling Kesselring. Biography Kesselring was born in Marktsteft, Germany, in 1881. ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... Hans Günther von Kluge (October 30, 1882–August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German field marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. He entered the Army in 1898 and served as a staff officer in the First World War. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Air Marshall Erhard Milch Erhard Milch (March 30, 1892 – January 25, 1972) was a German officer who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Germany following World War I. Milch was born in Wilhelmshaven. ... Walther Model (pronounced modal) (January 24, 1891–April 21, 1945) was a German general, and later a Field Marshal, during World War II. He was noted for his defensive skills, and was nicknamed Hitlers fireman. Model served as an infantry officer in World War I. During the Polish... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Wolfram von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the late Manfred von Richthofen and one of only a few select officers in the Luftwaffe to have attained the highest rank of Generalfeldmarschall. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a field marshal of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Hugo Sperrle Hugo Sperrle (February 7, 1885 - April 2, 1953), was a German Field Marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. He joined the German Army in 1903 and transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte (German Army Air Service) at the start of World War I, serving as an observer... Maximilian von Weichs Maximilian Maria Joseph Karl Gabriel Lamoral Reichsfreiherr von Weichs zu Glon (12 November 1881 - 27 September 1954) was a German Generalfeldmarschall and a military leader in World War II. He was born into a noble family at Dessau, a son of an Army colonel. ... Job-Wilhelm Georg Erwin von Witzleben (born 4 December 1881 in Breslau; died 8 August 1944 in Berlin, executed) was a German army officer (by 1940 a Generalfeldmarschall) and in the Second World War an Army commander and a resistance fighter in the July 20 Plot. ...

Honorary: Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli (1856 - 1941) was an Italian-born Austrian officer during World War I who rose to the rank of Field Marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Army. ...

 
German Grand Admirals (Großadmiral) of World War II

Erich Raeder | Karl Dönitz German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... The rank of Grand Admiral has also appeared in science fiction literature, most notable the Star Wars Expanded Universe where the rank is held by Grand Admiral Thrawn. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Erich Raeder. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ...


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