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Encyclopedia > Fribourg

Coordinates: 46°48′N, 7°09′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Fribourg/Freiburg
Coat of Arms of Fribourg/Freiburg
Canton Fribourg
District Sarine
Coordinates 46°48′N, 7°09′E
Population 33,008   (December 2005)
Area 9.32 km² (3.6 sq mi)
Elevation 610 m (2,001 ft)
Postal code 1700
SFOS number 2196
Mayor (list) Pierre-Alain Clément
Surrounded by
(view map)
Düdingen, Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Marly, Pierrafortscha, Sankt Ursen, Tafers, Villars-sur-Glâne
Twin towns Rueil-Malmaison (France)
Website www.fr.ch/ville-fribourg
Fribourg/Freiburg [zoom] (Switzerland)
Fribourg/Freiburg [zoom]

Fribourg (French), (German: Freiburg or Freiburg im Üechtland, often Fribourg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district of Sarine. It is located on both sides of the river Saane/Sarine, on the Swiss plateau, and is an important economic, administrative and educational center on the cultural border between German and French Switzerland (Romandy). Its Old City, one of the best maintained in Switzerland, sits on a small rocky hill above the valley of the Saane. Image File history File links City_of_Fribourg-coat_of_arms. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland. ... In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each Canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. ... District of Sarine Municipalities of Sarine The District of Sarine (German: Saanebezirk, French: District de la Sarine) is one of the seven districts of the Canton of Fribourg. ... This article is about longitude and latitude; see also UTM coordinate system Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (vertically) and longitude (horizontally); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which... To suggest a relevant news story for the main page, refer to the criteria then add your suggestion at the candidates page. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 1 km² (100 hectares) and 10 km² (1000 hectares). ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Here are postal codes of Switzerland and Liechtenstein: Zone 1 1000s are found in Lausanne, Lavaux and parts of Morges, 1100s in parts of Morges, 1200s are in Geneva and parts of La Côte, Vaud, 1300s in La Vallée, 1500s are found in Clavaleyres, the 1700s are found... The Official Munipality Key, formerly also known as the Official Municipality Characteristic Number or Municipality Code Number, is a number sequence for the identification of politically independent municipalities or municipality-free areas. ... This is a list of mayors of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... The following is a list of the municipalities in Switzerland, listed alphabetically. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (885 × 951 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/png) Municipality Fribourg Artist: Tschubby File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Düdingen (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Givisiez is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Granges-Paccot is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... For other places with the same name, see Marly. ... Pierrafortscha is a municipality in the district of Sarine in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. ... St. ... Tafers (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Villars-sur-Glâne is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... This list includes twin towns/sister cites (Partnergemeinden, Partnerstädte, villes ou communes jumelles) in Switzerland linked by a sister city agreement (Städtepartnerschaft or Gemeindepartnerschaft; jumelage de villes) and towns linked by friendship agreements (Freundschaft or amitié). A few municipalities participating in projects arranged by the Swiss organizations Patenschaft... Rueil-Malmaison is a French town near Paris, part of the Hauts-de-Seine département and within the Parisian conurbation. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1359x922, 341 KB) Switzerland Map drawn by Tschubby see also Karte_Schweiz_Details. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (885 × 951 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/png) Municipality Fribourg Artist: Tschubby File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Ãœechtland on a map from 1732 The Ãœechtland is a region in western Switzerland, where the cities of Berne and Fribourg are located. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland. ... District of Sarine Municipalities of Sarine The District of Sarine (German: Saanebezirk, French: District de la Sarine) is one of the seven districts of the Canton of Fribourg. ... Saane (German, in French: Sarine) is one of the larger rivers in Switzerland. ... The Swiss plateau (plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura mountains and the Alps. ... The French-speaking part of Switzerland is shown in green on this map. ...

Contents

Geography

Fribourg has an elevation of 581 meters (in the Old City), and is situated 28 kilometers southwest of Bern. It is located on the Swiss plateau, and extends on both sides of the Saane/Sarine River, which, in the vicinity of Fribourg, has cut deeply into the molasse. The Old City is located on a hill, only about 100 meters wide, which rises about 40 meters above the valley floor. Most quarters of the city are located on the High Plateau and the surrounding hills, which have an average elevation of 620m. The valley floor is only settled in the area immediately around the Old City. Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Molasse refers to the sandstones, or less commonly shales, formed as shore deposits, for example that left from the rising Alps, or erosion in the Himalaya. ...

View of Fribourg
View of Fribourg

The area of the municipality, which, at 9.3 km sq, is relatively small for a city, covers an area of Molasse in the central part of Canton Fribourg. The area is cut through from south to north by the tightly wound Saane/Sarine River, which has eroded a valley, in some places, to a depth of 100 m below the surrounding Plateau. In general, the valley floor is between 200 and 500 m wide. Pérolles-See, formed as a reservoir by the first Gravity Dam in Europe, in 1872, is located south of the city. The head of the Schiffenensee is located just 1 km north of the city. At both of these artificial lakes, the Saane/Sarine covers nearly the entire valley floor. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Molasse refers to the sandstones, or less commonly shales, formed as shore deposits, for example that left from the rising Alps, or erosion in the Himalaya. ... The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Schiffenensee is an artificial lake formed by a barrage of the Saane/Sarine river in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ...

Valley of the Saane near Fribourg
Valley of the Saane near Fribourg

The flat valley floor is flanked on both sides by steep, largely wooded, slopes. To the east, the municipality reaches up the slopes of Mount Schönberg, which, with an elevation of 702 m, is the highest point in Fribourg. The Galtera River, also deeply cut into the plateau, flows between the mountain and the river, emptying into the Saane/Sarine near the Old City. As of 1997, 61% of the land is developed, 18% is forested, 14% is used for agriculture, and about 7% is unproductive. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The former village of Bourguillon lies within the municipality. Fribourg borders on Düdingen and Tafers to the east, Pierrafortscha to the southeast, Marly to the south, Villars-sur-Glâne and Givisiez to the west, and Granges-Paccot to the north. Düdingen (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Tafers (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Pierrafortscha is a municipality in the district of Sarine in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. ... Marly is the name or part of the name of several communes in Europe: France Marly, in the Moselle département Marly, in the Nord département Marly-Gomont, in the Aisne département Marly-la-Ville, in the Val-dOise département Marly-le-Roi, in the Yvelines... Villars-sur-Glâne is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Givisiez is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Granges-Paccot is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ...


Population

Population Growth
Year Population Percent German-Speaking
1450 6,000
1798 5,117
1850 9,065
1870 10,581
1888 12,195 37.1 %
1900 15,794 35.4 %
1910 20,293 33.0 %
1930 21,557 33.3 %
1950 29,005 33.2 %
1960 32,583
1970 39,695 28.0 %
1980 37,400
1990 36,355 22.8 %
2000 35,547 21.2 %

With a population of 33,008 (as of the 2005 Census), Fribourg is the largest city in Canton Fribourg. About 29% of the inhabitants are foreigners. The population of Fribourg grew particularly markedly at the beginning of the 20th Century, as well as from 1930 to 1970. The maximum population of 42,000 was reached in 1974. Since then there has been a population loss of approximately 14%, which might have recently stopped.


The population of the agglomeration around Fribourg is 95,000, or, counting only the most nearby suburbs, 70,000. This includes the municipalities of Avry, Belfaux, Corminboeuf, Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Marly, Matran and Villars-sur-Glâne. In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ...


The growth of the agglomeration around Fribourg has fused the city proper with the neighboring towns of Villars-sur-Glâne, Givisiez, and Granges-Paccot. The town of Klein-Schönberg, which belongs to Tafers, and the village of Uebewil, which belongs to Düdingen, are located right on the eastern edge of town. This settlement area itself has a population of 50,000.


Languages

As of 2000, 63.6% of the population speak French, 21.2% speak German, 3.8% speak Italian, and the remaining 11.4% speak numerous other languages including: Albanian, Serbian, Spanish and Portuguese. Fribourg has two official languages, and French clearly outweighs German, unlike in other nearby towns. This article is in need of attention. ...


Fribourg has always been located on the Swiss language border, but at the time of the city's founding in the 12th century, German was the prevailing language. Although German was the official language of the city until 1800, French gradually became more influential. This was aided by industrialization, which lead to an influx of French-speaking immigrants. Since the polical changes of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the German-speaking population has been a minority, and, at some points, has been discriminated against.


Religion

The population of Fribourg is predominantly Catholic. As of 2000, 69% are Catholic, 9% Protestant, 14% belonged to other faiths and 8% are Atheist. The city remained Catholic during the Reformation, and has since become a center of Catholicism. It has a greater than average number of churches and monasteries. Fribourg has been the seat of the Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg since 1613. This article is in need of attention. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg (Latin Dioecesis Lausannensis, Genevensis et Friburgensis) is the name of a Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland, immediately subject to the Holy See, comprising the Cantons of Fribourg, Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel, with the exception of certain parishes of the right bank of...


Politics

Legislative

Legislative authority is vested in an 80-member general council elected by the citizens of the municipality every four years. The delegates are selected through a proportional representation method. The responsibilities of the city council include the budget and audit, and the establishment of local regulations. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


The election of 2006 yielded the following representation (2001 figures in parentheses):

The Christian Democratic Peoples Party of Switzerland (Also called Christian-Democratic Party; German: , French: , Italian: , Romansh: ) is a political party in Switzerland and a member of the Swiss coalition government. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ... The Christian Social Party (German: Christlich-soziale Partei; French: Parti chrétien-social) is a Swiss political party which states its core principles as living solidarity with the economically disadvantaged and the preservation of the environment. ... The Free Democratic Party of Switzerland (German: , French: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is a free market liberal party in Switzerland. ... The Green Party of Switzerland (Grüne Partei der Schweiz / Les verts - Parti écologiste suisse) is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland (the largest not represented on the Federal Council). ... The Swiss Peoples Party (SVP) also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre German: Schweizerische Volkspartei, French: Union Démocratique du Centre, Italian: Unione Democratica di Centro, Romansh: Partida Populara Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland. ...

Executive

The executive power in Fribourg is the municipal council. It is formed of five members elected by the people using a Proportional Representation method. In 2001, the number of members was decreased from nine to five. The term of office is five years. The responsibilities of the municipal council include the enforcement of the resolutions of the general council, the execution of the legislation of the Swiss federation and canton government, as well as representing and guiding the city. The mayor (Stadtamman) has additional authorities. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


The five current members are (since March 5, 2006): This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Pierre-Alain Clément (SP) - Mayor (Stadtamman)
  • Jean Bourgknecht (CV]) - Deputy Mayor (Vize-Stadtamman)
  • Marie-Thérèsa Maradan Ledergerber (SP)
  • Madleine Genoud-Page (CSP)
  • Charles de Reyff (CVP)

Economy

Development of trade and economy

Several types of industry developed in Fribourg as early as the 13th and 14th centuries. The extension of the city along the east bank of the Saane/Sarine River made about this time indicates a strong economic upswing. In Galterntal, water power was used for various mills. Along the Saane new trade districts developed with the towns of Au, Neustadt and Matten.


The tanneries and cloth manufacturers, strengthened by widespread sheep raising, led an economic boom in the 14th and 15th centuries. This helped Fribourg by making its trades well-known throughout central Europe. A gradual decline in cloth making in the second half of the 15th Century occurred as local farmers replaced their sheep with cattle. Other reasons for the collapse of the cloth industry in the 16th century include the fact that the guild refused to use new materials or modern styles, and that the social structure of the city changed with the rise of the patrician class. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ...


After this time, Fribourg was shaped by low-level trade, and was not industrialized until it was connected to the Swiss Railroad, beginning in the 1870s. After Lake Pérolles was built in 1872, energy could be supplied to the plateau south and west of the city. Thus, an industrial area developed there, dominated in its early years by a wagon factory and a lumber mill. Later, two breweries were established in this area. A chocolate factory was established in Villârs-sur-Glâne in 1901, but it came under Fribourg's jurisdiction in 1906 after a change of borders.


In the course of the 20th century, the plateau became the industrial section of the city. The development of new industrial areas in neighboring municipalities, beginning in the 1970s, has allowed for continued economic growth.


Situation today

About 25,000 jobs are offered in Fribourg today. The 0.6% of these positions which remain in the agricultural sector have little impact on the modern economy. Agriculture in the area is concentrated in cattle raising and dairy farming. 17% of the jobs are in the Industrial sector, and about 82% of the worker are in the Service sector.


Fribourg has more jobs than laborers, and is therefore a large commuter destination for the largely agricultural surrounding area. Local industry includes food and luxury products, drinks (the breweries are owned by the Danish firm Carlsberg), metal and machine construction, electronics, and computer technology. Note: Carling beer is not produced by the Carlsberg brewery. ...


The largest number of workers are active in the service industries. Many of these work in government administrative positions. Other important sectors are education (at the University), banks and insurance companies, tourism and restaurants, as well as health services. Fribourg is home to the administrative offices of several international companies. The Cantonal hospital is on the border with Villars-sur-Glâne.


Culture and tourism

Fribourg Ratzéhof
Fribourg Ratzéhof

Fribourg is a day trip destination for tourists who want to visit the sights of the city. These include the historic Old City with its Gothic Cathedral of Saint Nicholas, and the museums. The Natural History Museum was founded in 1873, and is now located in the natural sciences building at the University. The Museum of Art and History, located in the Ratzéhof since 1920, has exhibits on ancient and early history, sculpture and paintings, traditional tin figures, arts and crafts, as well as money and graphic collections. In the cathedral, a treasure chamber has been on display since 1992. Other museums include the Swiss Museum of Marionnettes, the Swiss Sewing Machine Museum, and a beer museum. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... International Gothic is a subset of Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and northern Italy in the late 1300s and early 1400s. ...


Cultural experiences include the festival of religious music, the international folklore convention, the jazz parade, an international film festival and Cinéplus (since 1972). Counterculture also finds its place through the Fri-Art art center, and Fri-Son, for rock and punk music. The Fribourg International Film Festival is an annual film festival in Fribourg, Switzerland. ...


Some numbers

Elevation
mean 610 m; the highest point is the Schönberg (702 m)
Languages
French (ca. 21.240 inhabitants) and German (ca. 8.288 inhabitants)

History

Prehistory

The region around Fribourg has been settled since the Neolithic period, although few remains have been found. These include some flint tools found near Bourguillon, as well as a stone hatchet and bronze tools. A river crossing was located in the area during the Roman Era. The main activity in the Swiss plateau bypassed the area to the north, however, and was instead centered around the valley of the Broye river and Aventicum. Therefore only a few remains from the Roman era have been found in Fribourg. These include the traces of a wall foundation on the plains near Pérolles. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Broye is a 68km long river, in the cantons of Fribourg and Vaud, in Switzerland. ... Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Civitas Helvetiorum). ...


Middle Ages

Fribourg Bürglentor

The town was founded in 1157 by Berchtold IV von Zähringen. Its name is derived from German frei (free) and Burg (fort). Its most ancient part is conveniently located on a former pensinsula of the River Sarine, protected on three sides by steep cliffs. The easily defended city would help the Duke of Zähringen strengthen and extend their power in the Swiss plateau in the area between the Aar and the Saane/Sarine. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Zähringen is the name of an old and influential German noble family, taken from the castle and village of that name. ... Aar (disambiguation). ...


Beginning at the time of its inception, Fribourg built a city-state; initially, the land it controlled was somewhat distant. When the dukes of Zähringen died out in 1218, the city was transferred to the related Kyburg family. They granted the city its former privileges and wrote the municipal laws in the so-called Handfeste in 1249, in which the legal, institutional and economic organizations were established. Several treaties with neighboring city-states, including Avenches (1239), Bern (1243), and Murten (1245), were completed at this time. A palace Kyburg in Kyburg, Switzerland. ... Avenches is a commune in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, seat of the district with the same name. ... Berntor in Murten Murten (-German; French: Morat) is a town in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland, on the southern shores of Lake Morat. ...


The city was sold to the Habsburgs in 1277. Trade and industry began as early as the mid 13th century. In the early period, Fribourg was formed of four distinct quarters: Burg, Au, Neustadt, and Spital. The city developed rapidly, and required its first expansions: the Burg quarter expanded to the west in 1224, a town was established across the river in 1254, and in 1280 development began near Place Python. These expansions reflect the economic boom in Fribourg. The 14th century was dominated by trade, and cloth and leather production, which brought the city to renown in Central Europe by 1370. Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...


The treaty with Bern was renewed in 1403. The leaders of the city began a territorial acquisition, in which they gradually brought more nearby land under their control. This laid the ground-work for the Canton of Fribourg. By 1442 the city had control of all the land within about 20km, on both sides of the Saane. It was therefore directly controlled by the city leaders, not by any intermediate administration.

Fribourg City Hall

The mid 15th century was shaped by various military conflicts. First, large losses in a war against Savoy had to be settled. The Savoyard influence on the city grew, and the Habsburgs ceded it to them in 1452. It remained under the control of Savoy until the Burgundian Wars in 1477. As an ally of Bern, Fribourg participated in the war against Charles I of Burgundy, thereby bringing more land under its control. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... The Burgundy Wars were a conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederacy got involved and would play a decisive role. ... Charles the Bold or Charles the Rash (French: Charles le Téméraire)[1], also Charles, Duke of Burgundy (21 November 1433 – 5 January 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ...


After the city was released from the sphere of influence of Savoy, it attained the status of Free Imperial City in 1478. The city and its canton joined the Swiss Confederation in 1481, and has long been influential on Swiss and European Catholicism. In the 16th Century, Fribourg continued to grow, first from the invasion of Waadtland in 1536 with the help of Bern, and then in 1554 through the annexation of land formerly controlled by the Count of Greyerz. In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical...


Several prominent families developed as a result of the cloth and leather trade, beginning in the 14th century, including Gottrau, Lanthen, Affry, Diesbach (originally from Bern), Von der Weid, Fegeli, and Weck. Together with the local nobels (the Maggenberg, Düddingen/Velga, Montenach, Englisberg and Praroman families) they formed the 15th century patrician class. This contributed to the decline of the cloth trade, however, as the families involved in the industry began to worry more about governing the city and its surrounding possessions. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ...


An important milestone for the politics of the city came in 1627, when the patricians wrote a new constitution, in which they declared that they were the only people capable of ruling the city, and thereby took control of all voting rights. This solidified the oligarchy which had begun to form as early as the 15th century. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ...


Importance of monasteries and churches in Fribourg

The monasteries of Fribourg have always formed a center of religious culture, including architecture, sculpture and painting, and have contributed to the culture of the city. The Franciscan Monastery was donated by Jakob von Riggisberg in 1256. In early times, it was closely associated with the city council, because it housed the city archives and its monastic church was used for town meetings until 1433. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...

Abby of Magerau in Fribourg

Likewise, the Augustinian Monastery was founded in the mid 13th century, and enjoyed the support of the noble Velga family for a long time. Additionally, the abby of Magerau has existed since 1255, and has belonged to the Cistercians since 1262. An important institution was the public hospital, opened in the mid 13th century, which provided services for the poor. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ...


During the Reformation, Fribourg remained Catholic, although it was nearly surrounded by the Protestant Bern. This lead to repeated conflicts over religion in border regions, and in areas controlled jointly by Fribourg and Bern. The city was a major center of the Counter-Reformation. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, new monasteries were established in the city, including: a Capuchin monastery (1608), another on Bisemberg (1621), an Ursuline moastery (1634), and a Visitandine monastery (1635). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... The word Ursuline is used to describe the following: Ursulines A Catholic religious order. ... The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary or the Visitation Order is a Roman Catholic religious order for women. ...


The most important monastery, however, was that of the Jesuits, which heavily contributed to the advancement and prosperity of the city. It established the College of Saint Michael in 1582, the religious faculty of which formed the origin of the University of Fribourg. The concept of an objective press was also begun by the Jesuits. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The University of Fribourg (French: Université de Fribourg; German: Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland. ...


In 1613 Fribourg became the seat of the Bishop of Lausanne, who, after the reformation, was forced first into Evian, and then into exile in Burgundy. Today it is the seat of the Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg. Country France Source Évian-les-Bains Type still pH 7. ... The Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg (Latin Dioecesis Lausannensis, Genevensis et Friburgensis) is the name of a Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland, immediately subject to the Holy See, comprising the Cantons of Fribourg, Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel, with the exception of certain parishes of the right bank of...


Modern times

The strong patrician regime, consisting of no more than 60 families, filled all of the influential positions in the city and performed a leading role in the political, social, economic and cultural arenas. Multiple times, the citizens joined together to attempt a revolt, including in 1781 under the leadership of Pierre-Nicolas Chenaux. The revolt was repressed with the help of Bern.


The invasion of Switzerland by French troops in 1798 lead to the downfall of the Ancien Régime. Fribourg capitulated on March 2, and relinquished leadership of its lands. This freed the way for the first municipal elections, in which Jean de Montenach was elected the first mayor. With the introduction of the Act of Mediation under Napoleon in 1803, the separation of the city of Fribourg from its Canton was finally carried out. Fribourg was made the capitol of its region and Canton, and, between 1803 and 1809, was one of the capitols of Switzerland. Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803, abolishing the Helvetic Republic which had existed since the invasion of Switerland by French troops in 1798. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


The patricians regained control of the city in 1814 during the Restoration period, and ruled until 1830. Its leadership was followed by a new and more liberal constitution. Fribourg was part of the Sonderbund, a "separate alliance" of Catholic cantons, for the short period of its existence between 1845 and 1847. It capitulated on November 14, 1847. Since 1848, the new national constitution and the amendment of the Canton constitution has guaranteed every citizen the right to vote. The Sonderbund (meaning separate alliance, in German), was a league created in 1845 in Switzerland between seven Catholic and Conservative cantons in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The 20th century rendered drastic changes to the city's culture. For example, in 1848 the city wall was partially torn down, and a new bridge was built across the Saane/Sarine. A connection to the Swiss railroad in 1862 lead to the development of a "Train Station Quarter" of the city. The improved transportation enabled Fribourg to undergo industrialisation. The city center shifted from the Old City to the new Train Station quarter. Extensive areas in Pérolles, Beauregard and Vignettaz were developed with industry or houses around 1900. The inauguration of the University in 1889 was an important event in Fribourg. Another economic boom to the city was the opening of the nearby A12 highway. A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial state (see...


Nowadays, Fribourg's agglomeration numbers 94,867 inhabitants (the city itself has 33,008 inhabitants), and includes the surrounding municipalities of Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Villars-sur-Glâne, Marly, as well as Corminboeuf, Belfaux, Grolley, and stretches as far as Düdingen (French Guin) and Tafers (French Tavel) on the right bank of the Sarine. In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... Givisiez is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Granges-Paccot is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Villars-sur-Glâne is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Marly is the name or part of the name of several communes in Europe: France Marly, in the Moselle département Marly, in the Nord département Marly-Gomont, in the Aisne département Marly-la-Ville, in the Val-dOise département Marly-le-Roi, in the Yvelines... Corminboeuf is a French-speaking municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Belfaux is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Grolley is a municipality in the district of Sarine, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Düdingen (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Tafers (French: ) is a municipality in the district of Sense, in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. ...


Sights

Saane/Sarine river near the city

Like its sister city Bern, Fribourg has preserved its medieval center as a whole that is now one of the largest in Europe. It is located on a spectacular pensinula, surrounded on three sides by the Saane/Sarine river. The architecture of the Old City date primarily from the Gothic period; it was built predominately before the 16th century. Most houses are built of the local molasse stone. Consisting of the neighborhoods Bourg, Auge and Neuveville, its old town is rich in fountains and churches dating from the 12th century until the 17th century. Its Gothic cathedral, reaching 76 meters in height, was built between 1283 and 1490. The fortifications of Fribourg form the most important medieval military architecture of Switzerland: 2 kilometers of ramparts, 14 towers and one big bulwark. The protections are especially well preserved east and south of the city. Saane/Sarine river near Fribourg From German Wikipedia, uploaded by de:Benutzer:Filzstift. ... Saane/Sarine river near Fribourg From German Wikipedia, uploaded by de:Benutzer:Filzstift. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Molasse refers to the sandstones, or less commonly shales, formed as shore deposits, for example that left from the rising Alps, or erosion in the Himalaya. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... the meaning of bulwark is protect . eg : a soldiers duty is to bulwark the country . ...


Education

Schools at the compulsory and pre-university level are available in both French and German. The University is officially bilingual, meaning students are expected to have a passive knowledge of both languages, even though it is possible to graduate with a degree exclusively in either language, or both. It is also fairly reputed abroad for its law studies and for the theological ones.


The Villa St. Jean International School was also located in Fribourg. Founded in Switzerland in 1903, during an upheaval of anti-clericalism in France, as a boarding school for the scions of the French elite, the Villa St. ...

  • University of Fribourg
  • Ecole de multimedia et d'art de Fribourg: multimedia and art school, Fribourg, is a professional school on new media communication, image and technics.

The University of Fribourg (French: Université de Fribourg; German: Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland. ...

Famous Fribourgeois

David Aebischer (Äbischer), born February 7, 1978 in Fribourg, Switzerland, is a professional ice hockey goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens. ... The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Jean Bourgknecht (September 16, 1902 - December 23, 1964) was a Swiss politician. ... Saint Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Switzerland. ... Joseph Deiss (born January 18, 1946) is an economist and Swiss politician. ... John the Evangelist in boiling oil The Sermon of St. ... The iconic Lady Justice on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen in Bern, ruling over and revered by secular and spiritual authority (represented by the Emperor and Pope)[1] is one of the best-known works attributed to Hans Gieng. ... Jo Siffert, born July 7, 1936 – died October 24, 1971, was a Swiss race car driver. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... Image:Basel. ...

Miscellaneous

The canton and the capital share the same name but have different coats of arms. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


References

This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia.

    1. ^ (1967) Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 
  • Fribourg (municipality) in German, French or Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.

The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. ...

See also

This is a list of mayors of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Founded in Switzerland in 1903, during an upheaval of anti-clericalism in France, as a boarding school for the scions of the French elite, the Villa St. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fribourg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (370 words)
Fribourg (French; German: Freiburg or Freiburg im Üechtland, often Fribourg) is a city in the country of Switzerland and the capital of the Swiss Canton of Fribourg on the river Saane/Sarine.
Fribourg was part of the Sonderbund, a "separate alliance" of Catholic cantons, for the short period of its existence between 1845 and 1847.
Consisting of the neighborhoods Bourg, Auge and Neuveville, its old town is rich in fountains and churches dating from the 12th century until the 17th century.
Canton of Fribourg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (654 words)
The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland.
To the west and the south of the canton lies the canton of Vaud.
To the east the canton of Fribourg is bound by the canton of Bern.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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