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Encyclopedia > Fresco
Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas.
Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas.
Dante Domenico di Michelino's Divine Comedy in Duomo of Florence.
Dante Domenico di Michelino's Divine Comedy in Duomo of Florence.
Fresco from Bavaria,Germany.
Fresco from Bavaria,Germany.
Fresco from a Bavarian church,Germany.
Fresco from a Bavarian church,Germany.
Fresco on the wall of the franciscan convent of Huejotzingo, Mexico
XIV century fresco (Biblia pauperum) from church in Małujowice, Poland.
XIV century fresco (Biblia pauperum) from church in Małujowice, Poland.

Fresco (plural frescoes) is any of several related painting types. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco ("fresh"), which has Germanic origins. Fresco paintings can be done in two ways: Buon fresco paintings are done on wet plaster, while a secco paintings are completed on dried plaster. The former is usually the more authentic form. Fresco may refer to: Fresco, a painting technique Fresco, the NATO code name for the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 Fresco Federation, the Cognitive Science Students and Young Researchers French Federation. ... Image File history File links Fresco by Dionisius in the Ferapontov Monastery, Russia. ... Image File history File links Fresco by Dionisius in the Ferapontov Monastery, Russia. ... Dionysius, also spelled Dionisy or Dionisius the Wise, was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. ... For other uses, see Nicholas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1150, 1134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1150, 1134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... The Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore Front of Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore the Duomo Duomo is a generic Italian term for a cathedral church. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x2848, 1342 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x2848, 1342 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x2848, 1641 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Crown of Immortality Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2136x2848, 1641 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fresco Crown of Immortality Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Image File history File links Sistine Chapel detail of the prophet Jonah. ... Image File history File links Sistine Chapel detail of the prophet Jonah. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Camera: Sony DSC-W30 Exposure: 0. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 595 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Camera: Sony DSC-W30 Exposure: 0. ... There are several monasteries near the Popocatépetl volcano in central Mexico which were built in the 16th-century by members of the Franciscan, Dominican and Augustinian orders. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Biblia pauperum (Paupers Bible) was a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the later Middle Ages. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Painter redirects here. ...

Contents

Technique

In painting a fresco, the surface of a plastered wall is divided into areas roughly corresponding to the contours of the figures or the landscape, generally drawn on a rough underlayer of lime mortar, called the arriccio. Many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia. From this pigment, the underdrawing acquired its name, the sinopia. On top of this first, rough layer of plaster, a second layer is added, called the intonaco. This is the final layer, and would be smoothed and perfected as the painting surface. Sinopia is a reddish-brown ocher-like earth color pigment used in traditional oil painting. ... Underdrawing is the drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting. ... Sinopia is a reddish-brown ocher-like earth color pigment used in traditional oil painting. ...


Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster (intonaco). Due to the chemical makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed solely with the water will be enough to bind the pigment to the wall. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, the plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles to the plaster. One of the first painters in the post Classical period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... This article is about the building material. ... A binder is a material used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. ... The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis) is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ...


A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster. The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. the technique of painting in watercolors on dry plaster. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ...


Generally, buon fresco works are more durable than a secco works. Historically, the a secco technique was used more often for final touches or to touch-up mistakes made in a buon fresco work. However, as fresh lime mortar is highly alkaline only relatively few chemically stable pigments can be used in the fresco technique; as a consequence some less stable colours, such as azurite blue, were almost invariably used a secco. It has also become increasingly clear, thanks to modern analytical techniques, that even in the early Italian Renaissance painters quite frequently employed a secco techniques so as to allow the use of a broader range of pigments.


Buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster. Generally, a layer of plaster will require ten to twelve hours to dry; ideally, an artist would begin to paint after one hour and continue until two hours before the drying time. Thus, an artist would need to know exactly how much s/he could paint in those hours, before the plaster dries: this area is called the giornata ("day's work"). Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done without removing the dried plaster from the wall — a task usually requiring a crowbar or other sharp instrument — and starting over. Hence the use of a secco to repair minor mistakes or to add finishing touches.


In a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or even more giornate, or separate areas of plaster. After centuries, these giornate (originally, nearly invisible) have sometimes become visible, and in many large-scale frescoes, these divisions may be seen from the ground. Additionally, the border between giornate was often covered by a secco painting, which has since fallen off.


Frescoes in history

The earliest known examples frescoes done in the Buon Fresco method date at around 1500 BC and are to be found on the island of Crete in Greece. The most famous of these, The Toreador, depicts a sacred ceremony in which individuals jump over the backs of large bulls. While some similar frescoes have been found in other locations around the Mediterranean basin, particularly in Egypt and Morocco, their origins are subject to speculation.


Some art historians believe that fresco artists from Crete may have been sent to various locations as part of a trade exchange, a possibility which raises to the fore the importance of this art form within the society of the times. The most common form of fresco was Egyptian wall paintings in tombs, usually using the a secco technique. For the New York prison see The Tombs. ...


Frescoes were also painted in ancient Greece, but few of these works have survived. In southern Italy, at Paestum, which was a Greek colony, a tomb containing frescoes dating back to 470 BC was discovered. These frescoes depict scenes of the life and society of ancient Greece, and constitute valuable historical testimonials. One shows a group of men reclining at a banquet and another shows a man diving into the sea.


Roman wall paintings, such as those at Pompeii and Herculaneum, were completed in buon fresco. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ...


One of the rare examples of Islam fresco painting can be seen in Qasr Amra, the desert palace of the Umayyads in the 8th century. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Qasr Amra (Arabic: قصر عمرة) is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan. ...


Late Roman Empire (Christian) 1st-2nd century frescoes were found in catacombs beneath Rome and Byzantine Icons were also found in Cyprus, Crete, Ephesus, Capadocia and Antioch. Also an historical collection of Ancient Christian frescoes can be found in the Churches of Goreme Turkey. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Göreme is a district of the Nevşehir Province in Turkey. ...


The late Medieval period and the Renaissance saw the most prominent use of fresco, particularly in Italy, where most churches and many government buildings still feature fresco decoration. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Andrea Palladio, the famous Italian architect of the 16th century, built many mansions with plain exteriors and stunning interiors filled with frescoes. Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580), was an Italian architect, widely considered the most influential person in the history of Western architecture. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Latin American Muralist movement

Image File history File links N_write_green_black. ...

Indian fresco

Fresco from Ajanta, c 200 BCE – 600 CE
Chola Fresco of Dancing girls. Brihadisvara Temple c. 1100 C.E.
Chola Fresco of Dancing girls. Brihadisvara Temple c. 1100 C.E.

The frescoes on the ceilings and walls of the Ajanta Caves were painted between c. 200 BCE and 600 CE. They depict the Jataka tales that are stories of the Buddha's life in former existences as Bodhisattva. The narrative episodes are depicted one after another although not in a linear order. Their identification has been a core area of research on the subject since the time of the site's rediscovery in 1819 CE. The Chola fresco paintings were discovered in 1931 within the circumambulatory passage of the Brihadisvara Temple in India and are the first Chola specimens discovered. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Ajanta takes the name after the village AjinÅ£hā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ... Image File history File links Chola_fresco. ... Image File history File links Chola_fresco. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Jataka stories are a significant body of works about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. ... Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ...


Researchers have discovered the technique used in these frescos. A smooth batter of limestone mixture is applied over the stones, which took two to three days to set. Within that short span, such large paintings were painted with natural organic pigments.


During the Nayak period the chola paintings were painted over. The Chola frescos lying underneath have an ardent spirit of saivism is expressed in them. They probably synchronised with the completion of the temple by Rajaraja Cholan the Great. Thanjavur Nayaks were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 16th to the 19th century C.E. Nayakas were subordinates of the imperial Vijayanagara emperors, and were appointed as provincial governors by the Vijaya Nagar Emperor. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ...


Selected examples of Italian frescoes

Italian Early Medieval

Italian Late Medieval-Quattrocento Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Varese (VA) Mayor Elevation m Area 3. ...

Italian "High Renaissance" The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis) is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... The Cappela degli Scrovegni in Padua also known as the Arena Chapel is regarded as one of the masterpieces of Western Art. ... Padua, Italy, (It. ... The Holy Trinity (1425-1428) - Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone) (December 21, 1401, San Giovanni Valdarno, Italy – autumn 1428, Rome), was an important painter of frescoes during the early Italian Renaissance, whose works are the first monument... The Tribute Money, fresco by Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel. ... Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... The Last Supper (Italian: or LUltima Cena) is a 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Ludovico Sforza and his duchess, Beatrice dEste. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... fresco of the Last Judgment (1499) in Orvieto Cathedral Luca Signorelli (c. ... An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ...

Italian Baroque For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Villa Farnesina. ... Fire in the Borgo, Vatican fresco Giulio Romano (ca 1499? – November 1, 1546) was an Italian painter, architect, and decorator. ... Palazzo Te. ... The Agony in the Garden (1455) is the pinnacle of Mantegnas early style. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ...

The Loves of the Gods is a massive fresco cycle completed by Annibale Caracci (born 1560- died 1609) and other artists, 1597-1608 for the Palazzo Farnese (now the Embassy of France in Rome. ... The Flight into Egypt (1603). ... A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... The vast fresco called the [|Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power] is the masterpiece of Pietro da Cortona and fills the ceiling of the grand salon of the Palazzo Barberini (now the Galleria Nazionale, Rome). ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... Andrea Pozzos painted ceiling in the Church of St. ...

See also

Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... The Gambier Parry process is a development of the classical technique of fresco for painting murals, named for Thomas Gambier Parry. ... Sigiriya is an archeological site in Central Sri Lanka. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Frescos

Fresco technique described Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fresco - LoveToKnow 1911 (88 words)
for cool, " fresh"), a term introduced into English, both generally (as in such phrases as al fresco," in the fresh air"), and more especially as a technical term for a sort of mural painting on plaster.
In the latter sense the Italians distinguished painting a secco (when the plaster had been allowed to dry) from a fresco (when it was newly laid and still wet).
The nature and history of fresco-painting is dealt with in the article Painting.
Fresco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (429 words)
Fresco from Ajanta, c 200 BCE - 600 CE fresco (plural frescoes) is a term for several related painting types.
True fresco (buon fresco) technique consists of painting in pigment in a water medium on wet or fresh lime mortar or plaster.
Egyptian wall paintings in tombs are usually in secco, while the Roman wall paintings at Pompeii and Herculaneum are in fresco.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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