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Encyclopedia > French colonial empire

France was a dominant empire in the world, from the 1600s to the late 1960s, possessing many colonies in various locations around the world. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the global rule of France was the second largest behind the British Empire. The second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its largest, towards the beginning of the 20th century. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French constituency reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between 1920 and 1930. This accounts to 8.6% of the world's land area. French Colonies is the name used by philatelists to refer to the postage stamps issued by France for use in the parts of the French colonial empire that did not have stamps of their own. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


Currently, the remnants of this large empire are various islands and archipelagos located in the North Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Antarctic Ocean, as well as one mainland territory in South America, totaling altogether 123,150 km² (47,548 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2,564,000 people living in them in 2007. All of these enjoy full political representation at the national level, as well as varying degrees of legislative autonomy. (See Administrative divisions of France.) This article is about the political and historical term. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... For other meanings of pacific, see pacific (disambiguation). ... The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla...

Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires
Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires
Animated map showing the French colonial empires
Animated map showing the French colonial empires

Contents

Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB){{GFDL} File links The following pages link to this file: French colonial empires ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB){{GFDL} File links The following pages link to this file: French colonial empires ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is made from the public domain image Image:Colonisation2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is made from the public domain image Image:Colonisation2. ...

First French colonial empire

The excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 1500s, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. But Spain's jealous protection of its American monopoly, and the interruptions caused in France itself in the later 16th century by the Wars of Religion, prevented any consistent efforts by France to establish colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in 1612 at São Luís ("France Équinoxiale"), and in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro ("France Antarctique") and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ...


The story of France's colonial empire truly began on July 27, 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada). is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... Samuel de Champlain, (c. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of the history of New France, even Canada was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General, an intendant and a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For the farmers market in Montreal, see Marché Jean-Talon. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ...


In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centered in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas. Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Place d'Armes in Montreal. But Québec is the historic heart of French Canada.
Place d'Armes in Montreal. But Québec is the historic heart of French Canada.

As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies. Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by (1650). The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Place dArmes and Cathedral Notre Dame. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Place dArmes and Cathedral Notre Dame. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... The Compagnie des ÃŽles de lAmérique, French for Company of the American Islands, was a French chartered company which exploited the following Antillian islands: Guadeloupe (28 June 1635 to 1649) Martinique (15 September 1635 to 1650) Saint-Christophe island (1635 - 1651) in present Saint Kitts and Nevis Source... Slave redirects here. ... The slave trade in Africa existed for thousands of years. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The Carib Expulsion took place in 1660. ...


The most important Caribbean colonial possession did not come until 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795. Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World, however. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore (1673) and Pondicherry in the Southeast (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India). Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Île de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles (1756). Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ...


Colonial conflict with Britain

In the middle of the 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britain, which ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the War of the American Revolution (1778–1783), and the French Revolution (1793–1802) and Napoleonic (1803-1815) Wars. It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This cyclic conflict is known as the Second Hundred Years' War. Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ...

Carte de L'Indoustan. Bellin, 1770.
Carte de L'Indoustan. Bellin, 1770.

Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive — despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix — the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France (excluding the small islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts. While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost — most of New France was taken by Britain (also referred to as British North America, except Louisiana, which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ...


Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (comprised of the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola ), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789. The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint Louverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Haiti in 1804 (Haiti became the first black republic in the world, much earlier than any of the future African nations). In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Peace of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana in 1800 came to nothing, as the final success of the Haitian revolt convinced Bonaparte that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in 1803 (the Louisiana Purchase). Nor was the French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798–1801 successful. i like pie ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture  , also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (born 20 May 1743 - died April 8, 1803) was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ...


Second French colonial empire

At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions. Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Île de France (Mauritius), however. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Republic of Seychelles (Creole: Repiblik Sesel) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, some 1,600 km east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar. ...


The true beginnings of the second French colonial empire, however, were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, which was conquered over the next 17 years. During the Second Empire, headed by Napoleon III, an attempt was made to establish a colonial-type protectorate in Mexico, but this came to little, and the French were forced to abandon the experiment after the end of the American Civil War, when the American president, Andrew Johnson, invoked the Monroe Doctrine. This French intervention in Mexico lasted from 1861 to 1867. Napoleon III also established French control over Cochinchina (the southernmost part of modern Vietnam including Saigon) in 1867 and 1874, as well as a protectorate over Cambodia in 1863. French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... Belligerents Second French Empire Second Mexican Empire United Mexican States and some Latin American Allies Strength 38,493 French soldiers, 7,000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers, 2,000 Belgian volunteers ~80,000 Casualties and losses 6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded Emperor Maximilian I of... Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name used for various southern regions of Vietnam. ... Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ...


It was only after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871-1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. From their base in Cochinchina, the French took over Tonkin (in modern northern Vietnam) and Annam (in modern central Vietnam) in 1884-1885. These, together with Cambodia and Cochinchina, formed French Indochina in 1887 (to which Laos was added in 1893, and Kwang-Chou-Wan [1] in 1900). In 1849, the French concession in Shanghai was established, lasting until 1946. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. ... Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the South over 900 years Annam (Vietnamese: An Nam) was a French colony in what is now the central area of Vietnam. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... The Franco-Siamese War of 1893 was a conflict between France and the Kingdom of Siam. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...

French colonies in 1891 (from Le Monde Illustré). 1. Panorama of Lac-Kaï, French outpost in China. 2. Yun-nan, in the quay of Hanoi. 3. Flooded street of Hanoi. 4. Landing stage of Hanoi
French colonies in 1891 (from Le Monde Illustré).
1. Panorama of Lac-Kaï, French outpost in China.
2. Yun-nan, in the quay of Hanoi.
3. Flooded street of Hanoi.
4. Landing stage of Hanoi

Influence was also expanded in North Africa, establishing a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). Gradually, French control was established over much of Northern, Western, and Central Africa by the turn of the century (including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo), as well as the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland). The Voulet-Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris. As a part of the Scramble for Africa, France had the establishment of a continuous west-east axis of the continent as an objective, in contrast with the British north-south axis. This resulted in the Fashoda incident, were an expedition led by Jean-Baptiste Marchand was opposed by forces under Lord Kitchener's command. The resolution of the crisis had a part in the bringing forth of the Entente Cordiale. During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 389 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1464 × 2258 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 389 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1464 × 2258 pixel, file size: 5. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... The Voulet-Chanoine Mission or Central African Mission (in French mission Afrique Centrale) was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. ... Rabih az-Zubayr was a Sudanese warlord who established a powerful kingdom west of Lake Chad, in todays Chad. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. ... Colonel Marchand Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand (1863-1934) was a French emissary in Africa. ... Lord Kitchener can refer to: Field Marshal Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, prominent British soldier in Sudan, Boer War, and World War I Any of his heirs who have held the title Earl Kitchener Calypso music singer born Aldwyn Roberts; see: Lord Kitchener (calypsonian) This is a disambiguation page — a... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... SMS Panther, a famous gunboat diplomat. ...


At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific, including New Caledonia, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain. Pacific redirects here. ... Map of Society Islands One of the islands. ... The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. ... A Satellite photo of the Acteon Group, 4 atolls in the southeastern Tuamotus. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ...


The French made their last major colonial gains after the First World War, when they gained mandates over the former Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is now Syria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon. A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice), the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilization to benighted peoples. As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanization in French colonies, most notably French West Africa. Africans who adopted French culture, including fluent use of the French language and conversion to Christianity, were granted equal French citizenship, including suffrage. Later, residents of the "Four Communes" in Senegal were granted citizenship in a program led by the Afro-French politician Blaise Diagne. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The civilization mission (mission civilisatrice in French) was the underlying principle of French colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuryies. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Four Communes (French: quatre vieilles) of Senegal were the four oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa. ... Blaise Diagne ( 1872 - 1934) was a Senegalise politician who advocated for African participation in politics and fair treatment of ethnic minorities in the French army. ...


Collapse of the empire

Main article: Decolonisation
A poster symbolising the French colonial empire
A poster symbolising the French colonial empire

The French colonial empire began to fall apart during the Second World War, when various parts of their empire were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the US and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. The French Union, included in the 1946 Constitution, replaced the former colonial Empire. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... This article is about the person. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ...


However, France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonization movement. Paul Ramadier (SFIO)'s cabinet repressed the Malagasy insurrection in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the Franco-Vietnamese War. In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... French prime minister Paul Ramadier Paul Ramadier (March 17, 1888 - October 14, 1961) was a prominent French Socialist politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The written history of Madagascar began in the seventh century A.D., when Arabs established trading posts along the northwest coast. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Cameroon over time  German Kamerun  British Cameroons  French Cameroun  Republic of Cameroon This article is about the historical French colony. ... The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (French: Union des Populations du Cameroun) is a political party in Cameroon. ... Ruben Um Nyobé (1913-September 13, 1958) was an anti-imperialist Cameroonian leader, slain by the French army on September 13, 1958, near his natal village of Boumnyebel, in the department of Nyong-et-Kellé in the maquis Bassa. ...


When this ended with French defeat and withdrawal from Vietnam in 1954, the French almost immediately became involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in their oldest major colony, Algeria. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalized after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried on by the French army. The Algerian War started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic for the French, due to the large number of European settlers (or pieds-noirs) who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule. Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to independence for Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Pied-noir (plural: pieds-noirs) is a term for the former population of European descent of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... This article is about the person. ... -1...


The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part to the new colonial organization. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midsts of the Algerian War; all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the statuses of overseas départements (territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the Françafrique had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties through Jacques Foccart's help, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Biafra secession (or Nigerian civil war) during the late 1960s. Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and... Françafrique is a term that refers to alleged neocolonialism by France in Africa. ... Jacques Foccart (1914–1997) was French President Charles de Gaulles and then Georges Pompidous spindoctor for African policy, who founded in 1959 the Gaullist organization Service dAction Civique (SAC) with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in shady operations. ... Combatants Nigerian federal government Republic of Biafra Commanders Yakubu Gowon Odumegwu Ojukwu Casualties Estimated 2,000,000 civilians The Nigerian Civil War, July 6, 1967 – January 13, 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. ...


See also

  1. ^ [[ www.worldstatesmen.org/China_Foreign_colonies.html]]

The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and collectivités doutre-mer or DOM-COM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The February 23, 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed to high-school teachers to teach the positive values of colonialism to their students (article 4). ... The Franco-Trarzan War of 1825 was a conflict between the forces of the new amir of Trarza, Muhammad al Habib, and France. ... The French Colonial Forces or Troupes Coloniales is a general designation for the military forces that garrisoned and were largely recruited from the French colonial empire from the late 17th century until 1960. ... // North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Franco-Mauritians are people of French origin who reside in Mauritius. ... Franco-Réunionnaise are people of French origin living in Réunion. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ...

References

  • Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (1991)
  • Maria Petringa, Brazza, A Life for Africa (2006)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Laos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2391 words)
The French, who made the country part of French Indochina in 1893, spelled it with the s which is usually retained in the spelling and pronunciation of the English name (pronounced as one syllable).
French, once common in government and commerce, has declined in usage, while knowledge of English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has increased in recent years.
French West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Dahomey, French Sudan (Mali), Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta) and French Togoland and James Island (The Gambia)
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