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Encyclopedia > French poetry

French and
Francophone literature

French literature
By category
French language
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

French literary history

Medieval
16th century - 17th century
18th century - 19th century
20th century - Contemporary Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... French literature of the 18th century spans the period from the death of Louis XIV of France, through the Régence (during the minority of Louis XV) and the reigns of Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France to the start of the French Revolution. ... French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Francophone literature

Francophone literature
Literature of Quebec
Postcolonial literature
Literature of Haiti
Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... This is an article about Literature in Quebec, a province of Canada. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... The Culture of Haiti encompasses a variety of Haitian traditions, from native customs to practices imported during French colonisation. ...

French language authors

Chronological list Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ...

French Writers

Writers - Novelists
Playwrights - Poets
Essayists
Short Story Writers

Forms

Novel - Poetry - Plays

Genres

Science Fiction - Comics
Fantastique - Detective Fiction
French science fiction is a substantial genre within French literature. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with parts of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ...

Movements

Naturalism - Symbolism
Surrealism - Existentialism
Nouveau Roman
Theater of the Absurd Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...

Criticism & Awards

Literary theory - Critics
Literary Prizes Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ...

Most visited

Molière - Racine - Balzac
Stendhal - Flaubert
Emile Zola - Marcel Proust
Samuel Beckett - Albert Camus
Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... Jean Racine. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Stendhal. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was an Algerian-French author and philosopher. ...

France Portal
Literature Portal

French poetry is a category of French literature. It may include Francophone poetry composed outside France and poetry written in other languages of France. French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... There are a number of languages of France. ...

Contents

French prosody and poetics

The modern French language does not have a significant stress accent (like English) or long and short syllables (like Latin). This means that the French metric line is generally not determined by the number of beats, but by the number of syllables (see syllabic verse; in the Renaissance, there was a brief attempt to develop a French poetics based on long and short syllables (see "musique mesurée")). The most common metric lengths are the ten-syllable line ("décasyllabe"), the eight-syllable line ("octosyllabe") and the twelve-syllable line (the so-called "alexandrin"). French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... A long syllable is one that is emphasized, or stressed. ... The woods are lovely, dark, and deep. ... Syllabic verse is a poetic form having a fixed number of syllables per line or stanza regardless of the number of stresses that are present. ... Musique mesurée, or Musique mesurée à lantique, was a style of vocal musical composition in France in the late 16th century. ... An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter. ...


In traditional French poetry, all permissible liaisons are made between words. Furthermore, unlike modern spoken French (at least in the north of France), a silent or mute 'e' counts as a syllable before a consonant and is pronounced, but is elided before a vowel (where "h aspiré" counts as a consonant). When it falls at the end of a line, the mute "e" is hypermetrical (outside the count of syllables). (For more on pronunciation of French, see French phonology). Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In music, see elision (music). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The ten-syllable and 12-syllable lines are generally marked by a regular syntactical pause, called a "césure" (cesura): A cæsura, in prosody, is an audible pause that breaks up a long line of verse. ...

  • The ten-syllable line is often broken into syntactical groups as 5-5, 4-6, or 6-4.
  • The alexandrine is broken into two six-syllable groups; each six-syllable group is called a "hémistiche".

In traditional poetry, the césure cannot occur between two words that are syntactically linked (such as a subject and its verb), nor can it occur after an unelided mute e. (For more on poetic meter, see Poetic meter.) The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


For example:

Je fais souvent ce rêve étrange et pénétrant
d'une femme inconnue et que j'aime et qui m'aime...

(Paul Verlaine, "Mon rêve familier", from Poèmes saturniens) Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ...

The verses are alexandrines (12 syllables). The mute e in "d'une" is pronounced and is counted in the syllables (whereas the mute e's at the end of "rêve", "étrange", "femme" and "j'aime" -- which are followed by vowels -- are elided and hypermetrical); the mute e at the end of "qui m'aime" is hypermetrical (this is a so-called "feminine rhyme"). No word occurs across the sixth to seventh syllable in both lines, thus creating the cesura. A feminine rhyme, in English prosody, is a rhyme that matches two or more syllables at the end of the respective lines. ...


The rules of classical French poetry (from the late 16th to the 18th century) also put forward the following:

  • the encounter of two unelided and awkward vowel sounds ("hiatus") -- such as "il a à" -- was to be avoided;
  • the alternance of masculine and feminine rhymes (a feminine rhyme ends in a mute e) was mandated;
  • rhymes based on words that rhymed, but that -- in their spellings -- had dissimilar endings (such as a plural in s or x and a singular word) were prohibited (this was the "rhyme for the eye" rule);
  • a word could not be made to rhyme with itself;
  • in general, "enjambement" (in which the syntax of a sentence does not finish at the end of a line, but continues on into the next verse) was to be avoided.

For more on rhymes in French poetry, see Rhyme in French. Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... A feminine rhyme, in English prosody, is a rhyme that matches two or more syllables at the end of the respective lines. ... Enjambement is the breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ...


Poetic forms developed by medieval French poets include: Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ...

Other poetic forms found in French poetry: The ballade was a verse form consisting of three (sometimes five) stanzas, each with the same metre, rhyme scheme and last line, with a shorter concluding stanza (an envoi). ... A Rondeau is a form of French poetry with 13 lines written on two rhymes, as well as a corresponding musical form developed to set this characteristic verse structure. ... A Lai was a song form composed in northern Europe, mainly France and Germany, from the 13th to the late 14th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Virelay. ... The Shepherdess (translated from the French Pastourelle) is a painting by William-Adolphe Bouguereau completed in 1889. ... Chanson is a French word for song, and in English-language contexts is often applied to any song with French words, particularly a cabaret song. ... The chant royal is a poetic form that consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e... Alba (Catalan for sunrise) is a subgenre of Provençal lyric poetry. ... Jeu-parti [Fr. ...

A villanelle is a poetic form which entered English-language poetry in the 1800s from the imitation of French models. ... The virelai nouveau is a poetic form that is both rare and difficult to use. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Ode (Classical Greek: ) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. ...

History of French poetry

Medieval

As is the case in other literary traditions, poetry is the earliest French literature; the development of prose as a literary form was a late phenomenon (in the late Middle Ages, many of the romances and epics initially written in verse were converted into prose versions). In the medieval period, the choice of verse form was generally dictated by the genre: the Old French epics ("chanson de geste", like the anonymous Song of Roland, regarded by some as the national epic of France) were usually written in ten-syllable assonanced "laisses" (blocks of varying length of assonanced lines), while the chivalric romances ("roman", such as the tales of King Arthur written by Chrétien de Troyes) were usually written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets. Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday [[speech. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words as in, some ship in distress that cannot live. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... Chrétien de Troyes wrote in Champagne, France, during the last half of the twelfth century. ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ...


Medieval French lyric poetry was indebted to the poetic and cultural traditions in Southern France and Provence -- including Toulouse, Poitiers, and the Aquitaine region -- where "langue d'oc" was spoken (Occitan language); in their turn, the Provençal poets were greatly influenced by poetic traditions from the Arab and Norman-Sicilian world. The Occitan or Provençal poets were called troubadours, from the word "trobar" (to find, to invent). Lyric poets in Old French are called "trouvères", using the Old French version of the word (for more information on the "trouvères", their poetic forms, extant works and their social status, see the article of that name). The occitan troubadours were amazingly creative in the development of verse forms and poetic genres, but their greatest impact on medieval literature was perhaps in their elaboration of complex code of love and service called "fin amors" or, more generally, courtly love. For more information on the troubadour tradition, see Provençal literature. Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a former Roman province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to the Italian border. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Occitan, known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (Occitan: occitan, lenga dòc) is a Romance language spoken in Occitania (i. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ...


By the late 13th century, the poetic tradition in France had begun to develop in ways that differed significantly from the troubadour poets, both in content and in the use of certain fixed forms. The new poetic (as well as musical: some of the earliest medieval music has lyrics composed in Old French by the earliest composers known by name) tendencies are apparent in the Roman de Fauvel in 1310 and 1314, a satire on abuses in the medieval church filled with medieval motets, lais, rondeaux and other new secular forms of poetry and music (mostly anonymous, but with several pieces by Philippe de Vitry who would coin the expression Ars nova [new art, or new technique] to distinguish the new musical practice from the music of the immediately preceding age). The most well-known poet and composer of ars nova secular music and chansons was Guillaume de Machaut. (For more on music, see medieval music ; for more on music in the period after Machaux, see Renaissance music). The Roman de Fauvel was first published in Paris in 1314, in a climate of political instability. ... [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... A Lai was a song form composed in northern Europe, mainly France and Germany, from the 13th to the late 14th century. ... A Rondeau is a form of French poetry with 13 lines written on two rhymes, as well as a corresponding musical form developed to set this characteristic verse structure. ... Philippe de Vitry (October 31, 1291 – June 9, 1361) was a French composer, music theorist and poet. ... Ars nova was a stylistic period in music of the Late Middle Ages, centered in France, which encompassed the period from the publication of the Roman de Fauvel (1310 and 1314) until the death of Machaut (1377). ... Chanson is a French word for song, and in English-language contexts is often applied to any song with French words, particularly a cabaret song. ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European classical music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ...


French poetry continued to evolve in the 15th century. Charles, duc d'Orléans was a noble and head of one of the most powerful families in France during the Hundred Years' War. Captured in the Battle of Agincourt, he was a prisoner of the English from 1415-1441 and his ballades often speak of loss and isolation. Christine de Pisan was one of the most prolific writers of her age; her "Cité des Dames" is considered a kind of "feminist manifesto". François Villon was a student and vagabond whose two poetic "testaments" or "wills" are celebrated for their portrayal of the urban and university environment of Paris and their scabrous wit, satire and verbal puns. The image of Villon as vagabond poet seems to have gained almost mythic status in the 16th century, and this figure would be championed by poetic rebels of the 19th century and 20th centuries (see Poète maudit). Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois on the orders of Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). 5/6 longbowmen, 1/6 dismounted men-at-arms. ... Christine de Pizan, showing the interior of an apartment at the end of the 14th or commencement of the 15th century Christine de Pizan (circa 1365 - circa French poet and arguably the first female author in Europe to make a living from being a writer (Marie de France being the... François Villon (ca. ... A poète maudit (French: accursed poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. ...


Renaissance

Poetry in the first years of the sixteenth century is characterised by the elaborate sonorous and graphic experimentation and skillful word games of a number of Northern poets (such as Jean Lemaire de Belges and Jean Molinet), generally called “les Grands Rhétoriqueurs” who continued to develop poetic techniques from the previous century. Soon however, the impact of Petrarch (the sonnet cycle addressed to an idealised lover, the use of amorous pardoxes), Italian poets in the French court (like Luigi Alamanni), Italian Neo-platonism and humanism, and the rediscovery of certain Greek poets (such as Pindar and Anacreon) would profoundly modify the French tradition. In this respect, the French poets Clément Marot and Mellin de Saint-Gelais are transitional figures: they are credited with some of the first sonnets in French, but their poems continue to employ many of the traditional forms. French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Jean Lemaire de Belges (ca 1473 – ca 1525) was a Walloon poet and historian who lived primarily in France. ... Jean Molinet (1435—1507) was a French poet and chronicler. ... The Grands Rhétoriqueurs or simply the Rhétoriqueurs is the name given to a group of poets from 1460 to 1520 (or from François Villon to Clément Marot) working in Northern France, Flanders and the Duchy of Burgundy whose poetic production was dominated by (1) an extremely... From the c. ... A group of sonnets, arranged to address a particular person or theme, and designed to be read both as a collection of fully-realized individual poems and as a single poetic work comprising all the individual sonnets. ... Luigi Alamanni (sometimes spelt Alemanni) (1495-1556), Italian poet and statesman, was born in Florence. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Anacreon (born ca. ... Clément Marot (1496–1544), was a French poet of the Renaissance period. ... Mellin (or Melin) de Saint-Gelais (or Gelays) (ca. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ...


The new direction of poetry is fully apparent in the work of the humanist Jacques Peletier du Mans. In 1541, he published the first French translation of Horace's "Ars poetica" and in 1547 he published a collection poems "Œuvres poétiques", which included translations from the first two cantos of Homer's Odyssey and the first book of Virgil's Georgics, twelve Petrarchian sonnets, three Horacian odes and a Martial-like epigram; this poetry collection also included the first published poems of Joachim Du Bellay and Pierre de Ronsard. Jacques Peletier du Mans (1517 Le Mans – 1582 Paris) was a humanist, poet and mathematician of the French Renaissance. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... A bust of Virgil, from the entrance to his tomb in Naples, Italy. ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... From the c. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Ode (Classical Greek: ) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... It has been suggested that poetic epigram be merged into this article or section. ... Joachim du Bellay (c. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 – December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ...


Around Ronsard, Du Bellay and Jean Antoine de Baïf there formed a group of radical young noble poets of the court (generally known today as La Pléiade, although use of this term is debated). The character of their literary program was given in Du Bellay's manifesto, the "Defense and Illustration of the French Language" (1549) which maintained that French (like the Tuscan of Petrarch and Dante) was a worthy language for literary expression and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production (including the imitation of Latin and Greek genres) and purification. For some of the members of the Pléiade, the act of the poety itself was seen as a form of divine inspiration (see Pontus de Tyard for example), a possession by the muses akin to romantic passion, prophetic fervor or alcoholic delirium. Jean Antoine de Baïf (1532 - 1589) was a French poet and member of the Pléiade. ... The Pléiade was a group of 16th-century French poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf. ... From the c. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Pontus de Tyard (c. ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ...


The forms that dominate the poetic production of the period are the Petrarchian sonnet cycle (developed around an amorous encounter or an idealized woman) and the Horace/Anacreon ode (especially of the "carpe diem" - life is short, seize the day - variety). Ronsard also tried early on to adapt the Pindaric ode into French. Throughout the period, the use of mythology is frequent, but so too is a depiction of the natural world (woods, rivers). Other genres include the paradoxical encomium (such as Remy Belleau's poem prasing the oyster), the “blason” of the female body (a poetic description of a body part), and propagandistic verse. From the c. ... A group of sonnets, arranged to address a particular person or theme, and designed to be read both as a collection of fully-realized individual poems and as a single poetic work comprising all the individual sonnets. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Anacreon (born ca. ... Ode (Classical Greek: ) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. ... Carpe diem is a phrase from a Latin poem by Horace (Odes 1. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Encomium is a Greek word which, in a general sense, means the praise of a person or thing. ... Remy (or Rémi) Belleau (1528 Nogent-le-Rotrou - 1577 Paris), was a poet of the French Renaissance. ... Blason originally comes form French Heraldry and means either the codified description of a coat of arms or the coat of arms itself. ...


Several poets of the period -- Jean Antoine de Baïf (who founded an "Académie de Poésie et Musique" in 1570), Blaise de Vigenère and others -- attempted to adapt into French the Latin, Greek or Hebrew poetic meters; these experiments were called "vers mesurés" and "prose mesuré" (for more, see the article "musique mesurée"). Blaise de Vigenère (April 5, 1523 - 1596) was a French diplomat and cryptographer. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ... Musique mesurée, or Musique mesurée à lantique, was a style of vocal musical composition in France in the late 16th century. ...


Although the royal court was the center of much of the century's poetry, Lyon – the second largest city in France in the Renaissance – also had its poets and humanists, most notably Maurice Scève, Louise Labé, Olivier de Magny and Pontus de Tyard. Scève's Délie, objet de plus haulte vertu - composed of 449 ten syllable ten line poems (dizains) and published with numerous engraved emblems - is exemplary in its use of amorous paradoxes and (often obscur) allegory to describe the suffering of a lover. City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... Maurice Scève (c. ... Louise Labé. Engraving by Pierre Woeiriot, 1555 Louise Labé, (c. ... Pontus de Tyard (c. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ...


Poetry at the end of the century was profoundly marked by the civil wars: pessimism, dourness and a call for retreat from the world predominate (as in Jean de Sponde). However, the horrors of the war were also to inspire one Protestant poet, Agrippa d'Aubigné, to write a brilliant poem on the conflict:Les Tragiques. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Jean de Sponde (Mauléon, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 1557 - Bordeaux, 1595) was a baroque French poet. ... Agrippa dAubigné. Théodore-Agrippa dAubigné (February 8, 1552 – April 29, 1630) was a French poet, soldier, propagandist and chronicler. ...


Classical French poetry

Because of the new conception of "l'honnête homme" or "the honest or upright man", poetry became one of the principle modes of literary production of noble gentlemen and of non-noble professional writers in their patronage in the 17th century. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... French literature of the 18th century spans the period from the death of Louis XIV of France, through the Régence (during the minority of Louis XV) and the reigns of Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France to the start of the French Revolution. ...


Poetry was used for all purposes. A great deal of 17th and 18th century poetry was "occasional", meaning that it was written to celebrate a particular event (a marriage, birth, military victory) or to solemnize a tragic occurrence (a death, militray defeat), and this kind of poetry was frequent with gentlemen in the service of a noble or the king. Poetry was the chief form of seventeenth century theater: the vast majority of scripted plays were written in verse (see "Theater" below). Poetry was used in satires (Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux is famous for his "Satires" (1666)) and in epics (inspired by the Renaissance epic tradition and by Tasso) like Jean Chapelain's La Pucelle. Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 - April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Jean Chapelain (December 4, 1595 - February 22, 1674) was a French poet and writer. ...


Although French poetry during the reign of Henri IV and Louis XIII was still largely inspired by the poets of the late Valois court, some of their excesses and poetic liberties found censure, especially in the work of François de Malherbe who criticized La Pléiade's and Philippe Desportes's irregularities of meter or form (the suppression of the cesura by a hiatus, sentences clauses spilling over into the next line "enjambement", neologisms constructed from Greek words, etc.). The later 17th century would see Malherbe as the grandfather of poetic classicism. Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... François de Malherbe François de Malherbe (1555 - October 16, 1628) was a French poet, critic and translator. ... The Pléiade was a group of 16th-century French poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf. ... Philippe Desportes (1546 - October 5, 1606), French poet, was born at Chartres. ... A cæsura, in prosody, is an audible pause that breaks up a long line of verse. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Poetry came to be a part of the social games in noble salons (see "salons" above), where epigrams, satirical verse, and poetic descriptions were all common (the most famous example is "La Guirlande de Julie" (1641) at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, a collection of floral poems written by the salon members for the birthday of the host's daughter). The linguistic aspects of the phenomenon associated with the "précieuses" (similar to Euphuism in England, Gongorism in Spain and Marinism in Italy) -- the use of highly metaphorical (sometimes obscure) language, the purification of socially unacceptable vocabulary -- was tied to this poetic salon spirit and would have an enormous impact on French poetic and courtly language. Although "préciosité" was often mocked (especially in the later 1660s when the phenomenon had spread to the provinces) for its linguistic and romantic excesses (often linked to a misogynistic disdain for intellectual women), the French language and social manners of the seventeenth century were permanently changed by it. An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... Euphuism is a mannered style of English prose, taking its name from works by John Lyly. ... Luis de Góngora, in a portrait by Diego Velázquez. ... Giambattista Marini (or Marino) (October 18, 1569 - March 25, 1625) was an Italian poet, born at Naples. ...


From the 1660s, three poets stand out. Jean de La Fontaine gained enormous celebrity through his Aesop inspired "Fables" (1668-1693) which were written in an irregular verse form (different meter lengths are used in a poem). Jean Racine was seen as the greatest tragedy writer of his age. Finally, Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux became the theorizer of poetic classicism: his "Art poétique" (1674) praised reason and logic (Boileau elevated Malherbe as the first of the rational poets), believability, moral usefulness and moral correctness; it elevated tragedy and the poetic epic as the great genres and recommended imitation of the poets of antiquity. Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) is the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Jean Racine. ... Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ...


"Classicism" in poetry would dominate until the pre-romantics and the French Revolution.


From a technical point of view, the poetic production from the late seventeenth century on increasingly relied on stanza forms incorporating rhymed couplets, and by the eighteenth century fixed-form poems – and, in particular, the sonnet – were largely avoided. The resulting versification – less constrained by meter and rhyme patterns than Reniassance poetry – more closely mirrored prose [1].


Nineteenth-century

French poetry from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, and Gérard de Nerval. The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in wildly diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", and the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement (see below). Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of the Romantic School and its recognized leader. He was prolific alike in poetry, drama, and fiction. Other writers associated with the movement were the austere and pessimistic Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier a devotee of beauty and creator of the "Art for art's sake" movement, and Alfred de Musset, who best exemplifies romantic melancholy. French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romantics redirects here, for the band, see The Romantics Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 – January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... In 19th century European and especially French literature, decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers who were associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement and who relished artifice... Alfred Victor de Vigny (March 27, 1797 – September 17, 1863) was a French poet, playwright, and novelist. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ...


By the middle of the century, an attempt to be objective was made in poetry by the group of writers known as the Parnassians -- which included Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Catulle Mendès, Sully-Prudhomme, François Coppée, José María de Heredia and (early in his career) Paul Verlaine -- who (using Théophile Gautier's notion of art for art's sake and the pursuit of the beautiful) strove for exact and faultless workmanship, and selected exotic and classical subjects which they treated with a rigidity of form and an emotional detachment (elements of which echo the philosophical work of Arthur Schopenhauer whose aesthetic theories would also have an influence on the symbolists). ... Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle (October 22, 1818 - July 17, 1894), was a French poet of the Parnassian movement. ... Theodore Faullain de Banville (March 14, 1823 – March 15, 1891) was a French poet and writer. ... Catulle Mendès Catulle Mendès (22 May 1841 - 8 February 1909) was a French poet and man of letters. ... René-François-Armand (Sully) Prudhomme (Paris, France, March 16, 1839 - Châtenay-Malabry, France, September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in Literature, 1901. ... François Coppée François Edouard Joachim Coppée (January 12, 1842 - May 23, 1908), was a French poet and novelist. ... José María de Heredia (November 22, 1842 - October 3, 1905), French poet, the modern master of the French sonnet, was born at Fortuna Cafeyere, near Santiago de Cuba, being in blood part Spanish Creole and part French. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ...


The naturalist tendency to see life without illusions and to dwell on its more depressing and sordid aspects appears in an intensified degree in the immensely influential poetry of Charles Baudelaire, but with profoundly romantic elements derived from the Byronic myth of the anti-hero and the romantic poet This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ...


The poetry of Baudelaire and much of the literature in the latter half of the century (or "fin de siècle") were often characterized as "decadent" for their lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Paul Verlaine used the expression "poète maudit" ("accursed poet") in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Tristan Corbière, Stéphane Mallarmé and Arthur Rimbaud who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or had been ignored by the critics. But with the publication of Jean Moréas "Symbolist Manifesto" in 1886, it was the term symbolism which was most often applied to the new literary environment. Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... Decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... A poète maudit (French: accursed poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. ... Tristan Corbière (July 18, 1845 – March 1, 1875), born Édouard-Joachim Corbière, a poet from Brittany who wrote in the French language, was born at Coat-Congar, where he lived most of his life and where he died. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - April 30, 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ...


The writers Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, Paul Valéry, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Arthur Rimbaud, Jules Laforgue, Jean Moréas, Gustave Kahn, Albert Samain, Jean Lorrain, Rémy de Gourmont, Pierre Louÿs, Tristan Corbière, Henri de Régnier, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Stuart Merrill, René Ghil, Saint-Pol Roux, Oscar-Vladislas de Milosz, the Belgians Albert Giraud, Emile Verhaeren, Georges Rodenbach and Maurice Maeterlinck and others have been called symbolists, although each author's personal literary project was unique.[2] Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Joris-Karl Huysmans. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - April 30, 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ... Gustave Kahn (December 21, 1859 - September 5, 1936) was a French Symbolist poet and art critic. ... Albert Samain (1858-1900) was a French poet and writer of the Symbolist school. ... Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), born Paul Duval, was a French poet and novelist of the Symbolist school. ... Remy de Gourmont (April 4, 1858 - September 27, 1915) was a French Symbolist poet, novelist, and influential critic. ... Pierre Louys (1870 - 1925) was a French author, writer and poet. ... Tristan Corbière (July 18, 1845 – March 1, 1875), born Édouard-Joachim Corbière, a poet from Brittany who wrote in the French language, was born at Coat-Congar, where he lived most of his life and where he died. ... Henri de Régnier (1864–1936) was a French symbolist poet considered the foremost of France during the early 20th century. ... Jean-Marie-Mathias-Philippe-Auguste, comte de Villiers de lIsle-Adam (November 7, 1838 – August 19, 1889) was a French symbolist writer. ... Stuart Merrill (1863-1915) was a American poet, born in Hampstead, New York, who wrote in the French language. ... Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz Milosz (Lithuanian: Oskaras MilaÅ¡ius) (1877-1939) was a French-Lithuanian writer and Lithuanian diplomat. ... Albert Giraud (1860-1929) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language. ... Emile Verhaeren (May 21, 1855- November 27, 1916) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language, and one of the chief founders of the school of Symbolism. ... Georges Raymond Constantin Rodenbach (born July 16, 1855 in Tournai, Belgium; died December 25, 1898 in Paris) was a Belgian Symbolist poet. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ...


From a technical point of view, the Romantics were responsible for a return to (and sometimes a modification of) many of the fixed-form poems used during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as well as for the creation of new forms. The sonnet however was little used until the Parnassians brought it back into favor [3], and the sonnet would subsequently find its most significant practitioner in Charles Baudelaire. The traditional French sonnet form was however significantly modified by Baudelaire, who used 32 different forms of sonnet with non-traditional rhyme patterns to great effect in his Les Fleurs du mal [4]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Les Fleurs du Mal (literal trans. ...


Twentieth-century

Guillaume Apollinaire radicalized the Baudelairian poetic exploration of modern life in evoking planes, the Eiffel Tower and urban wastelands, and he brought poetry into contact with cubism through his "Calligrammes", a form of visual poetry. Inspired by Rimbaud, Paul Claudel used a form of free verse to explore his mystical conversion to Catholicism. Other poets from this period include: Paul Valéry, Max Jacob (a key member of the group around Apollinaire), Pierre Jean Jouve (a follower of Romain Rolland's "Unanism"), Valery Larbaud (a translator of Whitman and friend to Joyce), Victor Segalen (friend to Huysmans and Claudel), Léon-Paul Fargue (who studied with Stéphane Mallarmé and was close to Valéry and Larbaud). French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Calligrammes, subtitled Poems of war and peace 1913-1916, is a collection of poems by Guillaume Apollinaire, and was first published in 1918. ... Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Cover of Time Magazine(March 21, 1927) Paul Claudel (August 6, 1868 – February 23, 1955) was a French poet, dramatist and diplomat, and the younger brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... Valéry Larbaud (29 August 1881 – 2 February 1957) was a French writer. ... Victor Segalen (January 14, 1878 - May 21, 1919) was a French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer, poet, explorer, art-theorist, linguist, literary critic. ... Léon-Paul Fargue (March 4, 1876 - November 24, 1947) was a French poet and essayist. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ...


The First World War generated even more radical tendencies. The Dada movement -- which began in a café in Switzerland in 1916 -- came to Paris in 1920, but by 1924 the writers around Paul Eluard, André Breton, Louis Aragon and Robert Desnos -- heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud's notion of the unconscious -- had modified dada provocation into Surrealism. In writing and in the visual arts, and by using automatic writing, creative games (like the cadavre exquis) and altered states (through alcohol and narcotics), the surrealists tried to reveal the workings of the unconscious mind. The group championed previous writers they saw as radical (Arthur Rimbaud, the Comte de Lautréamont, Baudelaire) and promoted an anti-bourgeois philosophy (particularly with regards to sex and politics) which would later lead most of them to join the communist party. Other writers associated with surrealism include: Jean Cocteau, René Crevel, Jacques Prévert, Jules Supervielle, Benjamin Péret, Philippe Soupault, Pierre Reverdy, Antonin Artaud (who revolutionized theater), Henri Michaux and René Char. The surrealist movement would continue to be a major force in experimental writing and the international art world until the Second World War. Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Paul Éluard was the nom de plume of Eugène Grindel (December 14, 1895 - November 18, 1952), a French poet. ... André Breton André Breton (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... For the article about the album by Ataxia, see Automatic Writing (album). ... Exquisite corpse (also known as exquisite cadaver) is a method by which a collection of words or images are collectively assembled, the result being known as the exquisite corpse or cadavre exquis in French. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Lautréamont Comte de Lautréamont was the pen name of Isidore Lucien Ducasse (April 4, 1846 – November 24, 1870), a French poet whose only work, Les Chants de Maldoror, had a major influence on modern literature, and in particular on the Surrealist movement. ... Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821–August 31, 1867) was one of the most influential French poets. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... René Crevel - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jacques Prévert was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Jules Supervielle (January 16, 1884 - May 17, 1960) was a French poet and writer. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... Philippe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) is a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... Henri Michaux (May 24, 1899 - October 18, 1984) was a highly individualistic Belgian poet, writer and painter who wrote in the French language. ... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ...


The effects of surrealism would later also be felt among authors who were not strictly speaking part of the movement, such as the poet Alexis Saint-Léger Léger (who wrote under the name Saint-John Perse), the poet Edmond Jabès (who came to France in 1956 when the Jewish population was expelled from his native Egypt) and Georges Bataille. The Swiss writer Blaise Cendrars was close to Apollinaire, Pierre Reverdy, Max Jacob and the artists Chagall and Léger, and his work has similarities with both surrealism and cubism. Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ... Edmond Jabes (Cairo, 1912–Paris, 1991) was a Jewish writer known for becoming of the best known literary figures to write in French after World War II. The son of a Jewish Italian family, he was raised in Egypt, where he received a classical French colonial education. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Frédéric Louis Sauser (September 1, 1887 – January 21, 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss novelist and poet naturalized French in 1916. ...


Poetry in the post-war period followed a number of interlinked paths, most notably deriving from surrealism (such as with the early work of René Char), or from philosophical and phenomenological concerns stemming from Heidegger, Friedrich Hölderlin, existentialism, the relationship between poetry and the visual arts, and Stéphane Mallarmé's notions of the limits of language. Another important influence was the German poet Paul Celan. Poets concerned with these philosophical/language concerns -- especially concentrated around the review "L'Ephémère" -- include Yves Bonnefoy, André du Bouchet, Jacques Dupin, Roger Giroux and Philippe Jaccottet. Many of these ideas were also key to the works of Maurice Blanchot. The unique poetry of Francis Ponge exerted a strong influence on a variety of writers (both phenomenologists and those from the group "Tel Quel"). The later poets Claude Royet-Journoud, Anne-Marie Albiach, Emmanuel Hocquard, and to a degree Jean Daive, describe a shift from Heidegger to Ludwig Wittgenstein and a reevalution of Mallarmé's notion of fiction and theatricality; these poets were also influenced by certain English-language modern poets (such as Ezra Pound,Louis Zukofsky, William Carlos Williams, and George Oppen) along with certain American postmodern and avant garde poets loosely grouped around the language poetry movement. René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Paul Celan Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. ... Yves Bonnefoy (born Tours, June 1923) is a French poet and essayist. ... André du Bouchet (April 7, 1924, Paris - April 19, 2001, Truinas, Drôme) was a French poet. ... Jacques Dupin (born March 4, 1927) is a French poet. ... Philippe Jaccottet (born in Moudon, Switzerland, on June 30, 1925) is a poet and translator who publishes in French. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Francis Jean Gaston Alfred Ponge (March 27, 1899 - August 6, 1988) was a French essayist and poet. ... Disambiguation : for the Moroccan weekly newspaper see here. ... Claude Royet-Journoud (born 1941 in Lyon, France) is a contemporary French poet of the avant-garde. ... Anne-Marie Albiach (born in 1937) is a contemporary French poet and translator. ... Emmanuel Hocquard (born 1940) is a French poet who grew up in Tangier, Morocco. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Wittgenstein and Hitler in school photograph taken at the Linz Realschule in 1903. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... The cover of the 1978 edition of Zukofskys long poem A. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... George Oppen, a picture now used as the cover for the recently published Selected Poems George Oppen (April 24, 1908 - July 7, 1984) was an American poet, best known as one of the members of the Objectivist group of poets. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Important French and Francophone poets

Middle Ages

(includes both trouvères and troubadours) Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ...

Arnaut Danièl was a Provençal troubadour of the 13th century, praised by Dante as il miglior fabbro (the better craftsman/creator, literally the best smith) and called Grand Master of Love by Petrarch. ... A medieval depiction of Bernart de Ventadorn. ... Bertran de Born (c. ... Folquet de Marselha, alternatively Folquet de Marseille, Foulques de Toulouse, Fulk of Toulouse (b. ... William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Giraut de Bornelh, also known as Guiraut de Bornelh and Giraut de Borneil (c. ... Guiraut Riquier is amongst the last of the Provençal troubadours. ... Jaufre Rudel dies in the arms of Hodierna of Tripoli (MS of troubadour songs, 13C North Italian, ) Jaufré Rudel, Lord of Blaye, was a troubadour of the early-mid 12th century, who probably died during the Second Crusade, in or after 1147. ... Peire Vidal (1175-1205) was a troubadour. ... Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (floruit 1180-1205) was a Provençal troubadour and warrior. ... Raimbaut of Orange (c. ... Chrétien de Troyes wrote in Champagne, France, during the last half of the twelfth century. ... Adenet Le Roi (c. ... Blondel (de Nesle, late 12th century) was a French poet and musician, a trouvère (later troubadour). ... Le Châtelain de Coucy was a French trouvère of the 12th century. ... Colin Muset (flourished 1200), French trouvère, was poet, musician and a native of Lorraine, he made his living by travelling from castle to castle singing his own songs and playing the vielle. ... Conon de Béthune (c. ... Gace Brulé (d. ... Theobald I (French: Thibaud or Thibault, Spanish: Teobaldo) (May 30, 1201 – 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1235. ... Adam de la Halle (also known as Adam le Bossu (Adam the Hunchback) 1237?-1288) was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician, who broke with the long-established tradition of writing liturgical poetry and music to be an early founder of secular theater in France. ... Audefroi le Bâtard, French trouvère, flourished at the end of the 12th century and was born at Arras. ... Moniot dArras (fl. ... Rutebeuf, or Rustebuef (ca. ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ... Eustache Deschamps (1328-1415) was a medieval French poet. ... Christine de Pizan, showing the interior of an apartment at the end of the 14th or commencement of the 15th century Christine de Pizan (circa 1365 - circa French poet and arguably the first female author in Europe to make a living from being a writer (Marie de France being the... Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois on the orders of Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy. ... François Villon (ca. ...

Sixteenth century

Jean Lemaire de Belges (ca 1473 – ca 1525) was a Walloon poet and historian who lived primarily in France. ... Jean Molinet (1435—1507) was a French poet and chronicler. ... Clément Marot (1496–1544), was a French poet of the Renaissance period. ... Maurice Scève (c. ... Pernette Du Guillet (Lyon, c. ... Jacques Peletier du Mans (1517 Le Mans – 1582 Paris) was a humanist, poet and mathematician of the French Renaissance. ... Mellin (or Melin) de Saint-Gelais (or Gelays) (ca. ... Joachim du Bellay (c. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 – December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... Pontus de Tyard (c. ... Jean Antoine de Baïf (1532 - 1589) was a French poet and member of the Pléiade. ... Louise Labé. Engraving by Pierre Woeiriot, 1555 Louise Labé, (c. ... Jean Antoine de Baïf (1532 - 1589) was a French poet and member of the Pléiade. ... Remy (or Rémi) Belleau (1528 Nogent-le-Rotrou - 1577 Paris), was a poet of the French Renaissance. ... Étienne de La Boétie (Sarlat, November 1st, 1530 - Germignan, August 18, 1563) was a French judge and writer, friend of Montaigne, author of the Discourse of Voluntary Servitude (Discours de la servitude volontaire). ... Philippe Desportes (1546 - October 5, 1606), French poet, was born at Chartres. ... Étienne Jodelle, seigneur de Limodin (1532-July 1573), French dramatist and poet, was born in Paris of a noble family. ... Agrippa dAubigné. Théodore-Agrippa dAubigné (February 8, 1552 – April 29, 1630) was a French poet, soldier, propagandist and chronicler. ... Nicolas Rapin (1535, Fontenay-le-Comte - 16 February 1608, Poitiers) was a magistrate, royal officer, translator, poet and satirist of the French Renaissance, known for being one of the authors of the Satire Ménippée (1593/4) and an outspoken critic of the excesses of the Holy League during... Guillaume de Salluste Du Bartas (1544–July 1590) was a French poet. ... Jean de Sponde (Mauléon, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 1557 - Bordeaux, 1595) was a baroque French poet. ...

Seventeenth century

François de Malherbe François de Malherbe (1555 - October 16, 1628) was a French poet, critic and translator. ... Honoré dUrfé, marquis de Valromey, comte de Châteauneuf (February 11, 1568 - June 1, 1625), French novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Marseille, and was educated at the Collège de Tournon. ... Mathurin Regnier (born December 21, 1573 in Chartres, France; died October 22, 1613 in Rouen) was a French satirist. ... Philippe Desportes (1546 - October 5, 1606), French poet, was born at Chartres. ... François Maynard, sometimes seen as de Maynard, (1582 - 23 December 1646) was a French poet who spent much of his life in Toulouse. ... Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan (sometimes mistakenly listed as marquis de Racan, although he never held this title) (Aubigné-Racan in the Sarthe, February 5, 1589 - Paris 1670) was a French aristocrat, soldier, poet, dramatist and (original) member of the Académie française. ... Théophile de Viau (near Agen, 1590 - Paris, 25 September 1626) was a French baroque poet and dramatist. ... François le Métel de Boisrobert (1592 - March 30, 1662), was a French poet. ... Marc Antoine Gérard, sieur de Saint-Amant (1594 - December 29, 1661), French poet, was born near Rouen. ... Jean Chapelain (December 4, 1595 - February 22, 1674) was a French poet and writer. ... Vincent Voiture (February 24, 1597 - May 26, 1648), French poet, was the son of a rich merchant of Amiens. ... Tristan lHermite was a French political and military figure of the late Middle Ages. ... Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... Paul Scarron (c. ... Isaac de Benserade (baptized November 5, 1613 - October 10, 1691) was a French poet. ... Georges de Brébeuf (1618[1] - 1661[2]) was a French poet and translator most well-known for his verse translation of Lucans Pharsalia (1654) which was warmly received by Pierre Corneille, but which was ridiculed by Nicolas Boileau in his Art poétique. ... Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) is the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ... Jean Racine. ... Guillaume Amfrye de Chaulieu (1639 - June 27, 1720), French poet and wit, was born at Fontenay, Normandy. ... Jean-François Regnard (1656-1710) was a comic dramatist, born in Paris. ...

Eighteenth century

André Chénier André Marie Chénier (October 30, 1762 – July 25, 1794) was a French poet, associated with the events of the French Revolution. ... Marie-Joseph Blaise de Chénier (February 11, 1764 - January 10, 1811), was a French poet, dramatist and politician. ...

Nineteenth century

Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romantics redirects here, for the band, see The Romantics Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Alfred Victor de Vigny (March 27, 1797 – September 17, 1863) was a French poet, playwright, and novelist. ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 – January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle (October 22, 1818 - July 17, 1894), was a French poet of the Parnassian movement. ... Theodore Faullain de Banville (March 14, 1823 – March 15, 1891) was a French poet and writer. ... Catulle Mendès Catulle Mendès (22 May 1841 - 8 February 1909) was a French poet and man of letters. ... René-François-Armand (Sully) Prudhomme (Paris, France, March 16, 1839 - Châtenay-Malabry, France, September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in Literature, 1901. ... François Coppée François Edouard Joachim Coppée (January 12, 1842 - May 23, 1908), was a French poet and novelist. ... José María de Heredia (November 22, 1842 - October 3, 1905), French poet, the modern master of the French sonnet, was born at Fortuna Cafeyere, near Santiago de Cuba, being in blood part Spanish Creole and part French. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Decadence generally refers to the alleged decline of a society because of moral weakness. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Les Fleurs du Mal (literal trans. ... A salon is a gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the aims of poetry, to... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... The pantoum is a rare form of poetry similar to a villanelle. ... Theodore Aubanel (1829 - 1886) was a Provencal poet. ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... The Félibrige is a literary and cultural association founded by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the Provençal language and Provençal literature. ... Meeting of the Félibrige in 1854: Frédéric Mistral, Joseph Roumanille, Théodore Aubanel, Jean Brunet, Paul Giéra, Anselme Mathieu, Alphonse Tavan Joseph Roumanille (August 8, 1818 - May 24, 1891) was a Provençal poet. ... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ... An annual publication, more often called simply an annual, is a book or a magazine, comic book or comic strip published yearly. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Coordinates Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti  (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... “Symbolic” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Sir Thomas Malory wrote the most famous fictional biography of the Middle Ages with Le Morte dArthur about the life of King Arthur. ... Poets are authors of poems. ... A poète maudit (French: accursed poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - April 30, 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ... Gustave Kahn (December 21, 1859 - September 5, 1936) was a French Symbolist poet and art critic. ... Albert Samain (1858-1900) was a French poet and writer of the Symbolist school. ... Tristan Corbière (July 18, 1845 – March 1, 1875), born Édouard-Joachim Corbière, a poet from Brittany who wrote in the French language, was born at Coat-Congar, where he lived most of his life and where he died. ... Henri de Régnier (1864–1936) was a French symbolist poet considered the foremost of France during the early 20th century. ... Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz Milosz (Lithuanian: Oskaras MilaÅ¡ius) (1877-1939) was a French-Lithuanian writer and Lithuanian diplomat. ... Albert Giraud (1860-1929) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language. ... Emile Verhaeren (May 21, 1855- November 27, 1916) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language, and one of the chief founders of the school of Symbolism. ... Georges Raymond Constantin Rodenbach (born July 16, 1855 in Tournai, Belgium; died December 25, 1898 in Paris) was a Belgian Symbolist poet. ... ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ...

Twentieth century

For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Leonardo redirects here. ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Cover of Time Magazine(March 21, 1927) Paul Claudel (August 6, 1868 – February 23, 1955) was a French poet, dramatist and diplomat, and the younger brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... Valéry Larbaud (29 August 1881 – 2 February 1957) was a French writer. ... Victor Segalen (January 14, 1878 - May 21, 1919) was a French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer, poet, explorer, art-theorist, linguist, literary critic. ... Léon-Paul Fargue (March 4, 1876 - November 24, 1947) was a French poet and essayist. ... It appears that this entire article has been copied and pasted from http://www. ... André Breton André Breton (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... Jacques Prévert was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Jules Supervielle (January 16, 1884 - May 17, 1960) was a French poet and writer. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... Philippe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) is a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... Henri Michaux (May 24, 1899 - October 18, 1984) was a highly individualistic Belgian poet, writer and painter who wrote in the French language. ... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ... Edmond Jabes (Cairo, 1912–Paris, 1991) was a Jewish writer known for becoming of the best known literary figures to write in French after World War II. The son of a Jewish Italian family, he was raised in Egypt, where he received a classical French colonial education. ... Yves Bonnefoy (born Tours, June 1923) is a French poet and essayist. ... André du Bouchet (April 7, 1924, Paris - April 19, 2001, Truinas, Drôme) was a French poet. ... Jacques Dupin (born March 4, 1927) is a French poet. ... Philippe Jaccottet (born in Moudon, Switzerland, on June 30, 1925) is a poet and translator who publishes in French. ... Francis Jean Gaston Alfred Ponge (March 27, 1899 - August 6, 1988) was a French essayist and poet. ... Claude Royet-Journoud (born 1941 in Lyon, France) is a contemporary French poet of the avant-garde. ... Anne-Marie Albiach (born in 1937) is a contemporary French poet and translator. ... Emmanuel Hocquard (born 1940) is a French poet who grew up in Tangier, Morocco. ...

References

  • Maurice Allem, ed. Anthologie poétique française. 5 vols. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1965. (French)
  • Paul Auster, ed. The Random House Book of Twentieth Century French Poetry. New York: Vintage, 1984.
  • Henri Bonnard. Notions de style et de versification et d'histoire de la langue française. Paris: SUDEL, 1953. (French)
  • John Porter Huston and Mona Tobin Houston, eds., French Symbolist Poetry: An Anthology, Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980. ISBN 0-253-16725-6
  • Henri Morier. Dictionnaire de poétique et de rhétorique. Paris: PUF, 1961. (French)

Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Morier, p.385.
  2. ^ For more on the symbolist poets, see Huston and Houston.
  3. ^ Morier, 385. Vigny wrote no sonnets; Hugo only wrote 3.
  4. ^ Monier, 390-393. Morier terms these sonnets faux sonnets, or "false sonnets"

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
French poetry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2927 words)
Poetry at the end of the century was profoundly marked by the civil wars: pessimism, dourness and a call for retreat from the world predominate (as in Jean de Sponde).
French poetry from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, and Gérard de Nerval.
Poetry in the post-war period followed a number of interlinked paths, most notably deriving from surrealism (such as with the early work of René Char), or from philosophical and phenomenological concerns stemming from Heidegger, Friedrich Hölderlin, existentialism, the relationship between poetry and the visual arts, and Stéphane Mallarmé's notions of the limits of language.
The Influence of French Poetry on American (Rexroth) (9961 words)
Vers libre is “libre” of the French alexandrine and the syllabic structure of French poetry.
French people seldom really realize, having never seen the country, that America is a commercial civilization with a mass culture and an official literature which in no way reflects the actual life of the country.
French poetry influenced American in the days when it was changing rapidly, and when it, more than the poetry of any other language, was the first to catch the funeral music of the end of our civilization.
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