FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > French people
French people
Français(es)

1st row: Joan of ArcJacques CartierDescartesMolièrePascal
Louis XIVVoltaireDiderotNapoleon
2nd row: Victor HugoAlexandre DumasÉvariste GaloisPasteur
Jules VerneEiffelde Coubertin • Toulouse-Lautrec • Marie Curie
3rd row: ProustCharles de GaulleJosephine BakerCousteauCamus
Édith PiafFrançois MitterrandBrigitte BardotZidane
With a total fertility rate of 2. ... French nationality law is historically based on the principle of jus soli, according to Ernest Renans definition, opposed to the Germans definition of nationality formalized by Fichte. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... Descartes redirects here. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Galois at the age of fifteen from the pencil of a classmate. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... This article is about the French author. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Proust redirects here. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... For the first female director of Public Health, see Sara Josephine Baker. ... Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Édith Piaf (December 19, 1915–October 11, 1963) was one of Frances most beloved singers,[1] and became a national icon. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Brigitte Bardot (French IPA: ) (born September 28, 1934) is a BAFTA Awards-nominated French actress, former fashion model, singer, known nationalist, animal rights activist, and considered the embodiment of the 1950s and 1960s sex kitten. ... Zidane redirects here. ...

French citizens French speakers French ancestry/ethnic origin
Flag of France France 64,473,140 (includes overseas territories and foreigners living in France)[1]
Flag of the United States United States of America 116,438[2] ~2,000,000[3] (including creoles and local dialects such as Cajun) 9,651,769[4] (not including 2,240,648 of French Canadian ancestry and 114,399 of Cajun ancestry)
Flag of Canada Canada 78,785[5] 6,777,665[6] 5,188,685[7]
Flag of Belgium Belgium 132,421[8] ~4,200,000[9]
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 73,500[10] 1,485,100[11]
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 25,200[12] 430,000[13]
Flag of Germany Germany 104,085[14]
Flag of Spain Spain 100,408[15]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 94,178 French born people were residing in the during the 2001 Census[16] ~ 400,000 are of French descent[citation needed]

The French are the people of France and speak French (le français). "France" etymologically derives from the word Francia, a territory where the Franks, a Germanic tribe which overran Roman Gaul at the end times of the Roman Empire, lived. Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... A Francophone is a person who speaks French natively or by adoption (i. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


French people are primarily the descendants of Gallo-Romans and Franks, as well as Iberians in the southern Pyrenees [17][18] and some Vikings who settled in Normandy known as Normans.[19][20]. Some regions knew massive migrations of Celtic people for Brittany and Germanic people for Alsatia before the existence of the Frankish kingdoms, and the languages and culture of these keep perpetuating until our days in more modern forms. The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire, particularly the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Gallia Cisalpina and to a lesser degree, Aquitania. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Norman conquests in red. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Elsaß redirects here. ...

Contents

The problematic definition of the "French people"

Legally, the sovereign people of France are composed of all French citizens, regardless of ethnic origins or religious opinions. The "French people" therefore comprise all French citizens, including the French overseas departments and territories. Henceforth, members from any ethnic group can be included in the French people, as long as they have French nationality, whether by jus soli ("right of territory") or by naturalization. Since the French Revolution, French national identity has been forged on the basis of citizenship creating an identitarian structure. Successive waves of immigrants during the 20th century were thus rapidly assimilated into French culture. Racial and cultural tensions persist among minority groups who, nevertheless, still identify as pertaining to France, sharing some bonds which transcend citizenship.[citation needed] Image File history File links Acap. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


The INSEE does not collect any data on language, religious or ethnic groups, on the principle of the secular and unitary nature of the French Republic[21]. INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ...


Some examples of definitions from notable sources:

  • The CIA World Factbook defines the ethnic groups of France as being "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities. Overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian"[22]. Its definition is reproduced verbatim on several websites collecting demograhics data. [23].
  • The U.S. Department of State however goes into further detail:
    "Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade, travel, and invasion. Three basic European ethnic stocks--Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic (Frankish)--have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. (...)Traditionally, France has had a high level of immigration. (...) In 2004, there were over 6 million Muslims, largely of North African descent, living in France. France is home to both the largest Muslim and Jewish populations in Europe."[24]
  • The Encyclopædia Britannica states that "the French (...) hardly constitute a unified ethnic group by any scientific gauge", and mentions as part of the population of France, the Basques, the Celts (called Gauls by Romans), the Germanic (Teutonic) peoples (including the Norsemen or Vikings) and an undetermined number of subsequent waves of immigrations[25].

There is a view among many observers that France has an adherence to the ideal of a single, homogeneous national culture, supported by the absence of hyphenated identities and avoidance of the very term "ethnicity" in French discourse[26]. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ...


In past years, the debate on social discrimination has been more and more important, sometimes mixing itself with ethnic issues, in particular concerning the so-called "second-generation immigrants", who are French citizens born in France to immigrant parents (whom themselves may either be foreigner or French).[27] France has exhibited a high rate of immigration from Europe, Africa and Asia throughout the 20th century, explaining that a large minority of the French population has various ethnic ascendancies. According to Michèle Tribalat, researcher at INED, it is very difficult to estimate the number of French immigrants or those born to immigrants, because of the absence of official statistics. Only three attempts have been made: in 1927, 1942 and 1986. According to this 2004 study, among about 14 million people of foreign ascendancy (immigrants or with at least one parent or grandparent who is an immigrant), 5.2 million are from Southern European ascendancy (Italy, Spain, Portugal), and 3 million come from the Maghreb.[28] Henceforth, 23 % of French citizens have at least one immigrant parent or grandparent. No recognized studies have been done covering wider timescales since mass immigration started in the 20th century. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...


Abroad, the French language is spoken in different countries, in particular the former French colonies. However, speaking the French language is completely distinct from being French: one can speak French without being French. Henceforth, francophonie must not be mistaken with French citizenship and/or ethnicity. For example, many French-speaking people living in Switzerland (Romandy) are not from France, are often not Catholic (in fact they welcomed religiously persecuted Huguenots), are very proud of their own identity, and therefore may not consider themselves "French". Native Anglophone Blacks in the island of Saint-Martin hold the French nationality even though they do not speak the language, while their neighbouring Francophone Haitian immigrants may be able to speak some French yet remain foreigners. Furthermore, although most French people speak the French language as their native tongue, there have been periods of history when large groups of French citizens had other first languages (local dialects such as Basque, Occitan, Corsican, Alsatian, Briton etc.). Large numbers of people of French ancestry outside Europe speak other first languages, particularly English throughout most of North America, Portuguese in southern South America and Afrikaans in South Africa. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... The French-speaking part of Switzerland is shown in green on this map. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Country France / Netherlands Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 37 sq. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The United States Census Bureau and Statistics Canada collect claims of French ancestry and ethnic origin among U.S. and Canadian citizens, asking those individuals completing long form census questionnaires to define themselves. The questions asked in the United States and Canada were not identical, and the data collected may not be commensurable. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. ...


Other countries' census figures for persons of French ancestry are also available in Mexico, Brazil, Germany, Britain, Australia, South Africa and other European countries, although French emigration is relatively low[citation needed]. French-cultural areas and enclaves exist for the Navarre region, Spain, the Aosta province, Italy, the Saar lander, Germany, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[citation needed]. However, the countries of Greece, Romania, Portugal, the Netherlands, the Philippines and New Zealand have records of ethnic French descendants[citation needed]. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Aosta Cathedral. ... With an area of 2570 km² and 1. ...


For information regarding the French Jewish community, either a religious denomination or an ethno-cultural identity, please see History of the Jews in France. The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ...


History

Main article: History of France

The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ...

History of Gaul

Gaul before complete Roman conquest circa 58 BC.Gallia Narbonensis was influenced by Romans and Greeks.Aquitania was inhabited or influenced by Basques.Gallia Belgica was influenced by Germanic tribes.
Gaul before complete Roman conquest circa 58 BC.
Gallia Narbonensis was influenced by Romans and Greeks.
Aquitania was inhabited or influenced by Basques.
Gallia Belgica was influenced by Germanic tribes.
Main articles: Gaul and Roman Empire

In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul (an area of Western Europe that encompassed all of what is known today as France, Belgium, part of Germany and Switzerland, and Northern Italy) was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Their ancestors were Celtic immigrants who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BC, and dominated native peoples (for the majority Ligures). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... The Ligures (Ligurians) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. ...


Gaul was conquered in 58-51 BC by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar (except the south-east which had already been conquered about one century earlier). The area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures and peoples intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture. The Gaulish language came to be supplanted by Vulgar Latin, which would later split into dialects that would develop into the French language. Today, the last redoubt of Celtic culture and language in France can be found in the northwestern region of Brittany, although this is not the result of a survival of Gaulish language but of a 5th century A.D. migration of Brythonic speaking Celts from Britain. See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Gallo-Roman figures, found in Ingelheim. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Look up AD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary AD or ad may stand for: ad or advertisement, see advertising ad- prefix Administrative domain Air Defence Andorra, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code Anno Domini (In the Year of [Our] Lord). This year is A.D. 2005. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ...


The Franks

Main article: Franks

With the decline of the Roman empire in Western Europe a third people entered the picture: the Franks, from which the word "French" derives. The Franks were a Germanic tribe who began filtering across the Rhine River from present-day Germany in the third century. By the early sixth century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the country to which they gave their name. The other major Germanic people to arrive in France were the Normans, Viking raiders from modern Denmark and Norway, who occupied the northern region known today as Normandy in the 9th century. The Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process. It was the Normans who, two centuries later, would go on to conquer England. Eventually, though, the independent duchy of Normandy was incorporated back into the French kingdom in the Middle Ages. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


15th to 18th century: the kingdom of France

See also: Medieval demography

In the roughly 900 years after the Norman invasions France had a fairly settled population[citation needed]. Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots. However, significant emigration of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia, Canada and Louisiana, both (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In the early 1800s, a small migration of French and western Swiss known as Walsers, named for the Swiss canton of Valais, emigrated by official invitation of the Hapsburgs to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now the nations of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia and Romania. The Walsers were mainly wine vintners who introduced a superior wine-growing industry, notably to boost wine production for the Tokay region in Hungary, and their families became culturally "Magyarized" within a generation in their adopted country.[citation needed] Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walser are German-speaking people (more specifically, they speak Walser German dialects) that live in the alps of Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein and Austria. ... Capital Sion Population (2003) 278,200 (Ranked 9th)   - Density 53 /km² Area 5224 km² (Ranked 3rd) Highest point Dufourspitze 4634 m Joined 1815 Abbreviation VS Languages French, German Executive Conseil dEtat, Staatsrat (5) Legislative Grand Conseil, Grosser Rat (130) Municipalities 160 municipalities Districts 13 districts, Bezirke Website www. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Tokay has several meanings: Originally, it was the Anglicized name for the famed wines of the Tokaj region in Hungary and Slovakia. ...


19th to 21st century: the creation of the French nation-state

The French nation-state appeared following the 1789 French Revolution and Napoleon's empire. It replaced the ancient kingdom of France, ruled by the divine right of kings. According to historian Eric Hobsbawm, "the French language has been essential to the concept of "France", although in 1789 50% of the French people didn't speak it at all, and only 12 to 13% spoke it "fairly" - in fact, even in oïl language zones, out of a central region, it was not usually spoken except in cities, and, even there, not always in the faubourgs [approximatively translatable by "suburbs"]. In the North as in the South of France, almost nobody spoke French. If the French language at least disposed of a state of which it could become the "national language", the only base of the Italian unification was the Italian language, which gathered the educated elite of the peninsula's writers and readers, although it has been calculated that at the moment of the Unity (1860) 2.5% of the population only used this language for its daily needs. Because this little group was, at the real sense of the term, one, and therefore potentially the Italian people. Nobody else could claim it [being the Italian people]."[29] Hobsbawm highlighted the role of conscription, invented by Napoleon, and of the 1880s public instruction laws, which allowed mixing of the various groups of France into a nationalist mold which created the French citizen and his consciousness of membership to a common nation, while the various regional languages of France were progressively eradicated. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Faubourgs is a French ancient term approximatively synonym of suburbs. ... Italian Unification (Italian: il Risorgimento, or The Resurgence) was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... There are a number of languages of France. ...


The 1870 Franco-Prussian War, which led to the short-lived Paris Commune of 1871, was instrumental in bolstering patriotic feelings; until World War I (1914-1918), French politicians never completely lost sight of the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region, which played a major role in the definition of the French nation, and therefore of the French people. During the Dreyfus Affair, anti-semitism became apparent. Charles Maurras, a royalist intellectual member of the far-right anti-parliamentarist Action Française party, invented the neologism of the anti-France, which was one of the first attempts at contesting the republican definition of the French people as composed of all French citizens regardless of their ethnic origins or religious beliefs. Charles Maurras' expression of the anti-France opposed the Catholic French people to four "confederate states" incarning the Other: Jews, freemasons, Protestants and, last but not least, the métèques ("metic"). Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Patriotism is a feeling of love and devotion to ones own homeland (patria, the land of ones fathers). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... ...


France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution. The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain. In the period from 1915 to 1950, just as many immigrants came from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, Scandinavia and Yugoslavia. A small French descent group also subsequently arrived from Latin America (Argentina and Chile) in the 1970s. Small but significant numbers of Frenchmen in the North and Northeast regions have relatives in Germany and Great Britain. French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and East Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria in the most massive relocation of population in Europe since the World War II. In the 1970s, over 30,000 French colons left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Some of the Khmer Rouge leaders during their period in power. ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule...


In the 1960s, a second wave of immigration came to France, which was needed for reconstruction purposes and for cheaper labour after the devastation brought on by World War II. French entrepreneurs went to Maghreb countries looking for cheap labour, thus encouraging work-immigration to France. Their settlement was officialized with Jacques Chirac's family regrouping act of 1976 (regroupement familial). Since then, immigration has became more varied, although France stopped being a major immigration country compared to other European countries. The large impact of North African and Arab immigration is the greatest and has brought racial, socio-cultural and religious questions to a country seen as homogenously European, French and Christian for thousands of years. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[30] In 2005, immigration level fell slightly to 135,890.[31] The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While the UK and Ireland did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Central and Eastern European migration. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ...


To be French, according to the first article of the Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion (sans distinction d'origine, de race ou de religion). According to its principles, France has devoted herself the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" ("daily referendum" about the willingness to live together). Persistent difficulties with French citizens with origins in Maghreb and West Africa is seen by some as signs of racism and discrimination, while others interpret it as the inevitable friction between sizable minorities and the majority culture. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves (communautarisme). The 2005 French riots that happened in difficult suburbs (les quartiers sensibles) were an example of such tensions that may be interpreted as ethnic conflict as appeared before in other countries like the USA and the UK. A proposition nation is a term in political philosophy, especially in paleoconservative political philosophy, synonymous with propositional nation, proposition country, creedal nation and creedal country. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ...


Populations with French ancestry

There is a sizable population claiming ethnic French ancestry in the Western Hemisphere. There are nearly 7 million French speakers and 6 million people of French ancestry in Canada. The Canadian province of Quebec is the center of French life on the Western side of the Atlantic; however, French settlement began further east, in Acadia. Quebec is home to vibrant French-language arts, media, and learning. There are sizable French-Canadian communities scattered throughout the other provinces of Canada, particularly in Ontario and New Brunswick, which is the only fully bilingual province and is approximately 50% acadien. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Acadians are the original French settlers of parts of the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. ...


The United States is home to an estimated 13 million people of French descent, or 4% of the US population, particularly in Louisiana, New England and parts of the Midwest. The French community in Louisiana consists of the Creoles, the descendants of the French settlers who arrived when Louisiana was a French colony, and the Cajuns, the descendants of Acadian refugees from the Great Upheaval. In New England, the vast majority of French immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries came not from France, but from over the border in Quebec, the Quebec diaspora. These French Canadians arrived to work in the timber mills and textile plants that appeared throughout the region as it industrialized. Today, nearly 25% of the population of New Hampshire is of French ancestry, the highest of any state. A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Deportation of Acadians order, read by Winslow in Grand-Pré church The Great Upheaval, also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation, the Acadian Expulsion, or to the deportees, Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced population transfer or ethnic cleansing of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755... The Quebec diaspora refers to the hundreds of thousands of people who left the province of Quebec for the United States, Ontario and the Canadian prairies between 1840 and the Great Depression of the 1930s as well as those who began to leave during the 1960s following the Front de... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


It is worth noting that the English and Dutch colonies of pre-Revolutionary America attracted large numbers of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution in France. In the Dutch colony that later became New York and northeastern New Jersey, these French Huguenots, nearly identical in religion to the Dutch Reformed Church, assimilated almost completely into the Dutch community. However, large it may have been at one time, it has lost all identity of its French origin, often with the translation of names (examples: de la Montagne > Vandenberg by translation; de Vaux > DeVos or Devoe by phonetic respelling). Huguenots appeared in all of the English colonies and likewise assimilated. Even though this mass settlement approached the size of the settlement of the French settlement of Quebec, it has assimilated into the English-speaking mainstream to a much greater extent than other French colonial groups, and has left few traces of cultural influence. New Rochelle, New York is named after La Rochelle, France, one of the sources of Huguenot emigration to the Dutch colony; and New Paltz, New York, is one of the few non-urban settlements of Huguenots that did not undergo massive recycling of buildings in the usual redevelopment of such older, larger cities as New York City or New Rochelle. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with... For other uses, see La Rochelle (disambiguation). ... New Paltz is both a village and town in the U.S. state of New York. ...


Elsewhere in the Americas, the majority of the French descended population in South America can be found in Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Several Presidents of Chile have been of French ancestry including: Michelle Bachelet and Augusto Pinochet. Also, in Mexico, as consequence of a French intervention, many people have French ancestry. Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ...


Apart from Québécois, Acadians, Cajuns, and Métis other populations of French ancestry outside metropolitan France include the Caldoches of New Caledonia and the so-called Zoreilles and Petits-blancs of various Indian Ocean islands. This article is about the use of the term. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ... Franco-Réunionnaise are people of French origin living in Réunion. ... This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean. ...


In Europe large numbers of Huguenots are known to have settled in the United Kingdom and in Protestant areas of Germany, (especially the city of Berlin). Many people in this two countries still bear French names, even though their culture and identity are now completely assimilated. There are currently an estimated 400,000 French people in the United Kingdom, most of them in London.[32] In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Nationality, citizenship, ethnicity

According to Dominique Schnapper, "The classical conception of the nation is that of an entity which, opposed to the ethnic group, affirms itself as an open community, the will to live together expressing itself by the acceptation of the rules of a unified public domain which transcends all particularisms".[33] This conception of the nation as being composed by a "will to live together", supported by the classic lecture of Ernest Renan in 1882, has been opposed by the French far-right, in particular the nationalist Front National ("National Front" - FN) party, which claims that there is such a thing as a "French ethnic group". The discourse of ethno-nationalist groups such as the Front National (FN), however, forwards the concept of Français de souche or "indigenous" French. Dominique Schnapper is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2001. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitive position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ...


Since the beginning of the Third Republic (1871-1940), the state has not categorized people according to their alleged ethnic origins. Hence, in contrast to the United States Census, French people are not asked to define their ethnic appartenance, whichever it may be. The usage of ethnic and racial categorization is avoided to prevent any case of discrimination, same regulations apply to religious membership data cannot be compiled under the French Census. This classic French republican non-essentialist conception of nationality is officialized by the French Constitution, according to whom "French" is a nationality, and not a specific ethnicity. Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... French nationality law is historically based on the principle of jus soli, according to Ernest Renans definition, opposed to the Germans definition of nationality formalized by Fichte. ...


Nationality and citizenship

Further information: Nationality and Citizenship

Despite this official discourse of universality, French nationality has not meant automatic citizenship. Some categories of French people have been excluded, through out the years, from full citizenship: In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Citizen redirects here. ...

It must also be noted that France was one of the first countries to implement denaturalization laws. Philosopher Giorgio Agamben has pointed out this fact that the 1915 French law which permitted denaturalization with regard to naturalized citizens of "enemy" origins was one of the first example of such legislation, which Nazi Germany later implemented with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws.[36] The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Seize Mai (16th of May) is a name for the political crisis in France on May 16, 1877, involving a struggle for supremacy between the French President, Marshal MacMahon, and the republican-controlled Chamber of Deputies. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Coup redirects here. ... Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Please note: Any racial comments are not intended to be racist. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Furthermore, some authors who have insisted on the "crisis of the nation-state" allege that nationality and citizenship are becoming separate concepts. They show as example "international", "supranational citizenship" or "world citizenship" (membership to transnational organizations, such as Amnesty International or Greenpeace NGOs). This would indicate a path toward a "postnational citizenship".[35] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... A World Citizen flag. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with transnationalism. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Beside this, modern citizenship is linked to civic participation (also called positive freedom), which implies voting, demonstrations, petitions, activism, etc. Therefore, social exclusion may lead to deprivation of citizenship. This has led various authors (Philippe Van Parijs, Jean-Marc Ferry, Alain Caillé, André Gorz) to theorize a guaranteed minimum income which would impede exclusion from citizenship.[37] Positive liberty, an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin, refers to the ability to act to fulfill ones own potential, as opposed to negative liberty, which refers to freedom from the... For other uses, see Demonstration. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. ... Philippe Van Parijs (born 1951) is a Belgian philosopher and political economist, mainly known as secretary of the Basic Income European Network. ... André Gorz (February 1923 – September 24, 2007), born as Gerhard Hirsch and also known by his pen name Michel Bosquet was an Austrian and French social philosopher. ... Guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would provide eligible citizens with a certain sum of money (independent of whether they work or not), also known as Basic Income Guarantee (BIG), universal basic income, citizens income scheme, demogrant, or just a basic income (the term...


Multiculturalism versus universalism

In France, the conception of citizenship teeters between universalism and multiculturalism, especially in recent years. French citizenship has been defined for a long time by three factors: integration, individual adherence, and the primacy of the soil (jus soli). Political integration (which includes but is not limited to racial integration) is based on voluntary policies which aims at creating a common identity, and the interiorization by each individual of a common cultural and historic legacy. Since in France, the state preceded the nation, voluntary policies have taken an important place in the creation of this common cultural identity.[38] On the other hand, the interiorization of a common legacy is a slow process, which B. Villalba compares to acculturation. According to him, "integration is therefore the result of a double will: the nation's will to create a common culture for all members of the nation, and the communities' will living in the nation to recognize the legitimacy of this common culture".[35] Villalba warns against confusing recent processes of integration (related to the so-called "second generation immigrants", who are subject to discrimination), with older processes which have made modern France. Villalba thus shows that any democratic nation characterize itself by its project of transcending all forms of particular memberships (whether biological - or seen as such,[39] ethnic, historic, economic, social, religious or cultural). The citizen thus emancipates himself from the particularisms of identity which characterize himself to attain a more "universal" dimension. He is a citizen, before being member of a community or of a social class[40] Therefore, according to Villalba, "a democratic nation is, by definition, multicultural as it gathers various populations, which differs by their regional origins (Bretons, Corsicans or Lorrains...), their national origins (immigrant, son or grandson of an immigrant), or religious origins (Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Agnostics or Atheists...)."[35] Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Ernest Renan's What is a Nation? (1882)

Ernest Renan described this republican conception in his famous March 11, 1882 conference at the Sorbonne, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a nation?"). According to him, to belong to a nation is a subjective act which always has to be repeated, as it is not assured by objective criteria. A nation-state is not composed of a single homogeneous ethnic group (a community), but of a variety of individuals willing to live together. Ernest Renan's non-essentialist definition, which forms the basis of the French Republic, is diametrically opposed to the German ethnic conception of a nation, first formulated by Fichte. The German conception is usually qualified in France as an "exclusive" view of nationality, as it includes only the members of the corresponding ethnic group, while the Republican conception thinks itself as universalist, following the Enlightenment's ideals officialized by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. While Ernest Renan's arguments were also concerned by the debate about the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region, he said that not only one referendum had to be made in order to ask the opinions of the Alsatian people, but a "daily referendum" should be made concerning all those citizens wanting to live in the French nation-state. This plébiscite de tous les jours might be compared to a social contract or even to the classic definition of consciousness as an act which repeats itself endlessly.[41] Henceforth, contrary to the German definition of a nation based on objective criteria, such as the "race" or the "ethnic group", which may be defined by the existence of a common language, among others criteria, the people of France are defined by all the people living in the French nation-state and willing to do so, i.e. by its citizenship. This definition of the French nation-state contradicts the common opinion according to which the concept of the French people would identify themselves with the concept of one particular ethnic group, and thus explains the paradox to which is confronted by some attempts in identifying the "French ethnic group": the French conception of the nation is radically opposed (and was thought in opposition to) the German conception of the Volk ("ethnic group"). Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Doxa (δόξα) is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion, from which are derived the modern terms of orthodoxy and heterodoxy. ... Volk is a German (and Dutch) word meaning people or folk. It is commonly used as prefix in words such as Volksentscheid (plebiscite) or Völkerbund (League of Nations), or the car manufacturer Volkswagen (literally, peoples car). A number of völkisch movements were set up in Germany after...


This universalist conception of citizenship and of the nation has influenced the French model of colonization. While the British empire preferred an indirect rule system, which did not mix together the colonized people with the colons, the French Republic theoretically chose an integration system and considered parts of its colonial empire as France itself, and its population as French people.[42] The ruthless conquest of Algeria thus led to the integration of the territory as a Département of the French territory. This ideal also led to the ironic sentence which opened up history textbooks in France as in its colonies: "Our ancestors the Gauls...". However, this universal ideal, rooted in the 1789 French Revolution ("bringing liberty to the people"), suffered from the racism that impregnated colonialism. Thus, in Algeria, the Crémieux decrees at the end of the 19th century gave French citizenship to European Jews, while Arabs were regulated by the 1881 Indigenous Code. Liberal author Tocqueville himself considered that the British model was better adapted than the French one, and did not balk before the cruelties of General Bugeaud's conquest. He went as far as advocating racial segregation there.[43] It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced in large parts of British India (see Princely states) and elsewhere in the British Empire (including Malaya), in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Isaac Moïse Crémieux [known as Adolphe] (1796 - February 10, 1880), French statesman, was born at Nîmes, of a rich Jewish family. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Thomas Robert Bugeaud de la Piconnerie, Duke of Isly (October 15, 1784 - June 10, 1849), was a marshal of France. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


This paradoxal tension between the universalist conception of the French nation and the racism inherent in colonization is most obvious in Ernest Renan himself, who goes as far as advocating a kind of eugenics. In a June 26, 1856 letter to Arthur de Gobineau, author of An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55) and one of the first theoreticians of "scientific racism", he thus wrote: Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ...

"You have done here one of the most noteworthy book, full of vigour and spiritfull originality, but it is not made to be understood in France or rather it is to be misunderstood. The French spirit pays no attention to ethnographic considerations: France hardly believes to race... The fact of race is huge in its origins; but it always goes losing importance, and sometimes, as in France, it finally erases itself completely. Is that, in absolute, talking about decadence? Yes, surely if considering the stability of institutions, the originality of characters, a definite nobility which I, for my part, considers with the utmost importance in the whole of human things. But also how much compensations! Doubtlessly, if the noble elements blended in a people's blood would erase themselves completely, then it would be a vilifying equality, analogous as in certain states of Orient and, in some respects, China. But in reality a very little quantity of noble blood put in circulation in a people is enough to nobilize it, at least as to historical effects: this is how France, a nation so completely fell in commonless [roture], plays in reality in the world the role of a gentleman. By setting apart the utterly inferior races whose interference with the great races would lead only to poison the human species, I plan for the future a homogeneous humanity"[44] Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... See also Decadent movement Decadence refers to a personal trait and, much more commonly, to a state of society. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ...

Jus soli and jus sanguinis

During the Ancien Régime (before the 1789 French revolution), jus soli (or "right of territory") was predominant. Feudal law recognized personal allegeance to the sovereign, but the subjects of the sovereign were defined by their birthland. According to the September 3, 1791 Constitution, those who are born in France from a foreign father and have fixed their residency in France, or those who, after being born in foreign country from a French father, have come to France and have sworn their civil oath, become French citizens. Because of the war, distrust toward foreigners led to the obligation on the part of this last category to swear a civil oath in order to gain French nationality. French nationality law is historically based on the principle of jus soli, according to Ernest Renans definition, opposed to the Germans definition of nationality formalized by Fichte. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


However, the Napoleonic Code would insist on jus sanguinis ("right of blood"). Paternity became the principal criteria of nationality, and therefore broke for the first time with the ancient tradition of jus soli, by breaking any residency condition toward children born abroad from French parents. First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ...


With the February 7, 1851 law, voted during the Second Republic (1848-1852), "double jus soli" was introduced in French legislation, combining birth origin with paternity. Thus, it gave French nationality to the child of a foreigner, if both are born in France, except if the year following his coming of age he reclaims a foreign nationality (thus prohibiting dual nationality). This 1851 law was in part passed because of conscription concerns. This system more or less remained the same until the 1993 reform of the Nationality Code, created by the January 9, 1973 law. is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


The 1993 reform, which defines the Nationality law, is deemed controversial by some. It commits young people born in France to foreign parents to solicit French nationality between the ages of 16 and 21. This has been criticized, some arguing that the principle of equality before the law was not complied with, since French nationality was no longer given automatically at birth, as in the classic "double jus soli" law, but was to be requested when approaching adulthood. Henceforth, children born in France from French parents were differentiated from children born in France from foreign parents, creating a hiatus between these two categories. French nationality law is historically based on the principle of jus soli, according to Ernest Renans definition, opposed to the Germans definition of nationality formalized by Fichte. ...


The 1993 reform was prepared by the Pasqua laws. The first Pasqua law, in 1986, restricts residence conditions in France and facilitates expulsions. With this 1986 law, a child born in France from foreign parents can only acquire French nationality if he or she demonstrates his or her will to do so, at age 16, by proving that he or she has been schooled in France and has a sufficient command of the French language. This new policy is symbolized by the expulsion of 101 Malians by charter.[35] Charles Pasqua (born April 18, French businessman and politician. ... Look up Expulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ...


The second Pasqua law on "immigration control" makes regularisation of illegal aliens more difficult and, in general, residence conditions for foreigners much harder. Charles Pasqua, who said on May 11, 1987: "Some have reproached me of having used a plane, but, if necessary, I will use trains", declared to Le Monde on June 2, 1993: "France has been a country of immigration, it doesn't want to be one anymore. Our aim, taking into account the difficulties of the economic situation, is to tend toward 'zero immigration' ("immigration zéro")".[35] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Therefore, modern French nationality law combines four factors: paternality or 'right of blood', birth origin, residency and the will expressed by a foreigner, or a person born in France to foreign parents, to become French.


European citizenship

The 1993 Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of European citizenship, which comes in addition to national citizenships. Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ...


Citizenship of foreigners

By definition, a "foreigner" is someone who does not have French nationality. Therefore, it is not a synonym of "immigrant", as a foreigner may be born in France. On the other hand, a Frenchman born abroad may be considered an immigrant (e.g. prime minister Dominique de Villepin who lived the majority of his life abroad). In most of the cases, however, a foreigner is an immigrant, and vice-versa. They either benefit from legal sojourn in France, which, after a residency of ten years, makes it possible to ask for naturalisation.[45] If they do not, they are considered "illegal aliens". Some argue that this privation of nationality and citizenship does not square with their contribution to the national economic efforts, and thus to economic growth. Look up Foreigner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (IPA: —  ) on 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco) served as the Prime Minister of France from May 31, 2005 to May 17, 2007. ... -1... Illegal Aliens is a 2007 movie starring Anna Nicole Smith and Joanie Laurer. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


In any cases, rights of foreigners in France have improved over the last half-century:

  • 1946: right to elect trade union representative (but not to be elected as a representative)
  • 1968: right to become a trade-union delegate
  • 1972: right to sit in works council and to be a delegate of the workers at the condition of "knowing how to read and write French"
  • 1975: additional condition: "to be able to express oneself in French"; they may vote at prud'hommes elections ("industrial tribunal elections") but may not be elected; foreigners may also have administrative or leadership positions in tradeunions but under various conditions
  • 1982: those conditions are suppressed, only the function of conseiller prud'hommal is reserved to those who have acquired French nationality. They may be elected in workers' representation functions (Auroux laws). They also may become administrators in public structures such as Social security banks (caisses de sécurité sociale), OPAC (which administrates HLMs), Ophlm...
  • 1992: for European Union citizens, right to vote at the European elections, first exercised during the 1994 European elections, and at municipal elections (first exercised during the 2001 municipal elections).

The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A works council is a shop-floor organization representing workers, which functions as local/firm-level complement to national labour negotiations. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... For the statistical analysis concept, see Hierarchical linear modeling. ... The 1994 European Parliamentary Elections were held in June across all 12 current European Union member-states. ...

Notable expatriates

Many people have resided in France while maintaining their respective citizenships.

C sar Vallejo (March 16, 1892 - April 15, 1938) published only three books of poetry but is nonetheless considered one of the great poetic innovators of the 20th century. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Marisol Deluna (born 1967, San Antonio, Texas) is an American fashion designer. ... Brief introduction on the history of fashion design and designers Fashion design is the art dedicated to the creation of wearing apparel and lifestyle. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Marc Jacobs (born April 9, 1963 in New York City) is an American fashion designer. ... Brief introduction on the history of fashion design and designers Fashion design is the art dedicated to the creation of wearing apparel and lifestyle. ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Molly Kathleen Ringwald (born February 18, 1968) is an American actress, singer, and dancer. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...

The National Front, multiculturalism and métissage culturel

This republican conception of the French nation-state has been challenged since the 1980s by the Front National 's nationalist discourse of La France aux Français ("France to the French") or Les Français d'abord ("French first"). Their claims of an "ethnic French" group (Français de souche, which literally translated as "French with roots") have been adamantly refused by many other groups, which widely considered this party as racist [4]. Alain de Benoist's Nouvelle Droite movement, quite famous in the 1980s but which has since lost influence, has embraced a kind of European "white supremacy" ideology. It should be noted that the expression Français de souche has no official validity in France although it is used in everyday language, something which has been designed as lepénisation des esprits ("LePen-isation of the minds"). Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, founder of the Nouvelle Droite (English: ) and head of the French think tank GRECE. Benoist is little known outside his native France but his writings have been highly influential on anti-globalist thought, primarily on the political right, with... Nouvelle Droite (English: New Right) is a school of political thought founded largely on the works of Alain de Benoist and GRECE. Although most popular and well known in France, Nouvelle Droite has been very influential in other European right-wing movements. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ...


Indeed, the inflow of populations from other continents, who still can be physically and/or culturally distinguished from Europeans, sparked much controversies in France since the early 1980s, even though immigration inflow precisely began to decrease at this time.[46] The rise of this racist discourse led to the creation of anti-racist NGOs, such as SOS Racisme, more or less founded on the model of anti-fascist organisations in the 1930s. However, while those earlier anti-fascists organisations were often anarchists or communists, SOS Racisme was supported in its growth by the Socialist Party. Demonstrations gathering large crowds against the National Front took place. The last such demonstration took place in a dramatic situation, after Jean-Marie Le Pen's relative victory at the first turn of the 2002 presidential election. Shocked and stunned, large crowds, including many young people, demonstrated every day in between the two turns, starting from April 21, 2002, which remains a dramatic date in popular consciousness. Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... SOS Racisme is a French association whose stated objective is to fight racism. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Now, the interracial blending of some native French and newcomers stands as a vibrant and boasted feature of French culture, from popular music to movies and literature. Therefore, alongside mixing of populations, exists also a cultural blending (le métissage culturel) that is present in France. It may be compared to the traditional US conception of the melting-pot. The French culture might have been already blended in from other races and ethnicities, in cases of some biographical research on the possibility of African ancestry on a small number of famous French citizens. Author Alexandre Dumas, père possessed one-fourth black Haitian descent,[47] and Empress Josephine Napoleon who was born and raised in the French West Indies from a plantation estate family[citation needed]. We can mention as well, the most famous French singer Edith Piaf whose grandmother was a North African from Kabylie.[48] An interracial couple is a romantic couple or marriage in which the partners are of differing races. ... For other uses, see Melting pot (disambiguation). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... Edith Piaf Édith Piaf (December 19, 1915 - October 11, 1963) was one of Frances most beloved singers, with much success shortly before and during World War II. Her music reflected her tragic life, with her specialty being the poignant ballad presented with a heartbreaking voice. ... The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ...


For a long time, the only objection to such outcomes predictably came from the far-right schools of thought. In the past few years, other unexpected voices are however beginning to question what they interpret, as the new philosopher Alain Finkielkraut coined the term, as an "ideology of miscegenation" (une idéologie du métissage) that may come from what one other philosopher, Pascal Bruckner, defined as the "sob of the White man" (le sanglot de l'homme blanc). These critics have been dismissed by the mainstream and their propagators have been labelled as new reactionaries (les nouveaux réactionnaires),[49] even if racist and anti-immigration sentiment has recently been documented to be increasing in France at least according to one poll.[50] Such critics, including Nicolas Sarkozy, the current President of France, take example on the United States' conception of multiculturalism to claim that France has consistently denied the existence of ethnic groups within their borders and has refused to grant them specific rights. The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... Alain Finkielkraut (b. ... Pascal Bruckner (born December 15, 1948 in Paris) is a French writer. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


President Jacques Chirac as well as the Socialist Party and other organizations have condemned these views, arguing that this refusal of the traditional universalist republican conception only favorizes communitarianism, which the Republic does not recognize since the dissolving of intermediate associations of persons during the Estates-General of 1789 (the population of the kingdom of France was then divided into the First Estate (nobles), the Second Estate (clergy), and the Third Estate (people)). For this reason, associations were forbidden until the Waldeck-Rousseau 1884 labor laws which permitted the creation of trade unions and the famous 1901 law on non-profit associations, which has been largely used by civil society in order to organizes itself. Hervé Le Bras, head of the INED demographic institute, also insists that "ethnicisation of social relations is not a 'natural' phenomenon, but an ideological one"[51] “Chirac” redirects here. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (French: Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (December 2, 1846 - August 20, 1904) was a French statesman. ... Labor law or labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the relationship between and among employers, employees, and labor organizations, often dealing with issues of public law. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


Language

The French language, the mother tongue of the overwhelming majority of French people, is a Romance language, one of the many derived from Latin. In addition to its Latinate base, the development of French was also influenced, in both grammar and vocabulary, by the Celtic tongues of pre-Roman Gaul, the Germanic tongues of the Franks and of the Norsemen/Vikings who settled in Normandy. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...

Family Languages of France

French is not the only language spoken by the inhabitants of France. Regional languages are also spoken although many of these are endangered languages. Some of these, such as Occitan, Breton or Corsican, have been undergoing language revival since the 1970s, supported by regionalist movements: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x650, 45 KB) A map showing the languages and dialects of France Une carte des langues et dialectes de la France Eine Karte der Sprachen und Dialekte Frankreichs Taken from Lexilogos. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x650, 45 KB) A map showing the languages and dialects of France Une carte des langues et dialectes de la France Eine Karte der Sprachen und Dialekte Frankreichs Taken from Lexilogos. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regionalism is a term in international relations that refers to the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within a geographical region. ...

Other languages spoken in France or in French overseas territories include: This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... Low Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though they are only partly intelligible to German speakers. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Flag of the Lyonnais Lyonnais is a former province of central-eastern France, located in the modern day Rhône département. ... Savoyard is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) language. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Position of West Flemish/Zealandic within the Dutch speaking area (mainland only) West Flemish (West Flemish: Vlaemsch, Dutch: West-Vlaams, French: Flamand occidental) is a group of dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Auvergnat is a language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Nicard (Niçois - French, Nissart - Niçard) is a distinct dialect of the Provençal language spoken in and around the city of Nice, or Nissa in Niçard, and the historical region Le Comté de Nice/Lou Coumtat de Nissa which is almost equivalent to the current French d... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ...

  • Polynesian languages, (French Polynesia)
  • Créole language, (French Antilles)
  • Spanish, spoken among the Gypsy/Romani communities of Southern France, occasionally found in Sefardi Jewish communities and reintroduced by French-descent groups from South America.
  • Other migrant languages: Arabic, Berber, Portuguese, Italian, Greek, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Chinese, Vietnamese, Khmer, Wolof, Turkish, Hindustani, Armenian, English and 50 others.

The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... // A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ... The term French West Indies (Antilles françaises) refers to the four territories presently under French sovereignty in the Caribbean: the two overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique, plus the two overseas collectivities of Saint Martin and Saint-Barthélemy. ... Romani (or Romany) relates to: The Roma people, sometimes referred to as Gypsies. Romani language, the language of the Roma. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

See also

This is a list of French people. ... With a total fertility rate of 2. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... The diversion of Haplogroup F and its descendants. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... Pied-noir (plural: pieds-noirs) is a term for the former population of European descent of North Africa, especially Algeria, which was a French department until its 1962 independence. ... Franco-Mauritians are people of French origin who reside in Mauritius. ... Franco-Réunionnaise are people of French origin living in Réunion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ INSEE
  2. ^ French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2006 http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr pdf filePDF (90.8 KiB)
  3. ^ C16001. LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER - Universe: POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER - 2006 American Community Survey
  4. ^ B04003. TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED - Universe: TOTAL ANCESTRY CATEGORIES TALLIED FOR PEOPLE WITH ONE OR MORE ANCESTRY CATEGORIES REPORTED - 2006 American Community Survey
  5. ^ Canada Census 2006
  6. ^ Canada Census 2006
  7. ^ Statistics Canada, Canada 2001 Census. Ethnic Origins (see sample longform census for details) [1][2] Many respondents may have interpreted the question differently and the numerous single responses for "Canadian" may not give an accurate account for several groups, see also List of Canadians by ethnicity.
  8. ^ SPF Intérieur - Office des Étrangers
  9. ^ As of 2004, the population of Wallonia was 3,380,498 per Statbel, of which 83,483 in the germanophone Ost-Kantone. Language censuses have been officially banned in Belgium since the linguistic frontier was fixed on 1 September 1963. See Taalgrens (nl) or Facilités linguistiques (fr).
  10. ^ Population résidante permanente étrangère selon la nationalité
  11. ^ 2000 federal census [3]
  12. ^ État de la population (x1000) 1981, 1991, 2001-2007
  13. ^ (French) La Francophonie dans le monde 2006-2007 published by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Nathan, Paris, 2007
  14. ^ Federal Statistical Office Germany
  15. ^ Población por nacionalidad y país de nacimiento. 2007. INE
  16. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Born Abroad |France
  17. ^ Éric Gailledrat, Les Ibères de l'Èbre à l'Hérault (VIe-IVe s. avant J.-C.), Lattes, Sociétés de la Protohistoire et de l'Antiquité en France Méditerranéenne, Monographies d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne - 1, 1997.
  18. ^ Dominique Garcia: Entre Ibères et Ligures. Lodévois et moyenne vallée de l'Hérault protohistoriques. Paris, CNRS éd., 1993; Les Ibères dans le midi de la France. L'Archéologue, n°32, 1997, pp. 38-40.
  19. ^ The normans Jersey heritage trust
  20. ^ Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, English translation How normans conquered the future Normandy, got stablished and allied with western Frankish by inter-marriage with Kings Rollo and William
  21. ^ Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis, Werner Haug
  22. ^ CIA Factbook - France
  23. ^ France Population - Nation by Nation
  24. ^ Background Note: France - U.S. Department of State
  25. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Article: French ethnic groups, retrieved March 17, 2008
  26. ^ Race, Ethnicity, and National Identity in France and the United States: A Comparative Historical Overview George M. Fredrickson, Stanford University, 2003, retrieved March 17, 2008
  27. ^ (English) (French) See for example Laurent Mouloud, "The Anger of the Suburbs", transl. November 6, 2005, accessible on www.humaniteinenglish.com (in French, "La colère des banlieues", L'Humanité, November 5, 2005. Retrieved on May 3, 2006. 
  28. ^ Michèle Tribalat's study (INED)
  29. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 : programme, myth, reality (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990; ISBN 0-521-43961-2) chapter II "The popular protonationalism", pp.80-81 French edition (Gallimard, 1992). According to Hobsbawm, the base source for this subject is Ferdinand Brunot (ed.), Histoire de la langue française, Paris, 1927-1943, 13 volumes, in particular the tome IX. He also refers to Michel de Certeau, Dominique Julia, Judith Revel, Une politique de la langue: la Révolution française et les patois: l'enquête de l'abbé Grégoire, Paris, 1975. For the problem of the transformation of a minority official language into a mass national language during and after the French Revolution, see Renée Balibar, L'Institution du français: essai sur le co-linguisme des Carolingiens à la République, Paris, 1985 (also Le co-linguisme, PUF, Que sais-je?, 1994, but out of print) ("The Institution of the French language: essay on colinguism from the Carolingian to the Republic"). Finally, Hobsbawm refers to Renée Balibar and Dominique Laporte, Le Français national: politique et pratique de la langue nationale sous la Révolution, Paris, 1974.
  30. ^ Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality
  31. ^ Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections
  32. ^ Sarkozy raises hopes of expats
  33. ^ Dominique Schnapper, "La conception de la nation", "Citoyenneté et société", Cahiers Francais, n° 281, mai-juin 1997
  34. ^ (French) Loi n° 2000-493 du 6 juin 2000 tendant à favoriser l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux mandats électoraux et fonctions électives. French Senate (June 6, 2000). Retrieved on May 2, 2006.
  35. ^ a b c d e f (French) B. Villalba. Chapitre 2 - Les incertitudes de la citoyenneté. Catholic University of Lille, Law Department. Retrieved on May 3, 2006.
  36. ^ See Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 0-8047-3218-3.
  37. ^ (French) P. Hassenteufel, "Exclusion sociale et citoyenneté", "Citoyenneté et société", Cahiers Francais, n° 281, mai-juin 1997), quoted by B. Villalba of the Catholic University of Lille, op.cit.
  38. ^ See Eric Hobsbawm, op.cit.
  39. ^ Even the biological conception of sex may be questioned: see gender theory
  40. ^ It may be interesting to refer to Michel Foucault's description of the discourse of "race struggle", as he shows that this medieval discourse - held by such people as Edward Coke or John Lilburne in Great Britain, and, in France, by Nicolas Fréret, Boulainvilliers, and then Sieyès, Augustin Thierry and Cournot -, tended to identify the French noble classes to a Northern and foreign race, while the "people" was considered as an aborigine - and "inferior" races. This historical discourse of "race struggle", as isolated by Foucault, was not based on a biological conception of race, as would be latter racialism (aka "scientific racism")
  41. ^ See John Locke's definition of consciousness and of identity. Consciousness is an act accompanying all thoughts (I am conscious that I am thinking this or that...), and which therefore doubles all thoughts. Personal identity is composed by the repeated consciousness, and thus extends so far in time (both in the past & in the future) as I am conscious of it (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689), Chapter XXVII "Of Identity and Diversity", available here)
  42. ^ See e.g. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), second part on "Imperialism"
  43. ^ (English) Olivier LeCour Grandmaison. "Torture in Algeria: Past Acts That Haunt France - Liberty, Equality and Colony", Le Monde diplomatique, June 2001. 
  44. ^ Ernest Renan's June 26, 1856 letter to Arthur de Gobineau, quoted by Jacques Morel in Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, L’esprit frappeur, 2001 (Morel gives as source: Ernest Renan, Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? et autres textes politiques, chosen and presented by Joël Roman, Presses Pocket, 1992, p 221.
  45. ^ This ten-year clause is threatened by Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy's law proposition on immigration.
  46. ^ See Michèle Tribalat, study at the INED already quoted. See also Demographics in France.
  47. ^ Dumas, père, Alexandre (1852-1854). Mes Mémoires. Cadot. 
  48. ^ Aïcha Saïd Ben Mohamed (1876 - 1930) was born in Kabylie, Généalogie Magazine, N° 233, p. 30/36
  49. ^ Le Point, February 8, 2007
  50. ^ "One in three French 'are racist'", BBC News, March 22, 2006. Retrieved on May 3, 2006. 
  51. ^ (French) "L’illusion ethnique", L'Humanité, April 15, 1999. Retrieved on May 3, 2006. 
  • Wieviorka, M L'espace du racisme 1991 Éditions du Seuil
  • Marc Abélès,How the Anthropology of France Has Changed Anthropology in France: Assessing New Directions in the Field Cultural Anthropology 1999

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... Michel de Certeau (Chambéry, 1925- Paris, 9 January 1986) was a French Jesuit and scholar whose work combined psychoanalysis, philosophy, and the social sciences. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... PUF (Presses universitaires de France) are the largest French university publishing houses, founded in 1921 by several professors. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Dominique Schnapper is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2001. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Homo sacer (Latin for the sacred man) is an obscure figure of Roman law: a person who is banned, may be killed by anybody, but may not be sacrificed in a religious ritual. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634), was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nicolas Fréret was a (1688-1749) French scholar. ... Henri, Comte de Boulainvilliers (1658, St. ... It has been suggested that Emmanuel J. Sièyes be merged into this article or section. ... Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry (May 10, 1795 _ May 22, 1856) was a French historian. ... Antoine Augustin Cournot (28 August 1801‑ 31 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... LEsprit frappeur (French for ghost or poltergeist), is a French publishing house, specialized in low cost books. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... It has been suggested that French people be merged into this article or section. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

US References

  • CIA World Fact Book. 2005
  • US Department of State. 2005

External links

  • Discover France
  • The Rude French Myth
  • INSEE - Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques - French official statistics from INSEE
INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: List of French people (157 words)
Michel Butor is a French novelist and essayist known for contributing to the literary genre of the nouveau roman.
Albert Camus Albert Camus (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a French author and philosopher and one of the principal luminaries (with Jean-Paul Sartre) of existentialism.
French Congo was the original French colony established in the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African Republic.
French - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia (2127 words)
French, the language of prostitution, is mostly known for the famous phrase "Voulez-vous coucher avec moi ce soir?".
The Baboon is the evolution of french people.
French people think the world is flat when it's actually squared, and that france is the center of the galaxy the sun going around it citations:video:millionaire question: http://www.collegehumor.com/video:1773116
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m