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Encyclopedia > French literature of the 20th century

French and
Francophone Literature

French literature
By Category
French language
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

French literary history

Medieval
16th Century - 17th Century
18th Century - 19th Century
20th Century - Contemporary Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Francophone literature

Francophone literature
Literature of Quebec
Postcolonial literature
Literature of Haiti
Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... This is an article about Literature in Quebec, a province of Canada. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... The Culture of Haiti encompasses a variety of traditions, from native customs to practices imported during French colonization. ...

French language authors

Chronological list Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ...

French Writers

Writers - Novelists
Playwrights - Poets
Essayists
Short Story Writers

Forms

Novel - Poetry - Plays
French poetry is a category of French literature. ...

Genres

Science Fiction - Comics
Essay - Detective Fiction
French science fiction is a substantial genre within French literature. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... An essay is a short work that treats a topic from an authors personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them. ...

Movements

Naturalism - Symbolism
Surrealism - Existentialism
Nouveau Roman
Theater of the Absurd For other meanings see Naturalism. ... Kay Sage. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...

Criticism & Awards

Literary theory - Critics
Literary Prizes Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ...

Most visited

Molière - Racine - Balzac
Stendhal - Flaubert
Emile Zola - Marcel Proust
Samuel Beckett - Albert Camus
Molière, engraved frontispiece to his Works. ... Jean Racine (December 22, 1639 – April 21, 1699) was a French dramatist, one of the big three of 17th century France (along with Molière and Corneille). ... Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 – August 18, 1850) was a French novelist. ... Marie-Henri Beyle (January 23, 1783 – March 23, 1842), better known by his penname Stendhal, was a 19th century French writer. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Marcel-Valentin-Louis-Eugène-Georges Proust (July 10, 1871 – November 18, 1922) was a French intellectual, novelist, essayist and critic, best known as the author of In Search of Lost Time (in French À la recherche du temps perdu, also translated previously as Remembrance of Things Past), a monumental work... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Albert SNIKKEL Camus (pronounced Al-berr SSSNNNIIIHHHHHHHHH-----KKKKKHHHHHHAEAEAELLLLLL Kam-oo, IPA: ka. ...

France Portal
Literature Portal

French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. For literature made after 1990, see the article Contemporary French literature. Many of the developments in French literature in this period parallel changes in the visual arts. For more on this, see French art of the 20th century. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The following is an overview of French art of the 20th century. ...

Contents


Overview

Twentieth century French literature was profoundly shaped by the historical events of the century and was also shaped by -- and a contributor to -- the century's political, philosophical, moral, and artistic crises.


This period spans the last decades of the Third Republic (1871-1940) (including World War I), the period of World War II (the German occupation and the Vichy Regime (1940-1944)), the provisional French government (1944-1946) the Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the Fifth Republic (1959-). Important historical events for French literature include: the Dreyfus Affair; French colonialism and imperialism in Africa, the Far East (French Indochina) and the Pacific; the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962); the important growth of the French Communist Party; the rise of Fascism in Europe; the events of May 1968. For more on French history, see History of France. A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The Fourth Republic existed in France between 1946 and 1958. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... French Indochina was a federation of protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists in Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) and other pro-independence Algerians. ... The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ...


Twentieth century French literature did not undergo an isolated development and reveals the influence of writers and genres from around the world, including Walt Whitman, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz Kafka, John Dos Passos, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Luigi Pirandello, the British and American detective novel, James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges, Bertold Brecht and many others. In turn, French literature has also had a radical impact on world literature. Walt Whitman Walt Whitman (born Walter Whitman) (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist born on Long Island, New York. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Kafka redirects here. ... John Rodrigo Dos Passos, born January 14, 1896, in Chicago, Illinois, United States - died September 28, 1970, in Baltimore, Maryland, was a novelist and artist. ... Ernest Hemingway, 1950 Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. ... William Faulkner photographed 1954 by Carl Van Vechten William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was a Nobel Prize-winning novelist from Mississippi. ... Luigi Pirandello Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centres upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish name Séamas Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Jorge Luis Borges (born August 24, 1899 in Buenos Aires, Argentina; died June 14, 1986 in Geneva, Switzerland) was an Argentine writer who is considered one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century. ... Bertolt Brecht (February 10, 1898 - August 14, 1956) was an influential German dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ...


Because of the creative spirit of the French literary and artistic movements at the beginning of the century, France gained the reputation as being the necessary destination for writers and artists. Important foreign writers who have lived and worked in France (especially Paris) in the twentieth century include: Oscar Wilde, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, William S. Burroughs, Henry Miller, Anais Nin, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, Julio Cortazar, Vladimir Nabokov, Eugène Ionesco. Some of the most important works of the century in French were written by foreign authors (Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett). Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, short story writer and Freemason. ... Gertrude Stein, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874, in Pittsburgh - July 27, 1946) was an American writer, poet, feminist, playwright, and catalyst in the development of modern art and literature, who spent most of her life in France. ... Ernest Hemingway, 1950 Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. ... William S. Burroughs (1914-1997) William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997) was an American novelist, essayist, social critic and spoken word performer. ... Henry Miller photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and, to a lesser extent, painter of German Catholic heritage. ... Ana s Nin (February 21, 1903 - January 14, 1977) was a French author who became famous for her self-published diaries, which span a period of forty years, beginning when she was twelve years old. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish name Séamas Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Julio Cortázar (August 26, 1914 - February 12, 1984) was an Argentine intellectual and author of several experimental novels and many short stories. ... Vladimir Nabokov This page is about the novelist. ... Eugène Ionesco Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu) was one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the absurd. ...


For Americans in the 1920s and 1930s (including the so-called "Lost Generation"), part of the fascination with France was also linked to freedom from Prohibition. For African-Americans in the twentieth century (such as James Baldwin), France was also more accepting of race and permitted greater freedom (in a similar way, Jazz was embraced by the French faster than in some areas in America). A similar sense of freedom from political oppression or from intolerance (such as anti-homosexual discrimination) has drawn other authors and writers to France. France has also been more permissive in terms of censorship, and many important foreign language novels were originally published in France while being banned in America: Joyce's Ulysses (published by Sylvia Beach in Paris, 1922), Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch (both published by Olympia Press), and Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer (published by Obelisk Press). The term Lost Generation was coined by Gertrude Stein to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris from the time period which saw the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. ... Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 James Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an African-American novelist, short story writer, and essayist, known for his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain. ... Ulysses is a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach in 1922, Paris. ... Sylvia Beach (March 14, 1887–October 5, 1962), born Nancy Woodbridge Beach in her fathers parsonage in Baltimore, Maryland, was one of the leading expatriate figures in Paris between World War I and II. Her father was a Presbyterian pastor and his work took the family to Paris in... Lolita Lolita is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first published in 1955. ... This 1969 British edition by Corgi Books features a stylized image of William S. Burroughs, and is one of the few later editions to include the word The in the title. ... Olympia Press was a Paris based publisher, best known for the first print of Nabokov s Lolita; this led to copyright issues, since Nabokov was not satisfied with the publisher and the reputation it had, since besides some serious literature, it published mostly erotic novels. ... The Tropic of Cancer (cancer (♋) is Latin for crab), one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth, is the parallel of latitude that lies 23° 26 22 north of the Equator. ... Obelisk Press was an English-language press based in Paris, France, founded by Jack Kahane. ...


From 1895 to 1914

The early years of the century (often called the "Belle époque") saw radical experiments in all genres and Symbolism and Naturalism underwent profound changes. La Belle Époque, or beautiful era, was a period in Frances history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring at the midpoint of the Third Republic, the Belle Époque was considered a golden time of beauty, innovation, and peace between France and... For other meanings see Naturalism. ...


Alfred Jarry united symbolism with elements from marionette theater and a kind of proto-surrealism. The stage was further radicalised both in the direction of expressionism (the "théâtre de l'oeuvre" of Aurélien Lugné-Poe) and hyper-realism (the theater of André Antoine). The theater director Jacques Copeau emphasized training an actor to be a complete person and rejected the Italian stage for something closer to the Elizabethan model, and his vision would have a profound impact on the "Cartel" of the 1920s and 1930s (see below). Alfred Jarry Alfred Jarry (September 8, 1873 – November 1, 1907) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany; he was of Breton descent on his mothers side. ... Aurelien Francois Marie Lugné-Poe(1869 - 1940) was a French actor and theatre director. ... André Antoine is the name of several persons: André Antoine (1858 - 1943), a French actor André Antoine (born 1960), a Belgian politician This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Jacques Copeau (1879-1949) was an influential French theatre director, producer, critic and playwright. ...


Guillaume Apollinaire radicalized the Baudelairian poetic exploration of modern life in evoking planes, the Eiffel Tower and urban wastelands, and he brought poetry into contact with cubism through his "Calligrammes", a form of visual poetry. Inspired by Rimbaud, Paul Claudel used a form of free verse to explore his mystical conversion to Catholicism. Other poets from this period include: Paul Valéry, Max Jacob (a key member of the group around Apollinaire), Pierre Jean Jouve (a follower of Romain Rolland's "Unanism"), Valery Larbaud (a translator of Whitman and friend to Joyce), Victor Segalen (friend to Huysmans and Claudel), Léon-Paul Fargue (who studied with Stéphane Mallarmé and was close to Valéry and Larbaud). Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Cover of Time Magazine(March 21, 1927) Paul Claudel (August 6, 1868 – February 23, 1955) was a French poet, dramatist and diplomat, and the younger brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel. ... Ambroise-Paul-Toussaint-Jules Valéry (Sète, October 30, 1871 – Paris, July 20, 1945) was a French author and Symbolist poet. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... Valéry Larbaud (29 August 1881 – 2 February 1957) was a French writer. ... Victor Segalen (January 14, 1878 - May 21, 1919) was a French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer and poet. ... Léon-Paul Fargue (March 4, 1876 - November 24, 1947) was a French poet and essayist. ... Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé . Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898) was a French poet and critic. ...


In the novel, André Gide's early works, especially "L'Immoraliste" (1902), pursue the problems of freedom and sensuality that symbolism had posed; Alain-Fournier's novel "Le Grand Meaulnes" is a deeply felt portrait of a nostalgic past. André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and, at times, a spokesman for gay rights (disputed — see talk page). ... Alain Fournier (1943-2000) was a computer graphics researcher. ... Le Grand Meaulnes, Alain-Fourniers bittersweet novel of youthful ardour and longing is the story of Augustin Meaulnes and his search for his lost love. ...


But radical experimentation was not appreciated by all literary and artistic circles in the early century. Popular and bourgeois tastes were relatively conservative. The poetic dramas of Edmond Rostand, especially "Cyrano de Bergerac" in 1897, were immensely popular at the turn of the century, as too the "well-made" plays and bourgeois farces of Georges Feydeau. Anatole France, Maurice Barrès, Paul Bourget were leading authors of the period who employed fiction as a convenient vehicle for ideas about men and things. The tradition of the Balzac and Zola inspired roman-fleuve continued to exert a profound attraction, as in Romain Rolland's "Jean-Christophe" (1912). Edmond Eugène Alexis Rostand (April 1, 1868 - December 2, 1918), French poet and dramatist. ... Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac (March 6, 1619 – July 28, 1655) was a French dramatist born in Paris, who is now best remembered for the many works of fiction which have been woven around his life story, most notably the play by Edmond Rostand which bears his name. ... Georges Feydeau, (8 December 1862-5 June 1921) was a French playwright of the era known as La Belle Epoque. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Maurice Barrès (September 22, 1862 - December 4, 1923), French novelist, politician, radical conservative and anti-semite was born at Charmes-sur-Moselle (Vosges). ... Paul Charles Joseph Bourget (September 2, 1852–December 25, 1935), was a French novelist and critic. ... In literature, there are some recognisable types of novel sequence. ... Romain Rolland (January 29, 1866 - December 30, 1944) was a French writer. ...


Popular fiction and genre fiction at the start of the century also included detective fiction, like the mysteries of the author and journalist Gaston Leroux who is credited with the first "locked-room puzzle" -- "The Mystery of the Yellow Room", featuring the amateur detective Joseph Rouletabille (1908) -- and the immensely popular The Phantom of the Opera (1910). Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux (May 6, 1868, Paris – April 15, 1927, Nice) was a French journalist, detective and novelist. ... The title character as depicted by Lon Chaney (1883-1930) in the 1925 film depiction. ...


From 1914 to 1945

The folly of the First World War generated even more radical tendencies. The Dada movement -- which began in a café in Switzerland in 1916 -- came to Paris in 1920, but by 1924 the writers around Paul Eluard, André Breton, Louis Aragon and Robert Desnos -- heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud's notion of the unconscious -- had modified dada provocation into Surrealism. In writing and in the visual arts, and by using automatic writing, creative games (like the cadavre exquis) and altered states (through alcohol and narcotics), the surrealists tried to reveal the workings of the unconscious mind. The group championed previous writers they saw as radical (Arthur Rimbaud, the Comte de Lautréamont, Baudelaire) and promoted an anti-bourgeois philosophy (particularly with regards to sex and politics) which would later lead most of them to join the communist party. Other writers associated with surrealism include: Jean Cocteau, René Crevel, Jacques Prévert, Jules Supervielle, Benjamin Péret, Philippe Soupault, Pierre Reverdy, Antonin Artaud (who revolutionized theater), Henri Michaux and René Char. The surrealist movement would continue to be a major force in experimental writing and the international art world until the Second World War. The surrealists technique was particularly well suited for poetry and theater, although Breton, Aragon and Cocteau wrote longer prose works as well, such as Breton's novel Nadja. Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Paul Éluard was the nom de plume of Eugène Grindel (December 14, 1895 - November 18, 1952), a French poet. ... André Breton (February 18, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (IPA: []) (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... Kay Sage. ... For an article about Surrealist automatic writing go to Surrealist automatism. ... Exquisite corpse (also known as exquisite cadaver) is a method by which a collection of words or images are collectively assembled, the result being known as the exquisite corpse or cadavre exquis in French. ... Arthur Rimbaud at seventeen Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (October 20, 1854 – November 10, 1891) was a French poet, born in Charleville. ... Comte de Lautréamont is a pseudonym for Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), an Uruguayan poet and writer. ... Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821–August 31, 1867) was one of the most influential French poets. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... René Crevel - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jacques Prévert (February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine - April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite) was a French poet and screenwriter Prévert was associated with surrealism and Pataphysics, and his poems are typically about life in Paris and life after the Second World War. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... Philippe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) is a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... Antonin Artaud Antonin Artaud (September 4, 1896–March 4, 1948) was a playwright, actor, and director. ... Henri Michaux (May 24, 1899 - October 18, 1984) was a highly individualistic Belgian poet, writer and painter who wrote in the French language. ... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ...


The effects of surrealism would later also be felt among authors who were not strictly speaking part of the movement, such as the poet Alexis Saint-Léger Léger (who wrote under the name Saint-John Perse), the poet Edmond Jabès (who came to France in 1956 when the Jewish population was expelled from his native Egypt) and Georges Bataille. The Swiss writer Blaise Cendrars was close to Apollinaire, Pierre Reverdy, Max Jacob and the artists Chagall and Léger, and his work has similarities with both surrealism and cubism. Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ... Edmond Jabes (Cairo, 1912–Paris, 1991) was a Jewish writer known for becoming of the best known literary figures to write in French after World War II. The son of a Jewish Italian family, he was raised in Egypt, where he received a classical French colonial education. ... George Bataille Georges Bataille (September 16, 1897 – July 9, 1962) was a French writer, anthropologist and philosopher, though he avoided this last term himself. ... Frédéric Louis Sauser (September 1, 1887 - January 21, 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss novelist and poet. ...


The traditional novel in the early half of the century went through further changes. Louis-Ferdinand Céline's novels -- such as Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of Night) -- used an elliptical, oral and slang-derived style to rail against the hypocrisies and moral lapses of his generation (his anti-semitic tracts in the 1940s however lead to his condemnation for collaboration). Georges Bernanos's novels used other formal techniques (like the "journal form") to further psychological exploration. Psychological analysis was also central to François Mauriac's novels, although he would come to be seen by Sartre as representative of an outdated fatalism. Jules Romains's 27 volume novel Les Hommes de bonne volonté (1932-1946), Roger Martin du Gard's eight-part novel cycle Les Thibault (1922-1940), and Marcel Proust's seven-part masterpiece A la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time, 1913-1927) expanded on the roman-fleuve model. André Gide continued to experiment with the novel, and his most sophisticated exploration of the limits of the traditional novel are found in The Counterfeiters, a novel ostensibly about a writer trying to write a novel. Céline Céline redirects here. ... Georges Bernanos (February 20, 1888 – July 5, 1948) was a French author, and a soldier in World War I. Of Catholic and monarchist leanings, he was a violent adversary to bourgeois thought and to a certain defeatism that led, in his view, to Frances defeat in 1940. ... François Mauriac (October 11, 1885–September 1, 1970) was a French author. ... Jules Romains, real name Louis-henri-jean Farigoule (August 26, 1885 - August 14, 1972) is a French author and the founder of unanimism. ... Roger Martin du Gard (March 23, 1881 – August 22, 1958) was a French author and winner of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Marcel-Valentin-Louis-Eugène-Georges Proust (July 10, 1871 – November 18, 1922) was a French intellectual, novelist, essayist and critic, best known as the author of In Search of Lost Time (in French À la recherche du temps perdu, also translated previously as Remembrance of Things Past), a monumental work... This article is in need of attention. ... In literature, there are some recognisable types of novel sequence. ... André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and, at times, a spokesman for gay rights (disputed — see talk page). ...


Theater in the 1920s and 1930s went through further changes in a loose association of theaters (called the "Cartel") around the directors and producers Louis Jouvet, Charles Dullin, Gaston Baty and Ludmila and Georges Pitoëff. They produced works by the French writers Jean Giraudoux, Jules Romains, Jean Anouilh and Jean-Paul Sartre, and also of Greek and Shakespearian theater, and works by Luigi Pirandello, Anton Chekov and George Bernard Shaw. Louis Jouvet (December 24, 1887 - August 16, 1951) was a French actor and producer. ... Charles Dullin (May 8, 1885 Yenne, Savoie - December 11, 1949, Paris) was a French actor and director. ... Gaston Baty (May 26, 1885 - October 13, 1952), whose full name was Jean-baptiste-marie-gaston Baty, was a French playwright during the 1920s and 30s. ... Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux (October 29, 1882 - January 31, 1944) was a French dramatist who wrote internationally acclaimed plays. ... Jules Romains, real name Louis-henri-jean Farigoule (August 26, 1885 - August 14, 1972) is a French author and the founder of unanimism. ... Jean Anouilh (June 23, 1910 – October 3, 1987) was a French dramatist. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Luigi Pirandello Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов) (born January 29, 1860 (Jan. ... (George) Bernard Shaw (July 26, 1856 – November 2, 1950) was an Irish playwright and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1925. ...


In the late 1930's, the works of Hemingway, Faulkner and Dos Passos came to be translated into French, and their prose style had a profound impact on the work of writers like Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux and Albert Camus. Sartre, Camus, Malraux and Simone De Beauvoir (who is also famous as one of the forerunners of Feminist writing) are often called "existentialist writers", a reference to Sartre's philosophy of Existentialism (although Camus refused the title "existentialist"). Sartre's theater, novels and short stories often show individuals forced to confront their freedom or doomed for their refusal to act. Malraux's novels of Spain and China during the civil wars confront individual action with historical forces. Similar issues appear in the novels of Henri Troyat. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 - November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman preeminent in the world of French politics and culture during his lifetime. ... Albert SNIKKEL Camus (pronounced Al-berr SSSNNNIIIHHHHHHHHH-----KKKKKHHHHHHAEAEAELLLLLL Kam-oo, IPA: ka. ... Simone de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (January 9, 1908 – April 14, 1986) was a French author and philosopher. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Henri Troyat (born Lev Aslanovich Tarasov, November 1, 1911) is a French author, biographer, historian and novelist. ...


The 1930's and 1940s saw significant contributions by citizens of French colonies and Aimé Césaire, along with Léopold Sédar Senghor and Léon Damas created the literary review L'Étudiant Noir which was a forerunner of the Négritude movement. Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 20, 1913) is a Martinican author and politician. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906 – December 20, 2001) was a Senegalese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ... Léon-Gontran Damas (March 28, 1912-January 22, 1978) was a French poet and politician. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ...


Literature after World War II

The 1950s and 1960s were highly turbulent times in France: despite a dynamic economy ("les trente glorieuses" or "30 Glorious Years"), the country was torn by their colonial heritage (Vietnam and Indochina, Algeria), by their collective sense of guilt from the Vichy Regime, by their desire for renewed national prestige (Gaullism), and by conservative social tendencies in education and industry. Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (from French Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ...


Inspired by the theatrical experiments in the early half of the century and by the horrors of the war, the so-called avant-garde Parisian theater, "New Theater" or "Theater of the Absurd" around the writers Eugene Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Fernando Arrabal refused simple explanations and abandoned traditional characters, plots and staging. Other experiments in theatre involved decentralisation, regional theater, "popular theater" (designed to bring working classes to the theater), and theater heavily influenced by Bertold Brecht (largely unknown in France before 1954), and the productions of Arthur Adamov and Roger Planchon. The Avignon festival was started in 1947 by Jean Vilar who was also important in the creation of the T.N.P. or "Théâtre national populaire". The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ... Eugène Ionesco (Romanian spelling: Eugen Ionescu) (November 26, 1912 - March 28, 1994) was one of the foremost playwrights of the theater of the absurd. ... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Jean Genet (December 19, 1910 - April 15, 1986), was a prominent, sometimes infamous, French writer and later political activist. ... Arthur Adamov (1908 - 1970) was a playwright, one of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bertolt Brecht (February 10, 1898 - August 14, 1956) was an influential German dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ... Arthur Adamov (1908 - 1970) was a playwright, one of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd. ... Jean Vilar (1912-1971) was a French man of the theatre, who created in 1947 the Festival of Avignon. ...


The French novel from the 1950s on went though a similar experimentation in the group of writers published by "Les Éditions de Minuit", a French publisher; this "Nouveau roman" ("new novel"), associated with Alain Robbe-Grillet, Marguerite Duras, Robert Pinget, Michel Butor, Samuel Beckett, Nathalie Sarraute, Claude Simon, also abandoned traditional plot, voice, characters and psychology. To a certain degree, these developments closely paralleled changes in cinema in the same period (the Nouvelle Vague). Cover of the first book clandestinely published by Les Éditions de Minuit, as part of the French Resistance during WWII Les Éditions de Minuit (midnight editions) is a French publishing house which has its origins in the French Resistance of World War II and still publishes books today. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ... Alain Robbe-Grillet Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-) is a French writer and filmmaker, born in Brest, Finistère, France into a family of engineers and scientists. ... Marguerite Donnadieu (April 4, 1914 - March 3, 1996), better known as Marguerite Duras, was a writer and film director. ... Robert Pinget (Geneva, July 19, 1919 - Tours, August 25, 1997) was a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several difficult novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. ... Michel Butor is a French post-World War II writer. ... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Nathalie Sarraute, born July 18, 1900 in Ivanovo, Russia - died October 19, 1999 in Paris, France, was a lawyer and a Francophone writer of Russian origin. ... Claude Simon (10 October 1913 – 6 July 2005) was the 1985 Nobel Laureate in Literature who in his novels combined the poets and the painters creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition. ... The New Wave (French: Nouvelle vague) of French cinema was a cinematic movement of the 1960s. ...


The writers Georges Perec, Raymond Queneau, Jacques Roubaud are associated with the creative movement Oulipo (founded in 1960) which uses elaborate mathematical strategies and constraints (such as lipograms and palindromes) as a means of triggering ideas and inspiration. Image of artist Georges Perec (March 7, 1936 - March 3, 1982) was a 20th century French novelist, filmmaker and essayist, a member of the Oulipo group and considered by many to be one of the most important post-WWII authors. ... Raymond Queneau (February 21, 1903 – October 25, 1976) was a French poet and novelist. ... Jacques Roubaud (born 1932) is a French poet and mathematician. ... Oulipo stands for Ouvroir de littérature potentielle, which translates roughly as workshop of potential literature. It is a loose gathering of French-speaking writers and mathematicians, and seeks to create works using constrained writing techniques. ... A lipogram (from Greek lipagrammatos, missing letter) is a kind of writing with constraints or word game consisting of writing paragraphs or longer works in which a particular letter or group of letters is missing, usually a common vowel, the most common in English being e (McArthur, 1992). ... A palindrome is a word, phrase, number or other sequence of units (such as a strand of DNA) that has the property of reading the same in either direction (the adjustment of punctuation and spaces between words is generally permitted). ...


Poetry in the post-war period followed a number of interlinked paths, most notably deriving from surrealism (such as with the early work of René Char), or from philosophical and phenomenological concerns stemming from Heidegger, Friedrich Hölderlin, existentialism, the relationship between poetry and the visual arts, and Stéphane Mallarmé's notions of the limits of language. Another important influence was the German poet Paul Celan. Poets concerned with these philosophical/language concerns -- especially concentrated around the review "L'Ephémère" -- include Yves Bonnefoy, André Du Bouchet, Jacques Dupin, Roger Giroux and Philippe Jaccottet. Many of these ideas were also key to the works of Maurice Blanchot. The unique poetry of Francis Ponge exerted a strong influence on a variety of writers (both phenomenologists and those from the group "Tel Quel"). The later poets Claude Royet-Journoud, Anne-Marie Albiach, Emmanuel Hocquard, and to a degree Jean Daive, describe a shift from Heidegger to Ludwig Wittgenstein and a reevalution of Mallarmé's notion of fiction and theatricality; these poets were also influenced by certain English-language modern poets (such as Ezra Pound,Louis Zukofsky, William Carlos Williams, and George Oppen) along with certain American postmodern and avant garde poets loosely grouped around the language poetry movement (such as Michael Palmer, Keith Waldrop and Susan Howe; with her husband Keith Waldrop, Rosmarie Waldrop has a profound association with these poets, due in no small measure to her translations of Edmond Jabés and the prose of Paul Celan into English). René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé . Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898) was a French poet and critic. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Yves Bonnefoy (born Tours, June 1923) is a French poet and essayist. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Francis Jean Gaston Alfred Ponge (March 27, 1899 - August 6, 1988) was a French essayist and poet. ... Tel Quel (in English as it is) was an avant-garde journal for literature, founded in 1960 in Paris (Éditions du Seuil) by Philippe Sollers and Jean-Edern Hallier. ... Emmanuel Hocquard (born 1940) is a French poet who grew up in Tangier, Morocco. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to modern philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... The cover of the 1978 edition of Zukofskys long poem A. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 - May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with Modernism and Imagism. ... George Oppen (April 24, 1908 - July 7, 1984) was an American poet, best known as one of the founders of the Objectivist group of poets. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Michael Palmer, American poet(b. ... Keith Waldrop is the author of numerous books of poetry, and has translated the work of Claude Royet-Journoud, Anne Marie-Albiach, and Edmond Jabès among others. ... Susan Howe (born 1937) is an Irish-born American poet and critic who is closely associated with the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group of poets. ... Rosmarie Waldrop (born 1935) is a poet, translator and publisher. ... Edmond Jabès (Cairo, 1912–Paris, 1991) was a Jewish writer known for becoming of the best known literary figures to write in French after World War II. The son of a Jewish Italian family, he was raised in Egypt, where he received a classical French colonial education. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The events of May 1968 marked a watershed in the development of a radical ideology of revolutionary change in education, class, family and literature. In theater, the conception of "création collective" developed by Ariane Mnouchkine's Théâtre du Soleil refused division into writers, actors and producers: the goal was for total collaboration, for multiple points of view, for an elimination of separation between actors and the public, and for the audience to seek out their own truth. May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... Ariane Mnouchkine (born 1939 in Boulogne-sur-Seine) is a French stage and film director. ...


The most important review of the post-1968 period -- "Tel Quel" -- is associated with the writers Philippe Sollers, Julia Kristeva, Georges Bataille, the poets Marcelin Pleynet and Denis Roche, the critics Roland Barthes, Gérard Genette and the philosophers Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan. Tel Quel (in English as it is) was an avant-garde journal for literature, founded in 1960 in Paris (Éditions du Seuil) by Philippe Sollers and Jean-Edern Hallier. ... Philippe Sollers (b. ... Philosopher Julia Kristeva Julia Kristeva (born 24 June 1941, Sliven, Bulgaria) is a Bulgarian philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... George Bataille Georges Bataille (September 16, 1897 – July 9, 1962) was a French writer, anthropologist and philosopher, though he avoided this last term himself. ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... The cover of the paperback edition of Seuils. ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, most often referenced as the founder of deconstruction. ... Cover of Elisabeth Roudinescos biography of Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. ...


Another post-1968 change was the birth of "Ecriture Féminine" promoted by the feminist Editions des Femmes, with new women writers as Chantal Chawaf, Hélène Cixous, Annie Leclerc.. Hélène Cixous, (born June 5, 1937), is a French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher and literary critic. ...


From the 1960s on, many of the most daring experiments in French literature have come from writers born in French overseas departments or former colonies. This Francophone literature includes the prize winning novels of Tahar ben Jelloun (Morroco), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Amin Maalouf (Lebanon) and Assia Djebar (Algeria). Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... Tahar Ben Jelloun(Arabic: طاهر بنجلون) (born in Fez, 1944) is a Moroccan poet and writer. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... Patrick Chamoiseau is a Martinican author known for his work in the créolité movement. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ; born (25 February 1949 in Beirut) is a Lebanese author. ... Assia Djebar is the pen-name of Fatima-Zohra Imalayen (born August 4, 1936), an Algerian novelist, translator and filmaker. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
French literature of the 20th century - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1998 words)
French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990.
Twentieth century French literature was profoundly shaped by the historical events of the century and was also shaped by -- and a contributor to -- the century's political, philosophical, moral, and artistic crises.
Important historical events for French literature include: the Dreyfus Affair; French colonialism and imperialism in Africa, the Far East (French Indochina) and the Pacific; the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962); the important growth of the French Communist Party; the rise of Fascism in Europe; the events of May 1968.
TWENTIETH CENTURY LITERATURE (8766 words)
In Serbian literature, similar phenomena are to be noticed not only in the appearance of the Parnassian lyric poems of Vojislav Ilic (who had a large number of followers and was a dominant figure in the 1890s), but in literary criticism as well.
Literature noticeably depended on the general political-ideological changes, which were often sharp and sudden, but which decade after decade lost their strength, and thus the art of literature was able to continue its independent development.
He is a well-known historian of Serbian literature, and he captured the fancy of both domestic and foreign critics and readers with a novel strangely written in the form of a dictionary (Dictionary of the Khazars, 1984).
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