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Encyclopedia > French literature of the 19th century

French and
Francophone literature

French literature
By category
French language
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

French literary history

Medieval
16th century - 17th century
18th century - 19th century
20th century - Contemporary Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... French literature of the 18th century spans the period from the death of Louis XIV of France, through the Régence (during the minority of Louis XV) and the reigns of Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France to the start of the French Revolution. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Francophone literature

Francophone literature
Literature of Quebec
Postcolonial literature
Literature of Haiti
Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... This is an article about Literature in Quebec, a province of Canada. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... The Culture of Haiti encompasses a variety of Haitian traditions, from native customs to practices imported during French colonisation. ...

French language authors

Chronological list Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ...

French Writers

Writers - Novelists
Playwrights - Poets
Essayists
Short Story Writers

Forms

Novel - Poetry - Plays
French poetry is a category of French literature. ...

Genres

Science Fiction - Comics
Fantastique - Detective Fiction
French science fiction is a substantial genre within French literature. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with parts of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ...

Movements

Naturalism - Symbolism
Surrealism - Existentialism
Nouveau Roman
Theater of the Absurd Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...

Criticism & Awards

Literary theory - Critics
Literary Prizes Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ...

Most visited

Molière - Racine - Balzac
Stendhal - Flaubert
Emile Zola - Marcel Proust
Samuel Beckett - Albert Camus
Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... Jean Racine. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Stendhal. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was an Algerian-French author and philosopher. ...

France Portal
Literature Portal

French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. Many of the developments in French literature in this period parallel changes in the visual arts. For more on this, see French art of the 19th century. French art of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, visual and plastic works of art made in France or by French citizens during the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonapartes Consulate (1799-1804) and Empire (1804-1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814...


The period covered spans the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate (1799-1804) and Empire (1804-1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1830-1848), the Second Republic (1848-1852), the Second Empire under Napoleon III (1852-1871), and the first decades of the Third Republic (1871-1940). For more on French history, see History of France. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated rather than become a constitutional monarch. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850), served as the Orleanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the coup by Louis Napoleon which initiatied the Second Empire. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ...

Contents

Prominent trends

Note: the use of the terms "realism", "symbolism", "naturalism", etc. in this article is highly problematical. (1) The sections below do not imply a strict chronology: in the last half of the century, "naturalism", "parnassian" poetry and "symbolism", etc. were often competing tendencies at the same historical moment. (2) While some writers did form into literary groups defined by a name and a program or manifesto, in some cases these expressions were merely pejorative terms given by critics to certain writers or have been used by modern literary historians to group writers of wildly different projects or methods. Nevertheless, these labels can be useful in describing broad historical developments in the arts. Readers are cautioned to treat such labels with discretion however.


Romanticism

Main article: Romanticism

French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism -- associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred Vigny -- and their revolutionary work in all genres (theater, poetry, prose fiction). The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in wildly diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", and the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement (see below). Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ... Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870) was a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Gérard de Nerval Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 – January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... Charles Nodier (April 29, 1780 - January 27, 1844), was a French author. ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Alfred de Vigny, 1832 Alfred Victor de Vigny (March 27, 1797 – September 17, 1863) was a French poet, playwright, and novelist. ... In 19th century European and especially French literature, decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers who were associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement and who relished artifice...


French romanticism is a highly eclectic phenomenon. It includes an interest in the historical novel, the romance, traditional myths (and nationalism) and the "roman noir" (or Gothic novel), lyricism, sentimentalism, descriptions of the natural world (such as elegies by lakes) and the common man, exoticism and orientalism, and the myth of the romantic hero. Foreign influences played a big part in this, especially those of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Byron, Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller. French Romanticism had ideals diametrically opposed to French classicism and the classical unities (see French literature of the 17th century), but it could also express a profound loss for aspects of the pre-revolutionary world in a society now dominated by money and fame, rather than honor. A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... Sentimentalism (literally, appealing to the sentiments), as a literary and political discourse, has occurred much in the literary traditions of all regions in the world, and is central to the traditions of Indian literature, Chinese literature, and Vietnamese literature (such as Ho Xuan Huong). ... Elegy was originally used for a type of poetic metre (Elegiac metre), but is also used for a poem of mourning, from the Greek elegos, a reflection on the death of someone or on a sorrow generally. ... Exoticism (from exotic) is a trend in art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations since the late 19th-century. ... For Orientalist Architecture, see Moorish Revival. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ... Lord Byron, Anglo-Scottish poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Friedrich Schiller Schiller redirects here. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the...


Key ideas from early French Romanticism:

  • "le vague des passions" (vagueness of sentiment and passion) - Chateaubriand maintained that while the imagination was rich, the world was cold and empty, and rationalism and civilization had only robbed men of their illusions; nevertheless, a notion of sentiment and passion continued to haunt men.
  • "le mal du siècle" (the pain of the century) - a sense of loss, disillusion, and aporia, typified by melancholy and lassitude.

Romanticism in England and Germany largely predate French romanticism, although one finds a kind of "pre-romanticism" in the works of Senancour and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (among others) at the end of the 18th century. French Romanticism took definite form in the works of François-René de Chateaubriand and Benjamin Constant and in Madame de Staël's interpretation of Germany as the land of romantic ideals. It found early expression also in the sentimental poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine. Aporia (Greek: : impasse; lack of resources; puzzlement; embarassment ) denotes, in philosophy, a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement, and, in rhetoric, a rhetorically useful expression of doubt. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Étienne Pivert de Senancour (Paris, 16 November 1770 - Saint-Cloud, 10 January 1846), was a French writer. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Madame de Staël Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (April 22, 1766 – July 14, 1817) was a French author who determined literary tastes of Europe at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born...


The major battle of romanticism in France was fought in the theater. The early years of the century were marked by a revival of classicism and classical-inspired tragedies, often with themes of national sacrifice or patriotic heroism in keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, but the production of Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1830 marked the triumph of the romantic movement on the stage (a description of the turbulent opening night can be found in Théophile Gautier). The dramatic unities of time and place were abolished, tragic and comic elements appeared together and metrical freedom was won. Marked by the plays of Friedrich Schiller, the romantics often chose subjects from historic periods (the French Renaissance, the reign of Louis XIII of France) and doomed noble characters (rebel princes and outlaws) or misunderstood artists (Vigny's play based on the life of Thomas Chatterton). Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Hernani can mean several things: Hernani is a locality in Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The three unities or classical unities are rules for drama derived from Aristotles Poetics. ... Friedrich Schiller Schiller redirects here. ... This article is about the cultural movement known as the French Renaissance. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... Thomas Chatterton Thomas Chatterton (November 20, 1752 – August 24, 1770) was an English poet and forger of pseudo-medieval poetry. ...


Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of the Romantic School and its recognized leader. He was prolific alike in poetry, drama, and fiction. Other writers associated with the movement were the austere and pessimistic Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier a devotee of beauty and creator of the "Art for art's sake" movement, and Alfred de Musset, who best exemplifies romantic melancholy. All three also wrote novels and short stories, and Musset won a belated success with his plays. Alexandre Dumas, père wrote The Three Musketeers and other romantic novels in an historical setting. Prosper Mérimée and Charles Nodier were masters of shorter fiction. Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, a literary critic, showed romantic expansiveness in his hospitality to all ideas and in his unfailing endeavour to understand and interpret authors rather than to judge them. Alfred Victor de Vigny (March 27, 1797 – September 17, 1863) was a French poet, playwright, and novelist. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870) was a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... Charles Nodier (April 29, 1780 - January 27, 1844), was a French author. ... Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (December 23, 1804 – October 13, 1869) was a literary critic and one of the major figures of French literary history. ...


Romanticism is associated with a number of literary salons and groups: the Arsenal (formed around Charles Nodier at the Arsenal Library in Paris from 1824-1844 where Nodier was administrator), the Cénacle (formed around Nodier, then Hugo from 1823-1828), the salon of Louis Charles Delescluze, the salon of Antoine (or Antony) Deschamps, the salon of Madame de Staël. Charles Nodier (April 29, 1780 - January 27, 1844), was a French author. ... Louis Charles Delescluze (October 2, 1809 - May, 1871) was a French journalist. ... Madame de Staël Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (April 22, 1766 – July 14, 1817) was a French author who determined literary tastes of Europe at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. ...


Romanticism in France defied political affiliation: one finds both "liberal" (like Stendhal), "conservative" (like Chateaubriand) and socialist (George Sand) strains. Stendhal. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ...


Realism

Main article: Literary realism

The expression "Realism", when applied to literature of the 19th century, implies the attempt to depict contemporary life and society. The growth of realism is linked to the development of science (especially biology), history and the social sciences and to the growth of industrialism and commerce. The "realist" tendency is not necessarily anti-romantic; romanticism in France often affirmed the common man and the natural setting (such as the peasant stories of George Sand) and concerned itself with historical forces and periods (as in the work of historian Jules Michelet). Literary realism most often refers to the trend, in early 19th century French literature, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as it is, in the spirit of general Realism, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


The novels of Stendhal (including The Red and the Black and The Charterhouse of Parma) address issues of their contemporary society while also using themes and characters derived from the romantic movement. Honoré de Balzac is the most prominent representative of 19th century realism in fiction. His La Comédie humaine, a vast collection of nearly 100 novels, was the most ambitious scheme ever devised by a writer of fiction -- nothing less than a complete contemporary history of his countrymen. Realism also appears in the works of Alexandre Dumas, fils. Stendhal. ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Honoré de Balzac La Comédie humaine is the title of Honoré de Balzacs multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy 1815-1848. ... Alexandre Dumas, fils (July 27, 1824 – November 27, 1895) was the son of Alexandre Dumas, père, who followed in his fathers footsteps becoming a celebrated author and playwright. ...


Many of the novels in this period (including Balzac's) were published in newspapers in serial form, and the immensely popular realist "roman feuilleton" tended to specialize in portraying the hidden side of urban life (crime, police spies, criminal slang), as in the novels of Eugène Sue. Similar tendencies appeared in the theatrical melodramas of the period and, in an even more lurid and gruesome light, in the Grand Guignol at the end of the century. Joseph Marie Eugène Sue (January 20, 1804–August 3, 1857), French novelist, was born in Paris. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... The Grand Guignol (Grahn Geen-YOL) was a theatre (Le Théâtre du Grand-Guignol) in the Pigalle area of Paris (at 20 bis, rue Chaptal), which, from its opening in 1897 to its closing in 1962, specialized in the most naturalistic grisly horror shows. ...


In addition to melodramas, popular and bourgeois theater in the mid-century turned to realism in the "well-made" bourgeois farces of Eugène Marin Labiche and the moral dramas of Émile Augier. Also popular were the operettas, farces and comedies of Ludovic Halévy, Henri Meilhac, and, at the turn of the century, Georges Feydeau. Eugène Marin Labiche (May 5, 1815-1888), was a French dramatist. ... Guillaume Victor Émile Augier (September 17, 1820 – October 25, 1889), was a French dramatist. ... Ludovic Halévy (January 1, 1834 - May 8, 1908), French author, was born in Paris. ... Henri Meilhac (February 21, 1831 - 1897), French dramatist, was born in Paris. ... Georges Feydeau, (8 December 1862-5 June 1921) was a French playwright of the era known as La Belle Epoque. ...


Naturalism

From the 1860s on, critics increasingly speak of literary "Naturalism". The expression is imprecise, and was frequently used disparagingly to characterize authors whose chosen subject matter was taken from the working classes and who portrayed the misery and harsh conditions of real life. Many of the "naturalist" writers took a radical position against the excesses of romanticism and strove to use scientific and encyclopedic precision in their novels (Zola spent months visiting coal mines for his Germinal and Flaubert was famous for his years of research for historical details). Hippolyte Taine supplied much of the philosophy of naturalism: he believed that every human being was determined by the forces of heredity and environment and by the time in which he lived. The influence of certain Norwegian, Swedish and Russian writers gave an added impulse to the naturalistic movement. Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Portrait of Hippolyte Taine on French postage stamp of 1966 Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (April 21, 1828 - March 5, 1893) was a French critic and historian. ...


Gustave Flaubert's great novels Madame Bovary (1857) -- which reveals the tragic consequences of romanticism on the wife of a provincial doctor -- and Sentimental Education, and the short stories of Guy de Maupassant are often tagged with the label "naturalist", although neither author was devoid of comic irony or certain romantic tendencies. Flaubert's romanticism is apparent in his fantastic The Temptation of Saint Anthony and the baroque and exotic scenes of ancient Carthage in Salammbô. Maupassant used elements derived from the gothic novel in stories like Le Horla. This tension between portrayal of the contemporary world in all its sordidness, detached irony and the use of romantic images and themes would also influence the symbolists (see below) and would continue to the 20th century. Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... For the film, see Madame Bovary (1949 film) Madame Bovary is a novel by Gustave Flaubert that was attacked for obscenity by public prosecutors when it was first serialised in La Revue de Paris between 1 October 1856 and 15 December 1856, resulting in a trial in January 1857 that... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sentimental Education (original France title: LÉducation sentimentale ) (1869) was Gustave Flauberts last novel published during his lifetime, and is considered one of the most influential 19th century novels. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... The Temptation of Saint Anthony (original French title: La Tentation de Saint Antoine) is a book which was written by Flaubert in 1874. ... Salammbô is a fantasy 1862 novel by Gustave Flaubert. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...


Naturalism is most often associated with the novels of Emile Zola (such as his Les Rougon-Macquart novel cycle, which includes Germinal, L'Assommoir, Le Ventre de Paris and La Bête humaine) in which the social success or failure of two branches of a family is explained by physical, social and hereditary laws. Other writers who have been labeled naturalists include: Alphonse Daudet, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Edmond de Goncourt and his brother Jules de Goncourt, and Paul Bourget. mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to French novelist Emile Zolas greatest literary achievement, a monumental twenty-novel cycle about the exploits of various members of an extended family during the French Second Empire, from the coup détat of December 1851 which established Napoleon III as... This article is on the book by Emile Zola. ... LAssommoir (1877) is the seventh novel in Emile Zolas twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. ... Le Ventre de Paris (1873) is the third novel in Emile Zolas twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. ... Alphonse Daudet (May 13, 1840 - December 17, 1897) was a French novelist. ... Joris-Karl Huysmans. ... Edmond de Goncourt (May 26, 1822 – July 16, 1896), writer, critic, book publisher and the founder of the Académie Goncourt. ... Jules de Goncourt (Paris, December 17, 1830 – Paris, June 20, 1870) was a french writer, who published books together with his brother Edmond. ... Paul Charles Joseph Bourget (September 2, 1852–December 25, 1935), was a French novelist and critic. ...


Parnasse

Main article: Parnassians

An attempt to be objective was made in poetry by the group of writers known as the Parnassians -- which included Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Catulle Mendès, Sully-Prudhomme, François Coppée, José María de Heredia and (early in his career) Paul Verlaine -- who (using Théophile Gautier's notion of art for art's sake and the pursuit of the beautiful) strove for exact and faultless workmanship, and selected exotic and classical subjects which they treated with a rigidity of form and an emotional detachment (elements of which echo the philosophical work of Arthur Schopenhauer whose aesthetic theories would also have an influence on the symbolists). ... ... Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle (October 22, 1818 - July 17, 1894), was a French poet of the Parnassian movement. ... Theodore Faullain de Banville (March 14, 1823 – March 15, 1891) was a French poet and writer. ... Catulle Mendès Catulle Mendès (22 May 1841 - 8 February 1909) was a French poet and man of letters. ... René-François-Armand (Sully) Prudhomme (Paris, France, March 16, 1839 - Châtenay-Malabry, France, September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in Literature, 1901. ... François Coppée François Edouard Joachim Coppée (January 12, 1842 - May 23, 1908), was a French poet and novelist. ... José María de Heredia (November 22, 1842 - October 3, 1905), French poet, the modern master of the French sonnet, was born at Fortuna Cafeyere, near Santiago de Cuba, being in blood part Spanish Creole and part French. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ...


Modern science and geography were united with romantic adventure in the works of Jules Verne and other writers of popular serial adventure novels and early science-fiction. Jules Verne. ...


Symbolism and the Birth of the Modern

The naturalist tendency to see life without illusions and to dwell on its more depressing and sordid aspects appears in an intensified degree in the immensely influential poetry of Charles Baudelaire, but with profoundly romantic elements derived from the Byronic myth of the anti-hero and the romantic poet, and the world-weariness of the "mal du siècle", etc. Similar elements occur in the novels of Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Jules Amédée Barbey dAurevilly (November 2, 1808 – April 23, 1889), was a French novelist. ...


The poetry of Baudelaire and much of the literature in the latter half of the century (or "fin de siècle") were often characterized as "decadent" for their lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Paul Verlaine used the expression "poète maudit" ("accursed poet") in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Tristan Corbière, Stéphane Mallarmé and Arthur Rimbaud who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or had been ignored by the critics. But with the publication of Jean Moréas "Symbolist Manifesto" in 1886, it was the term symbolism which was most often applied to the new literary environment. Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... Decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... A poète maudit (French: accursed poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. ... Tristan Corbière (July 18, 1845 – March 1, 1875), born Édouard-Joachim Corbière, a poet from Brittany who wrote in the French language, was born at Coat-Congar, where he lived most of his life and where he died. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ...


The writers Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, Paul Valéry, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Arthur Rimbaud, Jules Laforgue, Jean Moréas, Gustave Kahn, Albert Samain, Jean Lorrain, Rémy de Gourmont, Pierre Louÿs, Tristan Corbière, Henri de Régnier, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Stuart Merrill, René Ghil, Saint-Pol Roux, Oscar-Vladislas de Milosz, the Belgians Albert Giraud, Emile Verhaeren, Georges Rodenbach and Maurice Maeterlinck and others have been called symbolists, although each author's personal literary project was unique. Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Joris-Karl Huysmans. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Jean Moréas (April 15, 1856 - 1910), born Iannis Papadiamontopolos, was a Greek poet who wrote in the French language. ... Gustave Kahn (December 21, 1859 - September 5, 1936) was a French Symbolist poet and art critic. ... Albert Samain (1858-1900) was a French poet and writer of the Symbolist school. ... Jean Lorrain (1855-1906), born Paul Duval, was a French poet and novelist of the Symbolist school. ... Remy de Gourmont (April 4, 1858 - September 27, 1915) was a French Symbolist poet, novelist, and influential critic. ... Pierre Louys (1870 - 1925) was a French author, writer and poet. ... Tristan Corbière (July 18, 1845 – March 1, 1875), born Édouard-Joachim Corbière, a poet from Brittany who wrote in the French language, was born at Coat-Congar, where he lived most of his life and where he died. ... Henri de Régnier (1864–1936) was a French symbolist poet considered the foremost of France during the early 20th century. ... Jean-Marie-Mathias-Philippe-Auguste, comte de Villiers de lIsle-Adam (November 7, 1838 – August 19, 1889) was a French symbolist writer. ... Stuart Merrill (1863-1915) was a American poet, born in Hampstead, New York, who wrote in the French language. ... Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz Milosz (Lithuanian: Oskaras MilaÅ¡ius) (1877-1939) was a French-Lithuanian writer and Lithuanian diplomat. ... Albert Giraud (1860-1929) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language. ... Emile Verhaeren (May 21, 1855- November 27, 1916) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language, and one of the chief founders of the school of Symbolism. ... Georges Raymond Constantin Rodenbach (born July 16, 1855 in Tournai, Belgium; died December 25, 1898 in Paris) was a Belgian Symbolist poet. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ...


The symbolists often share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will, fatality and unconscious forces. The symbolists often used themes of sex (such as prostitutes), the city, irrational phenomena (delirium, dreams, narcotics, alcohol), and sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. The tone of symbolism is highly variable, at times realistic, imaginative, ironic or detached, although on the whole the symbolists did not stress moral or ethical ideas. In poetry, the symbolist procedure -- as typified by Paul Verlaine -- was to use subtle suggestion instead of precise statement (rhetoric was banned) and to evoke moods and feelings by the magic of words and repeated sounds and the cadence of verse (musicality) and metrical innovation. Some symbolists explored the use of free verse. The use of leitmotifs, medieval settings and the notion of the complete work of art (blending music, visuals and language) in the works of the German composer Richard Wagner also had a profound impact on these writers. Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ...


Stéphane Mallarmé's profound interest in the limits of language as an attempt at describing the world, and his use of convoluted syntax, and the spacing, size and position of words on the page were important modern breakthroughs that continue to preoccupy contemporary poetry in France. Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ...


Arthur Rimbaud's prose poem collection "Illuminations" are among the first free verse poems in French; his biographically inspired poem "Une saison en enfer" ("A Season in Hell") was championed by the Surrealists as a revolutionarily modern literary act (the same work would play an important role in the New York punk scene in the 1970s). The infernal images of the prose poem "Les Chants de Maldoror" by Isidore Ducasse, Comte de Lautréamont would have a similar impact. Rimbaud redirects here. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be... French poet Arthur Rimbauds Une Saison en Enfer (A Season in Hell) dates itself April through August 1873, but these are dates of completion. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or... Lautréamont Comte de Lautréamont was the pen name of Isidore Lucien Ducasse (April 4, 1846 – November 24, 1870), a French poet whose only work, Les Chants de Maldoror, had a major influence on modern literature, and in particular on the Surrealist movement. ...


The crisis of language and meaning in Mallarmé and the radical vision of literature, life and the political world in Rimbaud are to some degree the corner stones of the "modern" and the radical experiements of Dada, Surrealism and Theater of the Absurd (to name a few) in the 20th century. Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...


References

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