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Encyclopedia > French literature

French and
Francophone literature

French literature
By category
French language
French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

French literary history

Medieval
16th century - 17th century
18th century - 19th century
20th century - Contemporary Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Francophone literature

Francophone literature
Literature of Quebec
Postcolonial literature
Literature of Haiti
Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ... This is an article about Literature in Quebec, a province of Canada. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... The Culture of Haiti encompasses a variety of traditions, from native customs to practices imported during French colonisation. ...

French language authors

Chronological list Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ...

French Writers

Writers - Novelists
Playwrights - Poets
Essayists
Short Story Writers

Forms

Novel - Poetry - Plays
French poetry is a category of French literature. ...

Genres

Science Fiction - Comics
Fantastique - Detective Fiction
French science fiction is a substantial genre within French literature. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with parts of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ...

Movements

Naturalism - Symbolism
Surrealism - Existentialism
Nouveau Roman
Theater of the Absurd Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or ultimately ‘truer’ than, everyday reality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Nouveau roman refers to certain 1950s French novels that diverged from classical literary genres. ... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...

Criticism & Awards

Literary theory - Critics
Literary Prizes Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ...

Most visited

Molière - Racine - Balzac
Stendhal - Flaubert
Emile Zola - Marcel Proust
Samuel Beckett - Albert Camus
Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... Jean Racine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stendhal. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Proust redirects here. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a Algerian-French author and philosopher. ...

France Portal
Literature Portal

French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. For literature written in French by citizens of other nations (such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, Morocco, etc.) see Francophone literature. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... Francophone literature is literature written in the French language. ...


To cover the vastness of the subject, the article has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. One can also directly access French literature category indexes, such as alphabetical lists of authors or titles. A general introduction and some supplementary or general material are included on this page.


For information about French art, see: French art. For historical background on France, see: History of France. For other topics on French culture, see: French culture. The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. ...

Contents

French literature

The French language is a romance dialect derived from Vulgar Latin and heavily influenced principally by Celtic and Frankish. Beginning in the 11th century, literature written in medieval French was one of the oldest vernacular (non-Latin) literatures in western Europe and it became a key source of literary themes in the Middle Ages across the continent. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political engraving at Pompeii, was the language of the ordinary people of the Roman Empire, distinct from the Classical Latin of literature. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... The Frankish language can refer to: Old Frankish, the language spoken by the Franks, a Germanic people active in the Roman era Low Franconian, the only linguistic subgroup containing modern variants of the Old Frankish language: Dutch and Afrikaans. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Although the European prominence of French literature was eclipsed in part by vernacular literature in Italy in the 14th century, literature in France in the 16th century underwent a major creative evolution, and through the political and artistic programs of the Ancien Régime, French literature came to dominate European letters in the 17th century. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


In the 18th century, French became the literary lingua franca and diplomatic language of western Europe (and, to a certain degree, in America), and French letters have had a profound impact on all European and American literary traditions while at the same time being heavily influenced by these other national traditions (for example: British and German Romanticism in the nineteenth century). French literary developments of the 19th and 20th centuries have had a particularly strong effect on modern world literature, including: symbolism, naturalism, the "roman-fleuves" of Balzac, Zola and Proust, surrealism, existentialism, and the "theater of the absurd". (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... In literature, there are some recognisable types of novel sequence. ... Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or ultimately ‘truer’ than, everyday reality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Theatre of the Absurd is a phrase used in reference to particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from their work. ...


French imperialism and colonialism in the Americas, Africa and the far East have brought the French language to non-European cultures that are today using, transforming, and adding to the French literary experience. Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...


Under the aristocratic ideals of the ancien régime (the "honnête homme"), the nationalist spirit of post-revolutionary France, and the mass educational ideals of the Third Republic and modern France, the French have come to have -- as a culture -- a profound attachment to their literary heritage. Today, French schooling emphasizes learning about novels, theater and poetry (often learnt by heart); the literary arts are heavily sponsored by the state; literary prizes are major news; the Académie française and the Institut de France are important linguistic and artistic institutions in France; French television features shows on writers and poets (the most watched show in French history was Apostrophes, a weekly talk show on literature and the arts). Literature is something which matters deeply to the people of France and which plays an important role in their own sense of identity. The Académie française, or French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The Institut de France (French Institute) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is probably the Académie française. ... The word apostrophe can refer to several things: A form of punctuation, see Apostrophe (mark). ...


As of 2006, French literary people have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists, poets and essayists of any other country, although writers in English have won twice as many Nobels as the French. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nobel Prize medal. ...


Literatures of other languages of France

Besides literature written in the French language, the literary culture of France may include literature written in other languages of France. In the medieval period many of the competing standard languages in various territories that later came to make up the territory of modern France each produced literary traditions, such as Anglo-Norman literature and Provençal literature. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ...


Literature in the regional languages continued through to the 18th century, although increasing eclipsed by the rise of the French language and influenced by the prevailing French literary model. Conscious language revival movements in the 19th century, such as Félibrige in Provence, coupled with wider literacy and regional presses, enabled a new flowering of literary production in the Norman language and others. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... The Félibrige is a literary and cultural association founded by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the Provençal language and Provençal literature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ...


Frédéric Mistral, a poet in the Provençal language (1830-1914), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904. Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Breton literature since the 1920s has been lively, despite the falling number of speakers. In 1925, Roparz Hemon founded the periodical Gwalarn which for 19 years tried to raise the language to the level of other great "international" languages by creating original works covering all genres and by proposing Breton translations of internationally recognized foreign works. In 1946, Al Liamm took up the role of Gwalam. Other reviews came into existence and gave Breton a fairly large body of literature for a minority language. Among writers in Breton are Yann-Ber Kalloc'h, Anjela Duval and Per-Jakez Hélias. Breton literature is the Breton language literary tradition of Brittany. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Picard literature maintains a level of literary output, especially in theatrical writing. Walloon literature is bolstered by the more significant literary production in the language in Belgium. Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Walloon (walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ...


Catalan literature and literature in the Basque language also benefit from the existence of a readership outside the borders of France. Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... Basque (in Basque: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


French Nobel Prize in Literature winners

The following French or French language authors have won a Nobel Prize in Literature: Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...

Ren -Fran ois-Armand Prudhomme (March 16, 1839 - September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in literature, 1901. ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... Romain Rolland (January 29, 1866 - December 30, 1944) was a French writer. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Roger Martin du Gard (March 23, 1881 – August 22, 1958) was a French author and winner of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... André Gide in 1893 Gide redirects here, for other people named Gide, see Gide (disambiguation) André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. ... François Mauriac (October 11, 1885–September 1, 1970) was a French author. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a Algerian-French author and philosopher. ... Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Claude Simon (10 October 1913 – 6 July 2005) was the 1985 Nobel Laureate in Literature who in his novels combined the poets and the painters creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition. ... Gao Xingjian (高行健, pinyin: Gāo Xíngjiàn; born January 4, 1940), is a Chinese emigré novelist, dramatist and critic, who won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature. ...

Selected list of French literary classics

Fiction

Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is the oldest major work of French literature. ... Chrétien de Troyes wrote in Champagne, France, during the last half of the twelfth century. ... Yvain rescues the lion Yvain, the Knight of the Lion (French: Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion) is a romance by Chrétien de Troyes. ... Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (French: Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette) is an Old French poem by Chrétien de Troyes. ... The legend of Tristan and Iseult is an influential romance and tragedy, retold in numerous sources with as many variations. ... The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... Guillaume de Lorris (born 12XX) was a French epic poet, and was the author of the first section of the Romance of the Rose. ... Jean de Meun or Jean de Meung (c. ... Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (ca. ... Gargantua and Pantagruel is a connected series of five books written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. ... Gargantua and Pantagruel is a connected series of five books written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... Madame de La Fayette (baptized March 18, 1634 - May 25, 1693) was a French writer, the alleged author of La Princesse de Clèves, Frances first historical novel and often taken to be one of the earliest European novels of its day. ... La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel, regarded by many as one of the first European novels and a classic of its era. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Voltaire at 24 years of age by Nicolas de Largillière. ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse is an epistolary romance novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Rey (Amsterdam). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman and human rights campaigner, recognized as the most influential Realist writer of the 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Les Misérables (translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched, The Poor Ones, The Victims) (1862) is a novel by French author Victor Hugo. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... DArtagnan and the Musketeers The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... This article is about the novel. ... Stendhal. ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Honoré de Balzac La Comédie humaine is the title of Honoré de Balzacs multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy 1815-1848. ... Jules Verne. ... Around the World in Eighty Days book cover Around the World in Eighty Days (French: Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours) is a classic adventure novel by Jules Verne, first published in 1872. ... Front page of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (or Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... For the film, see Madame Bovary (1949 film) Madame Bovary is a novel by Gustave Flaubert that was attacked for obscenity by public prosecutors when it was first serialised in La Revue de Paris between 1 October 1856 and 15 December 1856, resulting in a trial in January 1857 that... Sentimental Education (original France title: LÉducation sentimentale ) (1869) was Gustave Flauberts last novel published during his lifetime, and is considered one of the most influential 19th century novels. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... Bel Ami, published in 1885, was French author Guy de Maupassants second novel. ... The Necklace or The Diamond Necklace (original title: La Parure) is a short story by Guy de Maupassant, first published in 1884 in the French newspaper Le Gaulois. ... Émile Zola Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to French novelist Emile Zolas greatest literary achievement, a monumental twenty-novel cycle about the exploits of various members of an extended family during the French Second Empire, from the coup détat of December 1851 which established Napoleon III as... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... Gaston Leroux. ... The title character as depicted by Lon Chaney (1883-1930) in the 1925 film depiction. ... The Mystery of the Yellow Room: Extraordinary Adventures of Joseph Rouletabille, Reporter (in French Le mystère de la chambre jaune) is one of the first locked room mystery crime fiction novels. ... André Gide in 1893 Gide redirects here, for other people named Gide, see Gide (disambiguation) André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. ... The Immoralist book cover The Immoralist is a novel by André Gide, published in France in 1902 as Limmoraliste. ... Proust redirects here. ... In Search of Lost Time (fr. ... André Breton (February 18, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist. ... This article is about the novel by André Breton. ... Louis-Ferdinand Destouches (May 27, 1894 – July 1, 1961) was a French writer and physician who wrote under the nom de plume Céline. // Life He was born Louis-Ferdinand Destouches at Courbevoie in the Seine département (now Hauts-de-Seine). ... Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) is the first novel of Louis-Ferdinand Céline. ... Colette Colette [1] was the pen name of the French novelist Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette (January 28, 1873 – August 3, 1954). ... Gigi is a 1945 novel by the French sentimental romance writer Colette about a wealthy cultured man of fashion who discovers that he is in love with a young Parisian girl who is being groomed for a career as a grande cocotte, and eventually marries her. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a Algerian-French author and philosopher. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... Michel Butor is a French post-World War II writer. ... Alain Robbe-Grillet Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-) is a French writer and filmmaker, born in Brest, Finistère, France into a family of engineers and scientists. ... Image of artist Georges Perec (March 7, 1936 - March 3, 1982) was a 20th century French novelist, filmmaker and essayist, a member of the Oulipo group and considered by many to be one of the most important post-WWII authors. ... Robert Pinget (Geneva, July 19, 1919 - Tours, August 25, 1997) was a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several difficult novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. ... Robert Pinget (Geneva, July 19, 1919 - Tours, August 25, 1997) was a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several difficult novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. ... Robert Pinget (Geneva, July 19, 1919 - Tours, August 25, 1997) was a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several difficult novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. ...

Poetry

François Villon (ca. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 – December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... Joachim du Bellay (c. ... The Pléiade was a group of 16th-century French poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf. ... Jean de La Fontaine. ... For other uses of the term, see fable (disambiguation). ... Victor-Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman and human rights campaigner, recognized as the most influential Realist writer of the 19th century. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Charles Baudelaire, photograph taken by Nadar. ... Les Fleurs du Mal (literal trans. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... Arthur Rimbaud at seventeen Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (October 20, 1854 – November 10, 1891) was a French poet, born in Charleville. ... French poet Arthur Rimbauds Une Saison en Enfer (A Season in Hell) dates itself April through August 1873, but these are dates of completion. ... Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé . Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898) was a French poet and critic. ...

Theater

Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... Le Cid is a tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille and published in 1636. ... Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... Tartuffe is a comedy by Molière, and is one of the most famous French plays of all time. ... Le Misanthrope is a 17th century comedy of manners written by French playwright Molière. ... French play based on the tale of Don Juan, by the famous French playwright Molière. ... Jean Racine. ... Phèdre was a 1677 play by Jean Racine, based on both the play Hippolytus by Euripides, and a later Roman play Phaedra by Seneca the Younger. ... French playwright Jean Racine wrote Andromaque in 1667. ... Edmond Eugène Alexis Rostand (April 1, 1868 - December 2, 1918), French poet and dramatist. ... Cyrano de Bergerac Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (March 6, 1619 – July 28, 1655) was a French dramatist and duellist born in Paris, who is now best remembered for the many works of fiction which have been woven around his life story, most notably the play by Edmond Rostand which... Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux (October 29, 1882 - January 31, 1944) was a French dramatist who wrote internationally acclaimed plays. ... The Trojan war will not take place (original title: La guerre de Troie naura pas lieu) is a play by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux, written in 1935. ... Jean Anouilh (June 23, 1910 – October 3, 1987) was a French dramatist. ... Becket or the Honor of God is a Tony Award-winning play written in French by Jean Anouilh. ... Jean Anouilhs play Antigone is a tragedy inspired by Greek mythology and the play of the same name (Antigone, by Sophocles) from the fifth century B.C. In English, it is often distinguished from its antecedent by being pronounced in its original French form, approximately Ante-GŌN. The... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... No Exit is an existentialist play by Jean-Paul Sartre, originally published in French in 1944 as Huis clos. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Vladimir (left) and Estragon (right) hold Pozzo aloft (from a production by Naqshineh Theatre). ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... Eugène Ionesco Eugène Ionesco, born Eugen Ionescu, (November 26, 1909 – March 29, 1994) was one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the absurd. ... The Bald Soprano also translated as the Bald Prima Donna (French:La Cantatrice Chauve) was the first play written by Eugène Ionesco. ... Rhinoceros, performed by Naqshineh Theatre. ... Jean Genet (December 19, 1910 - April 15, 1986), was a prominent, sometimes infamous, French writer and later political activist. ... Salacious Sinners The Maids is a play written by French writer Jean Genet. ...

Non-fiction

Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (IPA pronunciation: []) (February 28, 1533 – September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced []), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... The Pensées (literally, thoughts) represented an apology for the Christian religion by Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century philosopher and mathematician. ... This article is about the French noble and writer de La Rochefoucauld. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Portrait of Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, more commonly known as the Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (French: Discours sur les sciences et les arts), is an essay by French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau arguing that the development of the... From an early pirated edition possibly printed in Germany [1] The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorised about social contracts. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Chateaubriands Genius of Christianity, was also a protest against the excesses of the Revolution, and was well understood as such by Napoleon, that the signatory of the Concordat reconciled the State to the Church. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a Algerian-French author and philosopher. ... The Sisyphus of Greek mythology was cursed to roll a boulder up to the peak of a mountain for all eternity. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Existentialism is a Humanism (Lexistentialisme est un humanisme) is a 1946 philosophical work by Jean-Paul Sartre. ... Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology (1943) is a philosophical treatise by Jean-Paul Sartre that is regarded as the beginning of the growth of existentialism in the 20th century. ...

Literary criticism

Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Paul Bénichou, French writer, intellectual, critic, and literary historian (born September 19, 1908, in Tlemcen, French Algeria; died May 14, 2001, in Paris). ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Poetry

Main article: French poetry

French poetry is a category of French literature. ... The Parnassians were a group of 19th-century French poets, so called from their journal, the Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses in Greek mythology. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or ultimately ‘truer’ than, everyday reality. ...

See also

Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ... Poets who have written in the French language: // A Guillaume Apollinaire Louis Aragon Agrippa dAubigné B Charles Baudelaire Jean-Antoine de Baïf Béroul Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux André Breton C Blaise Cendrars Jean Chapelain René Char Chrétien de Troyes Paul Claudel Jean Cocteau Tristan Corbière... French science fiction is a substantial genre within French literature. ... Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with parts of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: French Literature (14610 words)
Hence the fondness of the literature of the seventeenth century for general ideas and for sentiments that are common to mankind, and its success in those kinds of literature which are based on the general study of the human heart.
French literature in the seventeenth century, we must consider it in three periods: (1) from the year 1600 to 1659, the period of preparation; (2) 1659-1688, the Golden Age of classicism; (3) 1688-1715, the period of transition between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
French prose its raciness, is vigour, and its ease of movement.
French literature - encyclopedia article about French literature. (2612 words)
French literature is, generally speaking, literature Literature is literally "an acquaintance with letters" as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning "an individual written character (letter)").
French literary developments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have had a particularly strong effect on modern world literature, including: symbolism Symbolism was a late nineteenth century art movement of French and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Literature in the regional languages A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area.
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